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Old May 30th, 2014, 10:31 AM
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Default ICAR previous year question papers of Plant Science and syllabus

I want to give the exam of ICAR JRF and foe that I need to get the syllabus of Plant Science so can you please make it available for me?
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Old May 30th, 2014, 06:45 PM
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Default Re: ICAR previous year question papers of Plant Science and syllabus

As you want to get the syllabus of ICAR JRF of Plant Science so here is the information of the same for you:

Some content of the file has been given here:

Course Contents
This course is aimed at understanding the basic concepts of genetics,
helping students to develop their analytical, quantitative and problemsolving
skills from classical to molecular genetics.

Beginning of genetics; Cell structure and cell division; Early concepts of
inheritance, Mendel's laws; Discussion on Mendel’s paper, Chromosomal
theory of inheritance.

Multiple alleles,Gene interactions. Sex determination, differentiation and
sex-linkage, Sex-influenced and sex-limited traits; Linkage-detection,
estimation; Recombination and genetic mapping in eukaryotes, Somatic
cell genetics, Extra chromosomal inheritance.

Population - Mendelian population – Random mating population -
Frequencies of genes and genotypes-Causes of change: Hardy-Weinberg

Structural and numerical changes in chromosomes; Nature, structure and
replication of the genetic material; Organization of DNA in chromosomes,
Genetic code; Protein biosynthesis.

Genetic fine structure analysis, Allelic complementation, Split genes,
Transposable genetic elements, Overlapping genes, Pseudogenes,
Oncogenes, Gene families and clusters.

Regulation of gene activity in prokaryotes; Molecular mechanisms of
mutation, repair and suppression; Bacterial plasmids, insertion (IS) and
transposable (Tn) elements; Molecular chaperones and gene expression.
Gene regulation in eukaryotes, RNA editing.

Gene isolation, synthesis and cloning, genomic and cDNA libraries, PCRbased
cloning, positional cloning; Nucleic acid hybridization and immunochemical
detection; DNA sequencing; DNA restriction and modification,
Anti-sense RNA and ribozymes; Micro-RNAs (miRNAs).

Genomics and proteomics; Functional and pharmacogenomics;

Methods of studying polymorphism at biochemical and DNA level;
Transgenic bacteria and bioethics; Gene silencing; genetics of mitochondria
and chloroplasts.

Concepts of Eugenics, Epigenetics, Genetic disorders and Behavioural

Laboratory exercises in probability and chi-square; Demonstration of
genetic principles using laboratory organisms; Chromosome mapping using
three point test cross; Tetrad analysis; Induction and detection of mutations
through genetic tests; DNA extraction and PCR amplification -
Electrophoresis – basic principles and running of amplified DNA -
Extraction of proteins and isozymes – use of Agrobacterium mediated
method and Biolistic gun; practical demonstrations - Detection of
transgenes in the exposed plant material; visit to transgenic glasshouse and
learning the practical considerations.

Suggested Readings
Gardner EJ & Snustad DP. 1991. Principles of Genetics. John Wiley &
Klug WS & Cummings MR. 2003. Concepts of Genetics. Peterson Edu.
Lewin B. 2008. Genes IX. Jones & Bartlett Publ.
Russell PJ. 1998. Genetics. The Benzamin/Cummings Publ. Co.
Snustad DP & Simmons MJ. 2006. Genetics. 4th Ed. John Wiley & Sons.
Strickberger MW. 2005. Genetics (III Ed). Prentice Hall, New Delhi, India
Tamarin RH. 1999. Principles of Genetics. Wm. C. Brown Publs.
Uppal S, Yadav R, Subhadra & Saharan RP. 2005. Practical Manual on
Basic and Applied Genetics. Dept. of Genetics, CCS HAU Hisar.

To provide insight into structure and functions of chromosomes,
chromosome mapping, polyploidy and cytogenetic aspects of crop

Architecture of chromosome in prokaryotes and eukaryotes;
Chromonemata, chromosome matrix, chromomeres, centromere, secondary
constriction and telomere; Artificial chromosome construction and its uses;
Special types of chromosomes.

Chromosomal theory of inheritance – Cell Cycle and cell division – mitosis
and meiosis; Differences, significance and deviations – Synapsis, structure
and function of synaptonemal complex and spindle apparatus, anaphase
movement of chromosomes and crossing over-mechanisms and theories of
crossing over- recombination models, cytological basis, - Variation in
chromosome structure: Evolutionary significance - Introduction to
techniques for karyotyping; Chromosome banding and painting - in situ
hybridization and various applications.

Structural and Numerical variations of chromosomes and their implications
- Symbols and terminologies for chromosome numbers - euploidy -
haploids, diploids and polyploids ; Utilization of aneuploids in gene
location - Variation in chromosome behaviour - somatic segregation and
chimeras – endomitosis and somatic reduction ; Evolutionary significance
of chromosomal aberrations - balanced lethals and chromosome complexes.

Inter-varietal chromosome substitutions; Polyploidy and role of polyploids
in crop breeding; Evolutionary advantages of autopolyploids vs
allopolyploids –- Role of aneuploids in basic and applied aspects of crop
breeding, their maintenance and utilization in gene mapping and gene
blocks transfer – Alien addition and substitution lines – creation and
utilization; Apomixis - Evolutionary and genetic problems in crops with
Reversion of autopolyploids to diploids; Genome mapping in polyploids -
Interspecific hybridization and allopolyploids; Synthesis of new crops
(wheat, triticale and brassica) – Hybrids between species with same
chromosome number, alien translocations - Hybrids between species with
different chromosome number; Gene transfer using amphidiploids - Bridge

Fertilization barriers in crop plants at pre-and postfertilization levels- In
vitro techniques to overcome the fertilization barriers in crops;
Chromosome manipulations in wide hybridization ; case studies –
Production and use of haploids, dihaploids and doubled haploids in genetics
and breeding.

Learning the cytogenetics laboratory, various chemicals to be used for
fixation, dehydration, embedding, staining, cleaning etc. - Microscopy:
various types of microscopes, - Observing sections of specimen using
Electron microscope; Preparing specimen for observation - Fixative
preparation and fixing specimen for light microscopy studies in cereals -
Studies on the course of mitosis in wheat, pearl millet - Studies on the
course of mitosis in onion and Aloe vera - Studies on the course of meiosis
in cereals, millets and pulses - Studies on the course of meiosis in oilseeds
and forage crops - Using micrometers and studying the pollen grain size in
various crops -Various methods of staining and preparation of temporary
and permanent slides - Pollen germination in vivo and in vitro; Microtomy
and steps in microtomy; Agents employed for the induction of various
ploidy levels; Solution preparation and application at seed, seedling level -
Identification of polyploids in different crops - Induction and identification
of haploids; Anther culture and Ovule culture - Morphological
observations on synthesized autopolyploids - Observations on C-mitosis,
learning on the dynamics of spindle fibre assembly - Morphological
observations on alloployploids - Morphological observations on aneuploids
- Cytogenetic analysis of interspecific and intergeneric crosses -
Maintenance of Cytogenetic stocks and their importance in crop breeding -
Various ploidy levels due to somaclonal variation ; Polyploidy in
ornamental crops. -Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)- Genome in
situ hybridization GISH.

Suggested Readings
Becker K & Hardin. 2004. The World of Cell. 5th Ed. Pearson Edu.
Carroll M. 1989. Organelles. The Guilford Press.
Charles B. 1993. Discussions in Cytogenetics. Prentice Hall.

Darlington CD & La Cour LF. 1969. The Handling of Chromosomes.
Georger Allen & Unwin Ltd.
Elgin SCR. 1995. Chromatin Structure and Gene Expression. IRL Press.
Gray P. 1954. The Mirotomist’s Formulatory Guide. The Blakiston Co.
Gupta PK & Tsuchiya T. 1991. Chromosome Engineering in Plants:
Genetics, Breeding and Evolution. Part A. Elsevier.
Gupta PK. 2000. Cytogenetics. Rastogi Publ.
Johannson DA. 1975. Plant Microtechnique. McGraw Hill.
Karp G. 1996. Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments.
John Wiley & Sons.
Khush GS. 1973. Cytogenetics of Aneuploids. Academic Press.
Sharma AK & Sharma A. 1988. Chromosome Techniques: Theory and
Practice. Butterworth.
Sumner AT. 1982. Chromosome Banding. Unwin Hyman Publ.
Swanson CP. 1960. Cytology and Cytogenetics. Macmillan & Co.

To impart theoretical knowledge and practical skills about plant breeding
objectives, modes of reproduction and genetic consequences, breeding
methods for crop improvement.

History of Plant Breeding (Pre and post-Mendelian era); Objectives of plant
breeding, characteristics improved by plant breeding; Patterns of Evolution
in Crop Plants- Centres of Origin-biodiversity and its significance.

Genetic basis of breeding self- and cross - pollinated crops including
mating systems and response to selection - nature of variability,
components of variation; Heritability and genetic advance, genotypeenvironment
interaction; General and specific combining ability; Types of
gene actions and implications in plant breeding; Plant introduction and role
of plant genetic resources in plant breeding.

Self-incompatibility and male sterility in crop plants and their commercial
Pure line theory, pure line selection and mass selection methods; Line
breeding, pedigree, bulk, backcross, single seed descent and multiline
method; Population breeding in self-pollinated crops (diallel selective
mating approach).

Breeding methods in cross pollinated crops; Population breeding-mass
selection and ear-to-row methods; S1 and S2 progeny testing, progeny
selection schemes, recurrent selection schemes for intra and interpopulation
improvement and development of synthetics and composites;
Hybrid breeding - genetical and physiological basis of heterosis and
inbreeding, production of inbreds, breeding approaches for improvement of
inbreds, predicting hybrid performance; seed production of hybrid and
their parent varieties/inbreds.

Breeding methods in asexually/clonally propagated crops, clonal selection
apomixes, clonal selection.

Self-incompatibility and male sterility in crop plants and their commercial
exploitation; Concept of plant ideotype and its role in crop improvement;
Transgressive breeding.

Special breeding techniques- Mutation breeding; Breeding for abiotic and
biotic stresses.

Cultivar development- testing, release and notification, maintenance
breeding, Participatory Plant Breeding, Plant breeders’ rights and
regulations for plant variety protection and farmers rights.

Floral biology in self and cross pollinated species, selfing and crossing
techniques. Selection methods in segregating populations and evaluation of
breeding material; Analysis of variance (ANOVA); Estimation of
heritability and genetic advance; Maintenance of experimental records;
Learning techniques in hybrid seed production using male-sterility in field

Suggested Readings
Allard RW. 1981. Principles of Plant Breeding. John Wiley & Sons.
Chopra VL. 2001. Breeding Field Crops. Oxford & IBH.
Chopra VL. 2004. Plant Breeding. Oxford & IBH.
Gupta SK. 2005. Practical Plant Breeding. Agribios.
Pohlman JM & Bothakur DN. 1972. Breeding Asian Field Crops. Oxford
& IBH.
Roy D. 2003. Plant Breeding, Analysis and Exploitation of Variation.
Narosa Publ. House.
Sharma JR. 2001. Principles and Practice of Plant Breeding. Tata
Simmonds NW. 1990. Principles of Crop Improvement. English Language
Book Society.
Singh BD. 2006. Plant Breeding. Kalyani.
Singh P. 2002. Objective Genetics and Plant Breeding. Kalyani.
Singh P. 2006. Essentials of Plant Breeding. Kalyani.
Singh S & Pawar IS. 2006. Genetic Bases and Methods of Plant Breeding.

To impart theoretical knowledge and computation skills regarding
component of variation and variances, scales, mating designs and gene

Mendelian traits vs polygenic traits - nature of quantitative traits and its
inheritance - Multiple factor hypothesis - analysis of continuous variation;
Variations associated with polygenic traits - phenotypic, genotypic and

environmental - non-allelic interactions; Nature of gene action - additive,
dominance, epistatic and linkage effects.

Principles of Anaylis of Variance (ANOVA) - Expected variance
components, random and fixed models; MANOVA, biplot analysis;
Comparison of means and variances for significance.

Designs for plant breeding experiments – principles and applications;
Genetic diversity analysis – metroglyph, cluster and D2 analyses -
Association analysis - phenotypic and genotypic correlations; Path analysis
and Parent - progeny regression analysis; Discriminant function and
principal component analyses; Selection indices - selection of parents;
Simultaneous selection models- concepts of selection - heritability and
genetic advance.

Generation mean analysis; Mating designs- Diallel, partial diallel, line x
tester analysis, NCDs and TTC; Concepts of combining ability and gene
action; Analysis of genotype x environment interaction - adaptability and
stability; Models for GxE analysis and stability parameters; AMMI analysis
– principles and interpretation.

QTL mapping; Strategies for QTL mapping - desired populations for QTL
mapping - statistical methods in QTL mapping - QTL mapping in Genetic
analysis; Marker assisted selection (MAS) - Approaches to apply MAS in
Plant breeding - selection based on marker - simultaneous selection based
on marker and phenotype - factors influencing MAS.

Problems on multiple factors inheritance - Partitioning of variance -
Estimation of heritability and genetic advance - Covariance analysis -
Metroglyph analysis - D2 analysis - Grouping of clusters and interpretation
- Cluster analysis - Construction of cluster diagrams and dendrograms -
interpretation - Correlation analysis - Path analysis - Parent-progeny
regression analysis - Diallel analysis: Griffing’s methods I and II - Diallel
analysis: Hayman’s graphical approach - Diallel analysis: interpretation of
results - NCD and their interpretations - Line x tester analysis and
interpretation of results - Estimation of heterosis : standard, mid-parental
and better-parental heterosis - Estimation of inbreeding depression -
Generation mean analysis: Analytical part and Interpretation - Estimation
of different types of gene actions.
Partitioning of phenotypic variance and co-variance into components due to
genotypes, environment and genotype x environment interactions -
Construction of saturated linkage maps and QTL mapping - Strategies for
QTL mapping; statistical methods in QTL mapping; Phenotype and Marker
linkage studies - Working out efficiency of selection methods in different
populations and interpretation, Biparental mating, Triallel analysis,
Quadriallel analysis and Triple Test Cross (TTC) – use of softwares in
analysis and result interpretation, Advanced biometrical models for
combining ability analysis, Models in stability analysis Additive Main
Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) model - Principal
Component Analysis model - Additive and multiplicative model - Shifted

multiplicative model - Analysis and selection of genotypes - Methods and
steps to select the best model - Selection systems - Biplots and mapping

Suggested Readings
Bos I & Caligari P. 1995. Selection Methods in Plant Breeding. Chapman
& Hall.
Falconer DS & Mackay J. 1998. Introduction to Quantitative Genetics.
Mather K & Jinks JL. 1971. Biometrical Genetics. Chapman & Hall.
Mather K & Jinks JL. 1983. Introduction to Biometrical Genetics.
Chapman & Hall.
Nadarajan N & Gunasekaran M. 2005. Quantitative Genetics and
Biometrical Techniques in Plant Breeding. Kalyani.
Naryanan SS & Singh P. 2007. Biometrical Techniques in Plant Breeding.
Singh P & Narayanan SS. 1993. Biometrical Techniques in Plant Breeding.
Singh RK & Choudhary BD. 1987. Biometrical Methods in Quantitative
Genetics. Kalyani.
Weir DS. 1990. Genetic Data Analysis. Methods for Discrete Population
Genetic Data. Sinauer Associates.
Wricke G & Weber WE. 1986. Quantitative Genetics and Selection in
Plant Breeding. Walter de Gruyter.

To impart the knowledge about general principles of radiation and various
tests/methods for detection of radiation effects on the living cells, genetic
risks involved and perspectives of advances made.

Mutation and its history - Nature and classification of mutations:
spontaneous and induced mutations, micro and macro mutations, pre and
post adaptive mutations - Detection of mutations in lower and higher
organisms – paramutations.

Mutagenic agents: physical -- Radiation types and sources: Ionising and
non-ionizing radiations viz., X rays, γ rays, ,  and β particles, protons,
neutrons and UV rays - Radiobiology: mechanism of action of various
radiations (, photoelectric absorption, Compton scattering and pair
production) and their biological effects –RBE and LET relationships.

Effect of mutations on DNA - Repair mechanisms operating at DNA,
chromosome, cell and organism level to counteract the mutation effects -
Dosimetry - Objects and methods of treatment - Factors influencing
mutation: dose rate, acute vs chronic irradiation, recurrent irradiation,
enhancement of thermal neutron effects - Radiation sensitivity and
modifying factors: External and internal sources- Oxygen, water content,
temperature and nuclear volume.

Chemical mutagens- Classification - Base analogues, antibiotics, alkylating
agents, acridine dyes and other mutagens: their properties and mode of
action - Dose determination and factors influencing chemical mutagenesis -
Treatment methods using physical and chemical mutagens - Combination
treatments; Other causes of mutation - direct and indirect action,
comparative evaluation of physical and chemical mutagens.

Observing mutagen effects in M1 generation: plant injury, lethality,
sterility, chimeras etc., - Observing mutagen effects in M2 generation -
Estimation of mutagenic efficiency and effectiveness – spectrum of
chlorophyll and viable mutations -– Mutations in traits with continuous

Factors influencing the mutant spectrum: genotype, type of mutagen and
dose, pleiotropy and linkage etc. - Individual plant based mutation analysis
and working out effectiveness and efficiency in M3 generation -
Comparative evaluation of physical and chemical mutagens for creation of
variability in the same species – Case studies.
Use of mutagens in creating oligogenic and polygenic variations – Case
studies - In vitro mutagenesis – callus and pollen irradiation; Handling of
segregating genrations and selection procedures; Validation of mutants;
Mutation breeding for various traits (disease resistance, insect resistance,
quality improvement,etc) in different crops- Procedures for micromutations
breeding/polygenic mutations- Achievements of mutation
breeding- varieties released across the world- Problems associated with
mutation breeding.

Use of mutagens in genomics, allele mining, TILLING.

Learning the precautions on handling of mutagens; Dosimetry - Studies of
different mutagenic agents: Physical mutagens - Studies of different
mutagenic agents: Chemical mutagens - Learning on Radioactivity –
Production of source and isotopes at BRIT, Trombay - Learning about
gamma chamber; Radiation hazards - Monitoring – safety regulations and
safe transportation of radioisotopes - Visit to radio isotope laboratory ;
learning on safe disposal of radioisotopes - Hazards due to chemical
mutagens - Treating the plant propagules at different doses of physical and
chemical mutagens - Learning combined mutagenic treatments; Raising the
crop for observation - Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency; Calculating
the same from earlier literature - Study of M1 generation – Parameters to be
observed; Study of M2 generation – Parameters to be observed; Mutation
breeding in cereals and pulses – Achievements made and an analysis -
Mutation breeding in oilseeds and cotton – Achievements and opportunities
- Mutation breeding in forage crops and vegetatively propagated crops;
Procedure for detection of mutations for polygenic traits in M2 and M3

Suggested Readings
Alper T. 1979. Cellular Radiobiology. Cambridge Univ. Press, London.
Chadwick KH & Leenhouts HP. 1981. The Molecular Theory of Radiation
Biology. Springer-Verlag.
Cotton RGH, Edkin E & Forrest S. 2000. Mutation Detection: A Practical
Approach. Oxford Univ. Press.
International Atomic Energey Agency. 1970. Manual on Mutation
Breeding. International Atomic Energey Agency, Vienna, Italy.
Singh BD. 2003. Genetics. Kalyani.
Strickberger MW. 2005. Genetics. 3rd Ed. Prentice Hall.

For more detailed information I am uploading a PDF file which is free to download:

Contact Details:
Indian Council Of Agricultural Research
Krishi Bhavan,
Dr. Rajendra Prasad Road,
New Delhi,
Delhi 110001 ‎
011 2584 3277

Map Location:

Attached Files
File Type: pdf Syllabus of ICAR JRF of Plant Science.pdf (420.9 KB, 168 views)
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Old January 19th, 2016, 11:36 AM
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Originally Posted by Unregistered View Post
I want to give the exam of ICAR JRF and foe that I need to get the syllabus of Plant Science so can you please make it available for me?
I want take addmision in panjab agriculture university i have complited my UG in agri can i take addminsion in PAU
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