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  #2  
Old June 11th, 2014, 06:10 PM
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Join Date: Nov 2011
Default Re: Preparation tips for CAT exam

As you want to get the details of preparation tips for CAT exam so here is the information of the same for you:

Tip #1:
Rather than focusing on all the topics, students need to try and select those topics with which they are more comfortable.

Tip #2:
In order to ace CAT, students should look at questions from previous years' CATs and understand its syllabus.

Tip #3:
CAT aspirants should always start early in preparing for the exams as an early start would benefit them in gaining knowledge about the kind of questions to be asked.

Tip #4:
The best way to go on with the CAT preparations is to evaluate oneself in every 10-15 days, which is done by mock tests.

Tip #5:
One thing that is must while preparing for CAT is to practice on calculations rigorously on an everyday basis

Tip #6:
While preparing for the CAT question paper, one must keep in mind that management schools seek to test understanding of basic concepts that the student possesses.

Tip #7:
Some things which CAT aspirants must do on an everyday basis are- Minimum 10 hours study everyday, especially before the 6 months of CAT exams.
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  #3  
Old October 17th, 2015, 03:57 PM
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Default Re: Preparation tips for CAT exam

I want to clear Common Admission Test (CAT). please give me tips for preparation for CAT exam ?
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  #4  
Old October 17th, 2015, 04:07 PM
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Join Date: Nov 2011
Default Re: Preparation tips for CAT exam

As you want I am here giving you tips for preparation for Common Admission Test (CAT).

Tips for preparation:
Read newspapers and Editorials.

Minimum 10 hours study required before the 6 months of CAT exams.

Try for the shortcuts of mathematics.

Try to solve calculations mentally.

Minimum 10,000 Vocabulary (new databank) required to prepare.

Try to make logical sense everywhere.

Read at least two magazines, one novel in a week

Daily solve one set of available question paper.

Syllabus for CAT exam:

CAT English/Verbal Ability:
Reading comprehension, verbal reasoning, syllogisms, analogies, antonyms and synonyms, fill in the blanks, sentence correction, idioms, etc.

CAT Maths/Quant Ability:
Number systems, geometry, trogonometry, probability, permutation combination, algebra, mensuration, time and work, averages, percentages, profit and loss, quadratic and linear equations, etc.

CAT Data Interpretation:
Interpretation and analysis of data based on text, tables, graphs (line, area), charts (column, bar, pie), venn diagram, etc.

CAT Logical Reasoning:
Clocks, calendars, binary logic, seating arrangement, blood relations, logical sequence, assumption, premise, conclusion, linear and matrix arrangement, etc.

CAT exam sample paper




CAT Sample Paper 1
by
Quantitative Ability
DIRECTIONS for questions 1 to 7: Answer the questions
independently of each other.
1. The total cost of 2 pencils, 5 erasers and 7 sharpeners is Rs.30,
while 3 pencils and 5 sharpeners cost Rs.15 more than 6 erasers. By
what amount (in Rs.) does the cost of 39 erasers and 1 sharpener
exceed the cost of 6 pencils?
(1) 20
(2) 30
(3) It does not exceed
(4) Cannot be determined
2. If the roots of the equation (x + 1) (x + 9) + 8 = 0 are a and b, then
the roots of the equation (x + a) (x + b) - 8 = 0 are
(1) 1 and 9
(2) -4 and -6
(3) 4 and 6
(4) Cannot be determined
3. What is the remainder when 7700 is divided by 100?
(1) 1
(2) 61
(3) 41
(4) 21
4. Balram, the local shoe shop owner, sells four types of footwear -
Slippers (S), Canvas Shoes (C), Leather Shoes (L) and Joggers (J).
The following information is known regarding the cost prices and
selling prices of these four types of footwear:
(i) L sells for Rs.500 less than J, which costs Rs.300 more than S,
which, in turn, sells for Rs.200 more than L.
(ii) L costs Rs.300 less than C, which sells for Rs.100 more than S,



which, in turn, costs Rs.100 less than C.
If it is known that Balram never sells any item at a loss, then which
of the following is true regarding the profit percentages earned by
Balram on the items L, S, C and J represented by l, s, c and j
respectively?
(1) l ≥ c ≥ s ≥ j
(2) c ≥ s ≥ l ≥ j
(3) l ≥ s ≥ c ≥ j
(4) s ≥ l ≥ j ≥ c
5. In the figure below, P, Q and R are points on a circle with centre
O. The tangent to the circle at R intersects secant PQ at T. If QRT =
55° and QTR = 25°, find POQ.
(1) 110°
(2) 100°
(3) 90°
(4) 50°
6. A sequence of 4 digits, when considered as a number in base 10
is four times the number it represents in base 6. What is the sum of
the digits of the sequence?
(1) 7
(2) 6
(3) 9
(4) 8
7. Some friends planned to contribute equally to jointly buy a CD
player. However, two of them decided to withdraw at the last minute.
As a result, each of the others had to shell out one rupee more than
what they had planned for. If the price (in Rs.) of the CD player is an
integer between 1000 and 1100, find the number of friends who
actually contributed?



(1) 21
(2) 23
(3) 44
(4) 46
DIRECTIONS for questions 8 and 9: Answer the questions on the
basis of the information given below.
A robot is designed to move in a peculiar way and it can be set in
motion by a microprocessor program. The program can be initiated
by assigning a positive rational value to its variable n. The program
directs the robot to move in the following way. As soon as the
program is started, the robot starts from the point O, moves 2n
metres northward and changes its direction by n° to the right. It then
moves 2n metres forward and again changes its direction by n° to
the right and continues in this manner till it reaches the starting
point O, or till it covers a total distance of 1000 m, whichever
happens first, and then it stops.
8. I assigned a value for n and started the program. If the robot
finally came back to O and stopped, what is the total distance that it
has covered?
(1) 180 m
(2) 360 m
(3) 720 m
(4) Cannot be determined
9. For how many values of n in the intervals [1, 60] does the robot
cover less than 1000 m, before it stops?
(1) 19
(2) 60
(3) 355
(4) Infinite
DIRECTIONS for questions 10 to 20: Answer the questions
independently of each other.
10. If N = 888Dup to 100 digits, what is the remainder when N is
divided by 625?



(1) 128
(2) 138
(3) 338
(4) 388
11. If [log101] + [log102] + [log103] + [log104] + ...... + [log10n] = n,
where [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x, then
(1) 96 ≤ n < 104
(2) 104 ≤ n < 107
(3) 107 ≤ n < 111
(4) 111 ≤ n < 116
12. In the figure below, BD = 8 cm and DC = 6 cm. AE : ED = 3 : 4. If
AF = 12 cm, find AC (in cm).
(1) 28
(2) 38
(3) 44
(4) 40
13. A regular polygon has an even number of sides. If the product
of the length of its side and the distance between two opposite
sides is of its area, find the number of sides it has.
(1) 6
(2) 8
(3) 20
(4) 16
14. There are three cities A, B and C, not on the same straight road.
Two buses P and Q start simultaneously from A and B respectively
towards C. By the time Q reaches C, P is exactly halfway to C.
Immediately after Q reaches C, it starts travelling towards A and it



crosses P at a point 165 km from A. The ratio of the speeds of P and
Q is 3 : 5. Assume that the roads joining A to C, B to C and B to A
are all straight roads. If B is twice as far as from A as it is from C
and P would take to cover the distance from A to B, how much
time would Q take to cover the distance from C to A?
(1)
(2) 3 hours
(3)
(4) 4 hours
15. Two positive real numbers, a and b, are expressed as the sum
of m positive real numbers and n positive real numbers respectively
as follows:
a = s1 + s2 + D..+ s m and
b = t1 + t2 + D..+ tn
If [a] = [s1] + [s2] + D.. + [sm] + 4 and [b] = [t1] + [t2] + D. + [tn] + 3,
where [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x, what
is the minimum possible value of m + n?
(1) 6
(2) 10
(3) 8
(4) 9
16. Consider two figures A and D that are defined in the co-ordinate
plane. Each figure represents the graph of a certain function, as
defined below :
A: | x | - | y | = a
D: | y | = d
If the area enclosed by A and D is 0, which of the following is a
possible value of (a, d)?
(1) (2, 1)
(2) (-2, 1)
(3) (-2, 3)
(4) (2, 3)
17. A natural number n is such that 120 n ≤ 240. If HCF of n and 240
is 1, how many values of n are possible?



(1) 24
(2) 32
(3) 36
(4) 40
18.
(1) 24/90
(2) 242/900
(3) 245/900
(4) 200/729
19. If the sum to infinity of the series 2 + (2 - d)2/3 + (2 + d) 4/9 + (2
+ 3d) 8/27 + D.. is 5/2, what is the value of d?
(1) 7/12
(2) -7/12
(3) -5/12
(4) 5/12
20. The first n natural numbers, 1 to n, have to be arranged in a row
from left to right. The n numbers are arranged such that there are an
odd number of numbers between any two even numbers as well as
between any two odd numbers. If the number of ways in which this
can be done is 72, then find the value of n.
(1) 6
(2) 7
(3) 8
(4) More than 8



Logical & Data Interpretation
DIRECTIONS for questions 21 to 23: Answer the questions on the
basis of the information given below.
After facing yet another World Cup debacle, the Board of Cricket
Control in India (BCCI) is in search of a new coach for the team. It
shortlisted five persons - Anshuman, Buchanen, John, Whatmore
and Chappel. Each of them is from a different country among
Australia, India, Japan, Pakistan and Canada, not necessarily in that
order. At present, each of them is coaching the team of a different
country among Australia, Bangladesh, China, Wales and Bermuda,
not necessarily in that order. The following details were also
observed about their particulars:
(i) For any person, each of his three particulars - his name, the
name of the country from which he is and the name of the country
that he is coaching at present, starts with a different letter.
(ii) Whatmore is coaching Australia and John is from neither
Australia nor Pakistan.
(iii) Buchanen is not coaching China and the person who is
coaching Bermuda is from Canada.
(iv) Anshuman is neither from Canada nor from Pakistan and also
the person from Pakistan is coaching Bangladesh.
21. Whatmore is from which country?
(1) India
(2) Japan
(3) Canada
(4) Cannot be determined
22. Who is the person from Australia?
(1) Buchanen
(2) John
(3) Whatmore
(4) Cannot be determined
23. The person from Japan is definitely not coaching
(1) China.



(2) Wales.
(3) Australia.
(4) More than one of the above
DIRECTIONS for questions 24 to 27: Answer the questions on the
basis of the information given below.
Mr Suzuki, a car dealer, sold cars of only two brands, A and B, in
the previous year. This year, he introduced a new brand, C. The
number of cars of brand A and brand B sold in the previous year
were in the ratio 3 : 2, and the ratio of the number of cars sold in the
previous year to that sold in this year is 2 : 3 for brand A and 2 : 5
for brand B. Further, the number of cars of brand C sold this year
forms 81% of the total number of cars sold this year.
24. Find the number of cars of brand C sold this year, given that a
total of 24 cars of brand A were sold in the previous year.
(1) 324
(2) 648
(3) 162
(4) 243
25. What is the percentage increase in the total number of cars
sold this year when compared to the total number of cars sold in the
previous year?
(1) 400%
(2) 600%
(3) 900%
(4) 1000%
26. In the next year, Mr.Suzuki wants to increase the total sales by
80%, compared to the total sales this year, by keeping the sales of
each of A, B and C at the same level as that in this year and
introducing a new brand D. By what percent will the number of cars
of brand D (to be sold next year) be more than the total number of
cars sold last year?
(1) 400%
(2) 600%
(3) 900%
(4) 700%



27. If a total of 380 cars were sold this year, and the sales of C this
year were nil, instead of 81% of total sales, then how many cars of
brand A were sold in the previous year?
(1) 140
(2) 120
(3) 100
(4) 160
DIRECTIONS for questions 28 and 29: The question given below is
followed by two statements, I and II. Study the information given in
the two statements and assess whether the statements are
Sufficient to answer the question and choose the appropriate option
from among the choices given below:

28. Two of the three cricketers Pavan, Rajan and Tarun are
selected to the national team. Each of these three persons scored a
different number of centuries and a different number of runs.
Further, among these three, Tarun scored the highest number of
centuries. Who among Pavan, Rajan and Tarun is not selected to the
national team?
I. The person with the higher number of runs between Tarun and
Pavan, is the person who scored the lesser number of centuries
between the two persons selected.
II. The person with the least number of runs between Rajan and
Tarun, is the person who scored the higher number of centuries
between the two persons selected.
(1) The question can be answered by using one of the statements alone,
but cannot be answered using the other statement alone.
(2) The question can be answered by using either statement alone.
(3) The question can be answered by using both statements together,
but cannot be answered using either statement alone.
(4) The question cannot be answered even by using both statements
together.
29. Triangle ABC is right angled at B. What is the value of AB +
BC?
I. Diameter of the circle inscribed in the triangle ABC is 10 cm.
II. Diameter of the circle circumscribing the triangle ABC is 27 cm.
(1) The question can be answered by using one of the statements alone,
but cannot be answered using the other statement alone.
(2) The question can be answered by using either statement alone.



(3) The question can be answered by using both statements together,
but cannot be answered using either statement alone.
(4) The question cannot be answered even by using both statements
together.
DIRECTIONS for questions 30 and 31: Answer the questions on the basis
of the information given below.
Each point in the graph below shows the sales and expenses of a
company. Each company belongs to one of the three sectors among
manufacturing, automobiles and software.
30. For how many of the companies, is the profit more than 40% of the
sales (Profit = Sales - Expenses)?
(1) 4
(2) 5
(3) 6
(4) 7
31. For how many software companies are the sales more than
Rs.2500 crore but the expenses less than Rs.2100 crore?
(1) 2
(2) 3
(3) 4
(4) 6



DIRECTIONS for questions 32 to 35: Answer the questions on the
basis of the information given below.
A team must be selected from ten probables - A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H,
I and J. Of these, A, C, E and J are forwards, B, G and H are point
guards and D, F and I are defenders.
Further the following conditions need to be observed:
• The team must have at least one forward, one point guard and one
defender.
• If the team includes J, it must also include F.
• The team must include E or B, but not both.
• If the team includes G, it must also include F.
• The team must include exactly one among C, G and I.
• C and F cannot be members of the same team.
• D and H cannot be members of the same team.
• The team must include both A and D or neither of them.
There is no restriction on the number of members in the team.
32. What could be the size of the team that includes G?
(1) 4
(2) 5
(3) 6
(4) More than one of the above
33. What would be the size of the largest possible team?
(1) 4
(2) 5
(3) 6
(4) 7
34. Who cannot be included in a team of size 6?
(1) A



(2) H
(3) J
(4) E
35. What can be the size of the team that includes C?
(1) 3
(2) 4
(3) 5
(4) More than one of the above
DIRECTIONS for questions 36 and 37: The question given below is
followed by two statements, I and II. Study the information given in
the two statements and assess whether the statements are
sufficient to answer the question and choose the appropriate option
from among the choices given below:

36. What percentage of the questions were attempted by Ramya in
the exam?
I. 30% of the questions are attempted by both Ramya and Swathi.
II. The number of questions attempted by Ramya but not by Swathi
is (5/8)th of the total number of questions attempted by Ramya.
(1) The question can be answered by using one of the statements alone
but not by the other.

(2) The question can be answered by using either statement alone.
(3) The question can be answered by using both the statements
together, but cannot be answered by using either statement alone.
(4) The question cannot be answered even by using both the statements
together.

37. Each of Ankit and Bhanu belong to one of the tribes between
truth tellers i.e., those who always speak the truth, and liars i.e.,
those who always lie. Do both of them belong to the same tribe?
I. Ankit : I am a liar, only if Bhanu is a truth teller.
II. Bhanu : I am a truth teller, only if Ankit is a liar.
(1) The question can be answered by using one of the statements alone
but not by the other.
(2) The question can be answered by using either statement alone.
(3) The question can be answered by using both the statements
together, but cannot be answered by using either statement alone.



(4) The question cannot be answered even by using both the statements
together.
DIRECTIONS for questions 38 to 40: Answer the questions on the basis of
the information given below.
Pie chart - 1 gives the percentage shares of all the five cement companies
- A, B, C, D and E - in the total quantity of cement sold in country XYZ. Pie
chart - 2 gives the percentage shares of all the eleven states - P through Z -
in the total quantity of cement sold in the country.
The market share of any company in a state is the total quantity of cement
sold by the company in that state as a percentage of the total quantity of
cement sold in that state.
38. In any state, if no company had more than 50% market share, then in
at least how many states did company A sell cement?
(1) 4
(2) 5
(3) 6
(4) 3
39. If in all the states in which company E was present, it had a
market shareof at least 25%, in at most how many states did
company E sell cement?
(1) 9
(2) 8
(3) 7
(4) 6



40. The number of companies which had sales in more than two
states, is at least
(1) 1
(2) 2
(3) 3
(4) 4



Verbal Ability
DIRECTIONS for question 41: The following question has a set of
five sequentially ordered statements. Each statement can be
classified as one of the following.

- Facts, which deal with pieces of information that one has heard,
seen or read, and which are open to discovery or verification (the
answer option indicates such a statement with an 'F').
- Inferences, which are conclusions drawn about the unknown, on
the basis of the known (the answer option indicates such a
statement with an 'I').

- Judgements, which are opinions that imply approval or
disapproval of persons, objects, situations and occurrences in the
past, the present or the future (the answer option indicates such a
statement with a 'J').

Select the answer option that best describes the set of statements.
41. (A) The renewed corporate interest in power is welcome, given
the huge investment backlog in the vexed sector and the routine
revenue leakages.

(B) Reportedly, industrial houses like Reliance Industries and the
Aditya Birla Group are keen to foray into power equipment
manufacture.

(C) In tandem, we need proactive policy to wipe out continuing
losses of state power utilities, and regular disclosure of SEB
finances.

(D) Of late, the tendency has been to clamp up on the huge annual
losses of power utilities - the latest Economic Survey like the
previous one is mum on losses, subsidies and plain theft of power;
instead we have some pious intentions to gather 'baseline data' and
use information technology application for accounting and auditing
power distribution.

(E) We do need to step up IT for meter reading, billing and
collections, of course, but in parallel, what is essential indeed vital,
is improved governance in power delivery and follow through.
(1) JFIFJ
(2) IJFJJ
(3) FJJIF
(4) JFJIJ
DIRECTIONS for questions 42 and 43: In each question, four
different ways of presenting an idea are given. Choose the one that
conforms most closely to standard English usage.



42. (A) The inflexibility of the laws, which prevent them from being
adapted for emergencies, may in certain cases render them
pernicious and thereby cause the ruin of the state in a time of crisis.
(B) The inflexibility of the laws, which prevents them from being
adapted for emergencies may in certain cases render them
pernicious, thereby causes the ruin of the state in a time of crisis.
(C) The inflexibility of the laws, which prevents them from being
adapted to emergencies, may in certain cases render them
pernicious, and thereby cause the ruin of the state in a time of
crisis.

(D) The inflexibility of the laws, which prevents them from being
adapted for emergencies may in certain cases render them
pernicious, and thereby causing the ruin of the state in a time of
crisis.
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
43. (A) Human talents vary considerably, within a fixed framework
that is characteristic of the species, and that permits ample scope
for creative work, including the creative work of appreciating the
achievements of others.

(B) Human talents vary considerably within a fixed framework that
is characteristic to the species, and which permits ample scope for
creative work, including the creative work of appreciating the
achievements of others.

(C) Human talents vary considerably, within a fixed framework that
is characteristic for the species, and that permits ample scope for
creative work, including the creative work of appreciating
achievements of others.

(D) Human talents vary considerably, within a fixed framework that
is characteristic of the species, and which permits ample scope for
creative work, including the creative work of appreciating
achievements of others.
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
DIRECTIONS for question 44: In the following question, there are
five sentences/paragraphs. The sentence/ paragraph labelled A is in
its correct place. The four that follow are labelled B, C, D and E, and



need to be arranged in the logical order to form a coherent
paragraph/ passage. From the given options, choose the most
appropriate option.

44. (A) The driving force of the 'nuclear renaissance' is a claim
that nuclear power, once up and running, is a carbon-free energy
source. The assertion is that a functioning nuclear reactor creates
no greenhouse gases and thus contributes nothing to global
warming or chaotic weather.

(B) The frequently repeated notion that nuclear power is a carbonfree
energy source is simply untrue.

(C) At every stage of the cycle greenhouse gases are released into
the atmosphere from burning diesel, manufacturing steel and
cement and, in the circumpolar regions of the planet, by disturbance
of the tundra which releases large amounts of methane, a
particularly potent greenhouse gas.

(D) That part is almost true, but the claim ignores the total
environmental impact of nuclear energy, which includes a long and
complicated chain of events known in the industry as the 'nuclear
cycle' which begins with finding, mining, milling and enriching
uranium, then spans through plant construction and power
generation to the reprocessing and eventual storage of nuclear
waste, all of which creates tons of CO2.

(E) Even the claim that a functioning nuclear power facility is co2-free is challenged by the fact that
operating plant requires an external power source to run, and that electricity is almost certain to come
from a fossil-fuelled plant.
(1) DCEB
(2) EBCD
(3) DEBC
(4) EDCB
DIRECTIONS for questions 45 and 46: Each of the following
questions has a paragraph from which the last sentence has been
deleted. From the given options, choose the one that completes the
paragraph in the most appropriate way.
45. Jawaharlal Nehru seemed an unlikely candidate to lead India
towards its vision. Under the cotton Khadi he wore in deference to
the dictates of Congress, he remained the quintessential English
gentleman. In a land of mysteries, he was a cool rationalist. The
mind that had exulted in the discovery of science at Cambridge
never ceased to be appalled by his fellow Indians who refused to stir
from their homes on days proclaimed inauspicious by their favourite



astrologers. He was a publicly declared agnostic in the most
intensely spiritual area in the world, and he never ceased to
proclaim the horror the word 'religion' inspired in him. Nehru
despised India's priests, her sadhus, her chanting monks and pious
'skerkhs'.
(1) And yet, the India of those sadhus and the superstition-haunted
masses had accepted Nehru.
(2) They had only served, he felt, to impede her progress.
(3) The Mahatma had made it clear that it was on his shoulders that he
wished his mantle to fall.
(4) Nehru's heart told him to follow the Mahatma and his heart, he would
later admit, had been right.
46. Birth rates have fallen dramatically - and voluntarily. Coercive
birth control, including paying people not to have babies, was
discredited and abandoned decades ago. Nearly two-thirds of the
couples in poor countries now use birth control, and not because
some patriarchal westerner told them to. In the 1970s, the
government of Bangladesh offered people in the Matlals region lowcost
contraceptive supplies and advice. Birth rates promptly fell well
below those of neighbouring regions. So Bangladesh extended the
service nationally and its birth rate plummeted from six children per
woman to three.
(1) The 'population bomb' has already gone off.
(2) Given the choice, people want fewer children.
(3) Governments want fewer children since their own life expectancy falls
with rising numbers.
(4) Even when birth rates fall, there is a lag which means population
keeps growing far decades until birth and death rates even out.
DIRECTIONS for questions 47 and 48: In each question, there are
five sentences. Each sentence has pairs of words/phrases that are
italicised and highlighted. From the italicised and highlighted
word(s)/phrase(s), select the most appropriate word(s)/phrase(s) to
form correct sentences. Then, from the options given, choose the
best one.
47. (i) The municipal councillor (A) / counsellor (B) promised to
improve civic amenities in the suburbs.
(ii) Jean's adopted (A) / adoptive (B) patents dote on her and cater
to her every whim.
(iii) The venal (A) / venial (B) official was caught red - handed
accepting bribe.



(iv) We have now shifted our residence farther (A) / further (B) away
from the main city.
(v) She claims to be of aristocratic dissent (A) / descent (B).
(1) AAABB
(2) BBABB
(3) ABBAB
(4) ABAAB
48. (i) While evacuating people from the flood ravaged areas
precedence (A) / precedent (B) was given to women and children.
(ii) The best way to reach the summit is by trekking up the hill,
alternately (A) / alternatively (B) you can go on horse back
(iii) His impeccable manners perfectly complimented (A) /
complemented (B) his polished looks and fashionable attire.
(iv) There has been a noticeable (A) / notable (B) improvement in
Tarun's academic performance lately.
(v) You must be discreet (A) / discrete (B) about your plans
(1) AABAB
(2) ABBBB
(3) BABAA
(4) ABBAA
DIRECTIONS for questions 49 and 50: In each of the following
questions, the word at the top is used in four different ways,
numbered 1 to 4. Choose the option in which the usage of the word
is INCORRECT or INAPPROPRIATE.
49. PULL
(1) Pull aside the curtains and let in some fresh air.
(2) I decided to pull away from the venture due to differences of opinion
with my partners.
(3) Being a charismatic leader that he is, he can certainly pull the crowds.
(4) The municipal corporation has decided to pull down all illegal
constructions in the city.
50. SHADE
(1) Nina's bedroom was painted in a soft shade of pink.
(2) Abdul is a dubious character who is suspected of being involved in


several shady deals.
(3) The weary traveller rested for a while in the shade of a tree.
(4) The people in the strife torn region have been living in the shade of
fear for several years.

DIRECTIONS for questions 51 to 54: Read the following passage and
answer the questions that follow it.
Organic food is a two-billion pound industry grown fat on the back
of celebrity endorsement and a well-heeled middle class seduced by
claims that it is good for health. Prince Charles is one of its most
enthusiastic and pro-active promoters. Not content with simply
consuming it, he has his own lucrative line in overpriced organic
products including biscuits which taste more like chalk.

But now questions are being raised about some of the basic
assumptions that have contributed to the popularity of organic food
and the phenomenal growth of this sector in the past decade.
People are asking: is organic food really worth the price which is
often three times more than that of normal food?

This follows new research by a group of British scientists who
found that organic food offered no extra benefit over the ordinary
cheaper foodstuff. In a controversial report, experts from the
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine say there is no
evidence that organic food is more nutritional or healthier than food
produced using fertilizers. For example, the expensive free-range
chicken (sold as a "premium" product) has the same nutritional
value as the factory-farmed chicken; and similarly, there is no
difference between organic and non-organic vegetables or dairy
produce.

The research, based on data published over the past 50 years and
said to be the most comprehensive review ever of the relative
benefits of organic food, strikes at the very heart of what has been
portrayed by campaigners as its USP - that it is healthier than
conventional food and therefore worth paying a "bit "extra.

Dr. Alan Dangour, who led the study, was unambiguous in rejecting
claims made for organic food. "Looking at all of the studies
published in the last 50 years, we have concluded that there's no
good evidence that consumption of organic food is beneficial to
health based on the nutrient content," he said.

The report, commissioned by the government's Food Standards
Agency and published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,
concluded that "organically and conventionally produced crops and

livestock products are broadly comparable in their nutrient
content." A "small number of differences" were noted but these
were "unlikely to be of any public health relevance."

In a pointed reference to the hype over the supposed benefits of
organic food, the FSA said the research was aimed at helping
people make "informed choices" about what they ate. In other
words, it was concerned that the high-profile campaign for organic
food, dressed up as an ethical issue, was preventing people from
making "informed choices" and they were being sold things on false
premises.

"Ensuring people have accurate information is absolutely essential
in allowing us all to more informed choices about the food we eat.
This study does not mean that people should not eat organic food.
What it shows is that there is little, if any, nutritional difference
between organic and conventionally produced food and that there is
no evidence of additional health benefits from eating organic food,"
said Gill Fine, FSA's Director of Consumer Choice and Dietary
Health.

In the organic food circles, the report has caused fury with
campaigners alleging that it is all part of a "cancerous conspiracy"
to defame the organic food movement. Newspapers have been full
of angry letters denouncing the report as "selective," "misleading"
and "limited."

The Soil Association, which campaigns for "planet-friendly organic
food and farming," is furious that the research crucially ignored the
presence of higher pesticide residues in conventional food. Some
have defended organic food arguing that it is not about health alone
but also involves wider environmental and social issues.

However, even those who agree that the report may be "flawed" in
some respects believe that it is an important contribution to the
debate on organic food.

"Yet the report - for all its alleged flaws - is an important one. For a
start, it is certainly not the work of dogmatic and intractably hostile
opponents of the causeD In fact, it raises key global issuesD After
all, if organic food is no more beneficial in terms of nutrition than
other, standard foodstuffs, why should we pay excessive price to
eat the stuff? Why devote more land to its production," asked Robin
McKie, Science Editor of The Observer.

There is also a view that the fad for organic food is a bit of a class
thing - something to do with the idea that if something is expensive
it is also good. So, a Marks & Spencer cheese sandwich is
supposed to taste better than a similar sandwich at Subway next
door; everything at Harrods is out of this world; and similarly you
don't know what you are missing if organic food is not your
preferred choice. There is said to be a whiff of snobbery about
buying into an expensive lifestyle choice. Will science bring them
down to earth?

51. All of the following are the author's views on organic food
EXCEPT
(1) It is insipid
(2) It is very costly
(3) It is not more nutritious than conventional food
(4) It is patronized by the rich.
52. Which of the following factors/aspects, related to organic food,
has the result of the FSA study primarily called into question?
(1) The nutritional value
(2) The health benefits
(3) The celebrity endorsement
(4) The presence of pesticides
53. According to the passage, defenders of organic food are of the
opinion that the FSA study
(1) is not representative and scientific.
(2) has been promoted by those who have vested interest in
conventional food.
(3) is flawed and has been projected as an ethical issue.
(4) is not balanced and has not taken a comprehensive view of the issue.
54. In this passage, the author essentially
(1) analyses the pros and cons of promoting organic food.
(2) debunks the findings of a study on organic food.
(3) reports the findings of a research on organic food and checks the
veracity of its claim.
(4) discusses the debate which has followed the findings of a study on
organic food.

DIRECTIONS for questions 55 to 57: Read the following passage and
answer the questions that follow it.

Some artists go out in a blaze of glory. Pierre-Auguste Renior went
out in a blaze of kitsch. At least, that's the received opinion about
the work of his final decades: all those pillowy nudes, sunning their
abundant selves in dappled glades; all those peachy girls,
strumming guitars and idling in bourgeois parlors; all that pink. In
the long twilight of his career, the old man found his way to a
kissable classicism that modern eyes can find awfully hard to take.
All the same, the Renoir of this period - the three very productive
decades before his death in 1919 at the age of 78 - fascinated some
of the chief figures of modernism. Picasso was on board; his thick -
limbed 'neoclassical' women from the 1920 are indebted to Renior.
So was Matisse, who had one eye on Renoir's Orientalist dress-up
fantasies like the Concert, with its flattened space and overall
patterning, when he produced his odalisques. Given that so much of
late Renior seems saccharine and semi comical to us, is it still
possible to see what made it modern to them?
Yes and no. To understand the Renoir in the 20th Century you have
to remember that before he became a semiclassicist, he was a
consummate Impressionist. You need to picture him in 1874, 33
years old, painting side by side with Monet in Argenteuil, teasing out
the new possibilities of sketchy brushwork to capture fleeting light
as it fell across people and things in an indisputably modern world.
But in the decade that followed, Renoir became one of the
movement's first apostates. Impressionism affected many people in
the 19th century in much the way the internet does now. It both
charmed and unnerved them. It brought to painting a novel
immediacy, but it also gave back a world that felt weightless and
unstable. What we now call post - Impressionism was the inevitable
by-product of that anxiety. Artists like Seurat and Gauguin searched
for an art that owed nothing to the stale models of academicism but
possessed the substance and authority that Impressionism had let
fall away.
For Renoir, a turning point came during his honeymoon to Rome
and Naples in 1881. Face to face with the firm outlines of Raphael
and the musculature of Michelangelo, he lost faith in his flickering
sunbeams. He returned to France determined to find his way to
lucid, distinct forms in an art that reached for the eternal, not the
momentary. By the later years of that decade, Renoir had lost his
taste for the modern world anyway. As for modern women, in 1888
he could write, "I consider that women who are authors, lawyers and
politicians are monsters". ("The woman who is an artist," he added
graciously, "is merely ridiculous.")

Ah, but the woman who is a goddess - or at least harks back to one -
that's different matter. It would be Renoir's aim to reconfigure the
female nude in a way that would convey the spirit of the classical
world without classical trappings. Set in "timeless" outdoor
settings, these women by their weight and scale and serenity alone -
along with their often recognizably classical poses - would point
back to antiquity.
For a time, Renior worked with figures so strongly outlined that they
could have been put down by Ingres with a jackhammer. By 1892, he
had drifted back toward a fluctuating impressionist brushstroke.
Firmly contoured or flickering, his softly scalped women are as fullbodied
as Doric columns. This was one of the qualities that caught
Picasso's eye, especially after his first trip to Italy, in 1917. He would
assimilate Renoir along-side his own sources in Iberian sculpture
and elsewhere to come up with a frankly more powerful, even
haunting, amalgam of the antique and the modern in paintings like
Woman in a White Hat.
Renior was most valuable as a stepping - stone for artists making
more potent use of the ideas he was developing. The heart of the
problem is the challenge. Renoir set for himself: to reconcile
classical and Renaissance models with the 18th century French
painters he loved. To synthesize the force and clarity of classicism
with the intimacy and charm of the Rococo is a nearly impossible
trick. How do you cross the power of Phidias with the delicacy of
Fragonard? The answer: at your own risk - especially the risk of
admitting into your work the weaknesses of the Rococo. It's fine line
between charming and insipid, and 18th century French painters
crossed it all the time. So did Renoir.
55. All of the following are true in light of the passage EXCEPT.
(1) Fragonard is an 18th century artist.
(2) Picasso combined classicism and modernism in 'Woman in a white
Hat".
(3) Renoir was a semi - Classicist, who became an Impressionist.
(4) Gauguin suffered from post - Impressionism anxiety.
56. We can infer from the passage that the word 'odalisques'
means
(1) pillars
(2) landscapes
(3) figures
(4) women

57. The passage suggests that
(1) Renoir was greatly misunderstood in his lifetime.
(2) Classicism and modernism don't go together.
(3) Renoir's later work appealed to modern tastes.
(4) Renoir's artistic appeal waned in the twilight of his career.

DIRECTIONS for questions 58 to 60: Read the following passage and
answer the questions that follow it.
Humans have a basic need to perceive themselves as part of a
grand scheme, of a natural order that has a deeper significance and
greater endurance than the petty affairs of daily life. The
incongruous mismatch between the futility of the human condition
and the brooding majesty of the cosmos compels people to seek a
transcendent meaning to underpin their fragile existence.
For thousands of years this broader context was provided by tribal
mythology and storytelling. The transporting qualities of those
narratives gave human beings a crucial spiritual anchor. All cultures
lay claim to haunting myths of other-worldliness: from the dreaming
of the Australian Aborigines or the Chronicles of Narnia, from the
Nirvana of Buddhism to the Christian Kingdom of Heaven. Over
time, the humble campfire stories morphed into the splendour and
ritual of organized religion and the great works of drama and
literature.
Even in our secular age, where many societies have evolved to a
post-religious phase, people still have unfulfilled spiritual yearnings.
A project with the scope and profundity of SETI (search for extraterrestrial
intelligence) cannot be divorced from this wider cultural
context, for it too offers us the compelling promise that this could
happen any day soon. As writer David Brin has pointed out, 'contact
with advanced alien civilizations may carry much the same
transcendental or hopeful significance as any more traditional
notion of "salvation from above". I have argued that if we did make
contact with an advanced extraterrestrial community, the entities
with which we would be dealing would approach godlike status in
our eyes. Certainly they would be more godlike than humanlike;
indeed, their powers would be greater than those attributed to most
gods in human history.'
So is SETI itself in danger of becoming a latter day religion? Science
fiction writer Michael Crichton thought so. He said: "Faith is defined
as the firm belief in something for which there is no proof," he
explained. "The belief that there are other life forms in the universe



is a matter of faith. There is not a single shred of evidence for any
other life forms, and in forty years of searching, none has been
discovered." Writer Margaret Wertheim has studied how the concept
of space and its inhabitants has evolved over several centuries. She
traces the modern notion of aliens to Renaissance writers such as
the Roman Catholic Cardinal Nichols of Cusa, who considered the
status of man in the universe in relation to celestial beings such as
angels.
With the arrival of the scientific age, speculations about alien beings
passed from theologians to science fiction writers, but the spiritual
dimension remained just below the surface. Occasionally it is made
explicit, as in Olaf Stapledon's Star Maker, David Lindsay's A
Voyage to Arcturus, or Steven Spielberg's Close Encounters of the
Third Kind, which is strongly reminiscent of John Bunyan's A
Pilgrim's Progress. These are iconic images that resonate deeply
with the human psyche, and shadow the scientific quest to discover
intelligent life beyond EarthD
58. It can be inferred from the passage that, 'Close Encounters of
the Third Kind'
(1) is a modern, scientific version of John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress.
(2) explores the spiritual unknown in the scientific quest to discover the
extraterrestrial.
(3) is the work of a theologian-turned science fictionist.
(4) speculates on intelligent life in outer space and reflects vivid spiritual
overtones.
59. Which of the following statements reflects or captures the
author's view on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence?
(1) It is a vain attempt by man to underpin his fragile existence.
(2) It is in danger of becoming a latter day religion.
(3) Were the search to yield positive results, man would accord those
creatures super god status.
(4) The belief that there are aliens in the universe springs from enormous
faith and the pursuit reflects man's spiritual urge.
60. Great literary works, according to the passage
(1) had their origins in the spiritual age.
(2) evolved from tribal tales.
(3) were a product of the Renaissance.
(4) dwelt on the spiritual.
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