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Old April 30th, 2012, 07:19 PM
ramesh varma ki
Default Re: Delhi University syllabus for B.Sc (H) Chemistry

I am looking for Delhi University syllabus for B.Sc (H) Chemistry. Please tell me from where I can get it ?
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Old April 30th, 2012, 07:22 PM
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Default Re: Delhi University syllabus for B.Sc (H) Chemistry

Originally Posted by ramesh varma ki View Post
I am looking for Delhi University syllabus for B.Sc (H) Chemistry. Please tell me from where I can get it ?

Here I am uploading Delhi University syllabus for B.Sc (H) Chemistry for you.
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Old August 5th, 2012, 12:21 AM
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Old January 16th, 2013, 01:41 PM
Dr. SurashreeSarma
Default Re: Delhi University syllabus for B.Sc (H) Chemistry

I am looking for Delhi University syllabus for B.Sc (H) Chemistry. Please tell me from where I can get it ?
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Old November 30th, 2013, 11:13 AM
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Default Re: Delhi University syllabus for B.Sc (H) Chemistry

Originally Posted by Jagbir Singh View Post
How I can get the University of Delhi B.Sc. (H) Chemistry Syllabus for the year 1989-1992? Please help.
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Old February 25th, 2014, 12:20 PM
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Default Re: Delhi University syllabus for B.Sc (H) Chemistry

University of Delhi was established in 1922. The Univ is approved by UGC.

B.Sc Chemistry

Duration: 3 Years
The applicant should have pass 10+2 in Science stream from any recognized School or board.


1st SEM
Inorganic Chemistry- I
Organic Chemistry –I
Technical writing and Communication in English

2nd SEM
Physical Chemistry – I
Analytical Methods in Chemical Analysis

DU B.Sc Chemistry H Syllabus
B.Sc. (H) Chemistry
(Six-Semester Course)
DELHI – 110 007
Course Structure
PART I: Semester – 1
Paper 1 CHHT 101 Inorganic Chemistry- I
Paper 2 CHHT 102 Organic Chemistry –I
Paper 3 ENAT 101
Technical writing and Communication in English
Paper 4 MACT 101 Mathematics-I
PART I: Semester – 2
Paper 5 CHHT 203 Physical Chemistry – I
Paper 6 CHHT 204 Analytical Methods in Chemical Analysis
Paper 7 LSPT 202 Biology-II
Paper 8 PHCT 201 Physics-I
In addition, there shall be one qualifying paper in self-learning mode called Environmental
Studies offered in Semester-2
PART II: Semester – 3
Paper 9 CHHT 305 Inorganic Chemistry – II
Paper 10 CHHT 306 Organic Chemistry – II
Paper 11 CHHT 307 Physical Chemistry – II
Paper 12 MACT 302 Mathematics-II
PART II: Semester – 4
Paper 13 CHHT 408 Inorganic Chemistry – III
Paper 14 CHHT 409 Organic Chemistry – III
Paper 15 CHHT 410 Physical Chemistry – III
Paper 16 PHCT 402 Physics-II
PART III: Semester – 5
Paper 17 CHHT 511 Inorganic Chemistry – IV
Paper 18 CHHT 512 Organic Chemistry – IV
Paper 19
CHHT 513 Physical Chemistry – IV
Paper 20 CHHT 514 Biochemistry and Environmental Chemistry
PART III: Semester – 6
Paper 21 CHHT 615 Inorganic Chemistry – V
Paper 22 CHHT 616 Organic Chemistry – V
Paper 23 CHHT 617 Physical Chemistry – V
Paper 24 CHHT 618 Applications of Computers in Chemistry
Paper 1-CHHT 101: Inorganic Chemistry - I
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I: Atomic Structure:
Bohr’s theory, its limitations and atomic spectrum of hydrogen atom. Wave mechanics:
de Broglie equation, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and its significance,
Schrodinger’s wave equation, significance of and 2. Quantum numbers and their
significance. Normal and orthogonal wave functions. Sign of wave functions. Radial
and angular wave functions. Radial and angular distribution curves. Shapes of s, p, d
and f orbitals. Contour boundary and probability diagrams.
Pauli’s exclusion principle, Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity, Aufbau’s principle
and its limitations, Variation of orbital energy with atomic number.
Unit II: Periodicity of Elements:
s, p, d, f block elements, the long form of periodic table. Detailed discussion of the
following properties of the elements, with reference to s & p- block.
(a) Effective nuclear charge, shielding or screening effect, Slater rules, variation of
effective nuclear charge in periodic table.
(b) Atomic radii (van der Waals)
(c) Ionic and crystal radii.
(d) Covalent radii (octahedral and tetrahedral )
(e) Ionization enthalpy, Successive ionization enthalpies and factors affecting
ionization energy. Applications of ionization enthalpy.
(f) Electron gain enthalpy, trends of electron gain enthalpy.
(g) Electronegativity, Pauling’s/ Mulliken’s/ Allred Rachow’s/ and Mulliken-Jaffe’s
electronegativity scales. Variation of electronegativity with bond order, partial
charge, hybridization, group electronegativity. Sanderson’s electron density ratio.
Recommended Texts:
1. Lee, J.D. Concise Inorganic Chemistry, ELBS, 1991.
2. Douglas, B.E. and Mc Daniel, D.H., Concepts & Models of Inorganic Chemistry,
Oxford, 1970
3. Atkins, P.W. & Paula, J. Physical Chemistry, Oxford Press, 2006.
4. Day, M.C. and Selbin, J. Theoretical Inorganic Chemistry, ACS Publications 1962.
Paper 2-CHHT 102: Organic Chemistry - I
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit-I: Basics of Organic Chemistry
Organic Compounds: Classification, and Nomenclature, Hybridization, Shapes of molecules,
Influence of hybridization on bond properties.
Electronic Displacements: Inductive, electromeric, resonance and mesomeric effects,
hyperconjugation and their applications; Dipole moment; Organic acids and bases; their relative
Homolytic and Heterolytic fission with suitable examples. Curly arrow rules, formal charges;
Electrophiles and Nucleophiles; Nucleophlicity and basicity; Types, shape and their relative
stability of Carbocations, Carbanions, Free radicals and Carbenes
Introduction to types of organic reactions and their mechanism: Addition, Elimination and
Substitution reactions.
Unit II: Stereochemistry
Fischer Projection, Newmann and Sawhorse Projection formulae and their interconversions;
Geometrical isomerism: cis–trans and, syn-anti isomerism E/Z notations with C.I.P rules.
Optical Isomerism: Optical Activity, Specific Rotation, Chirality/Asymmetry, Enantiomers,
Molecules with two or more chiral-centres, Distereoisomers, meso structures, Racemic mixture
and resolution. Relative and absolute configuration: D/L and R/S designations.
Unit III: Chemistry of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
A. Carbon-Carbon sigma bonds
Chemistry of alkanes: Formation of alkanes, Wurtz Reaction, Wurtz- Fittig Reactions, Free
radical substitutions: Halogenation - relative reactivity and selectivity.
B. Carbon-Carbon pi bonds
Formation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions, Mechanism of E1, E2, E1cb
reactions. Saytzeff and Hofmann eliminations.
Reactions of alkenes: Electrophilic additions their mechanisms (Markownikoff/ Anti
Markownikoff addition), mechanism of oxymercuration-demercuration, hydroboration-
oxidation, ozonolysis, reduction (catalytic and chemical), syn and anti hydroxylation (oxidation).
1, 2- and 1, 4- addition reactions in conjugated dienes and, Diels-Alder reaction; Allylic and
benzylic bromination and mechanism, e.g. propene, 1-butene, toluene, ethyl benzene.
Reactions of alkynes: Acidity, Electrophilic and Nucleophilic additions. Hydration to form
carbonyl compounds, Alkylation of terminal alkynes.
C. Cycloalkanes and Conformational Analysis
Types of cycloalkanes and their relative stability, Baeyer strain theory, Conformation analysis of
alkanes: Relative stability: Energy diagrams of cyclohexane: Chair, Boat and Twist boat forms;
Relative stability with energy diagrams.
Unit IV: Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Aromaticity: Huckel’s rule, aromatic character of arenes, cyclic carbocations/carbanions and
heterocyclic compounds with suitable examples. Electrophilic aromatic substitution:
halogenation, nitration, sulphonation and Friedel-Craft’s alkylation/acylation with their
mechanism. Directing effects of the groups.
Recommended Texts:
1. Morrison, R. N. & Boyd, R. N. Organic Chemistry, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
(Pearson Education).
2. Finar, I. L. Organic Chemistry (Volume 1), Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson
3. Finar, I. L. Organic Chemistry (Volume 2: Stereochemistry and the Chemistry of Natural
Products), Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education).
4. Eliel, E. L. & Wilen, S. H. Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds; Wiley: London, 1994.
Marks: 100
Unit 1
Communication: Language and communication, differences between speech and writing, distinct
features of speech, distinct features of writing.
Unit 2
Writing Skills; Selection of topic, thesis statement, developing the thesis; introductory,
developmental, transitional and concluding paragraphs, linguistic unity, coherence and cohesion,
descriptive, narrative, expository and argumentative writing.
Unit 3
Technical Writing: Scientific and technical subjects; formal and informal writings; formal
writings/reports, handbooks, manuals, letters, memorandum, notices, agenda, minutes; common
errors to be avoided.
1. M. Frank. Writing as thinking: A guided process approach, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall
2. L. Hamp-Lyons and B. Heasely: Study Writing; A course in written English. For academic
and professional purposes, Cambridge Univ. Press.
3. R. Quirk, S. Greenbaum, G. Leech and J. Svartik: A comprehensive grammar of the English
language, Longman, London.
4. Daniel G. Riordan & Steven A. Panley: “Technical Report Writing Today” - Biztaantra.
Additional Reference Books
5. Daniel G. Riordan, Steven E. Pauley, Biztantra: Technical Report Writing Today, 8th Edition
6. Contemporary Business Communication, Scot Ober, Biztantra, 5th Edition (2004).
Paper 4-MACT 101: Mathematics - I
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I: Recapitulation:
Fundamentals. Mathematical functions, polynomial expressions, logarithms, the exponential
function, units of a measurement, interconversion of units, constants and variables, equation of a
straight line, plotting graphs.
Uncertainty in experimental techniques: Displaying uncertainties, measurements in chemistry,
decimal places, significant figures, combining quantities.
Uncertainty in measurement: types of uncertainties, combining uncertainties. Statistical
treatment. Mean, standard deviation, relative error. Data reduction and the propagation of errors.
Graphical and numerical data reduction. Numerical curve fitting: the method of least squares
Algebric operations on real scalar variables (e.g. manipulation of van der Waals equation in
different forms). Roots of quadratic equations analytically and iteratively (e.g. pH of a weak
acid). Numerical methods of finding roots (Newton-Raphson, binary –bisection, e.g. pH of a
weak acid not ignoring the ionization of water, volume of a van der Waals gas, equilibrium
constant expressions).
Mathematical series: Power series, Maclaurin, Taylor series, convergence (e.g. pressure virial
equation of state, colligative properties).
Pythagoras theorem in three dimensions. Trigonometric functions, identities.
Differential calculus: The tangent line and the derivative of a function, numerical differentiation
(e.g., change in pressure for small change in volume of a van der Waals gas, potentiometric
titrations), differentials, higher order derivatives, discontinuities, stationary points, maximum-
minimum problems, inflexion points, limiting values of functions: L’Hopital’s rule, combining
Unit II: Integral calculus:
The process of integration, odd and even functions, indefinite integrals, standard integrals,
methods of integration (e.g. integrated rate law for second order reaction), numerical integration
(Trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, e.g. entropy/enthalpy change from heat capacity data),
probability distributions (gas kinetic theory) and mean values. Calculus of the trigonometric
Calculus with several independent variables: Functions of several independent variables, change
of variables, relations between partial derivatives (e.g. change in pressure for small changes in
volume and temperature), total differentials, chain rules for partial differentiation, Euler’s
theorem, exact and inexact differentials (thermodynamics), line integrals.
Recommended Texts:
1. McQuarrie, D. A. Mathematics for Physical Chemistry University Science Books
2. Mortimer, R. Mathematics for Physical Chemistry. 3rd Ed. Elsevier (2005).
3. Steiner, E. The Chemical Maths Book Oxford University Press (1996).
4. Yates, P. Chemical Calculations. 2nd Ed. CRC Press (2007).
Paper 1-CHHP 101: Inorganic Chemistry - I
(A) Titrimetric Analysis
(i) Calibration and use of apparatus
(i) Preparation of solutions of different Molarity/Normality of titrants
(B) Acid- Base Titrations
(i) Estimation of carbonate and hydroxide present together in mixture.
(ii) Estimation of carbonate and bicarbonate present together in a mixture.
(ii) Estimation of free alkali present in different soaps/detergents
(C) Oxidation- Reduction Titrimetry
(i) Estimation of Fe(II) and oxalic acid using standardized KMnO4 solution.
(ii) Estimation of oxalic acid and sodium oxalate in a given mixture.
(iii) Estimation of Fe (II) with K2Cr2O7 using internal (diphenylamine,
anthranilic acid) and external indicator.
Reference text:
1. Vogel, A.I. A Textbook of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis, ELBS.
Paper 2-CHHP 102: Organic Chemistry - I
1. Checking the calibration of the thermometer
2. Purification of organic compounds by crystallization using the following solvents:
a. Water
b. Alcohol
c. Alcohol-Water
3. Determination of the melting points of above compounds and unknown organic
compounds (Kjeldahl method and electrically heated melting point apparatus)
4. Effect of impurities on the melting point – mixed melting point of two unknown
organic compounds
5. Determination of boiling point of liquid compounds. (boiling point lower than and
more than 100° C by distillation and capillary method)
6. Chromatography
a. Separation of a mixture of two amino acids by ascending and horizontal
paper chromatography
b. Separation of a mixture of two sugars by ascending paper chromatography
c. Separation of a mixture of o- and p-nitrophenol or o- and p-aminophenol
by thin layer chromatography (TLC
Paper 5-CHHT 203: Physical Chemistry- I
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I: Gaseous state:
Kinetic molecular model of a gas: postulates and derivation of the kinetic gas equation;
collision frequency; collision diameter; mean free path and viscosity of gases,
including their temperature and pressure dependence, relation between mean free path
and coefficient of viscosity, calculation of from ; variation of viscosity with
temperature and pressure.
Maxwell distribution and its use in evaluating molecular velocities (average, root mean
square and most probable) and average kinetic energy, law of equipartition of energy,
degrees of freedom and molecular basis of heat capacities.
Behaviour of real gases: Deviations from ideal gas behaviour, compressibility factor,
Z, and its variation with pressure for different gases. Causes of deviation from ideal
behaviour. van der Waals equation of state, its derivation and application in explaining
real gas behaviour, mention of other equations of state (Berthelot, Dietrici); virial
equation of state; van der Waals equation expressed in virial form and calculation of
Boyle temperature. Isotherms of real gases and their comparison with van der Waals
isotherms, continuity of states, critical state, relation between critical constants and
van der Waals constants, law of corresponding states.
Unit II: Liquid state:
Qualitative treatment of the structure of the liquid state; Radial distribution function;
physical properties of liquids; vapour pressure, surface tension and coefficient of
viscosity, and their determination. Effect of addition of various solutes on surface
tension and viscosity. Explanation of cleansing action of detergents. Temperature
variation of viscosity of liquids and comparison with that of gases.
Qualitative discussion of structure of water.
Unit III: Solid state:
Nature of the solid state, law of constancy of interfacial angles, law of rational indices,
Miller indices, elementary ideas of symmetry, symmetry elements and symmetry
operations, qualitative idea of point and space groups, seven crystal systems and
fourteen Bravais lattices; X-ray diffraction, Bragg’s law, a simple account of rotating
crystal method and powder pattern method. Analysis of powder diffraction patterns of
NaCl, CsCl and KCl. Defects in crystals. Glasses and liquid crystals.
Unit IV: Ionic equilibria:
Strong, moderate and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, factors affecting degree
of ionization, ionization constant and ionic product of water. Ionization of weak acids
and bases, pH scale, common ion effect; dissociation constants of mono-, di- and tri-
protic acids (exact treatment).
Salt hydrolysis-calculation of hydrolysis constant, degree of hydrolysis and pH for
different salts. Buffer solutions; derivation of Henderson equation and its applications;
buffer capacity, buffer range, buffer action and applications of buffers in analytical
chemistry and biochemical processes in the human body.
Solubility and solubility product of sparingly soluble salts – applications of solubility
product principle. Qualitative treatment of acid – base titration curves (calculation of
pH at various stages). Theory of acid – base indicators; selection of indicators and
their limitations.
Multistage equilibria in polyelectrolyte systems; hydrolysis and hydrolysis constants.
Recommended Texts:
1. Atkins, P. W. & Paula, J. de Atkin’s Physical Chemistry 8th Ed., Oxford
University Press (2006).
2. Ball, D. W. Physical Chemistry Thomson Press, India (2007).
3. Castellan, G. W. Physical Chemistry 4th Ed. Narosa (2004).
4. Mortimer, R. G. Physical Chemistry 3rd Ed. Elsevier: NOIDA, UP (2009).
Paper 6-CHHT 204: Analytical Methods in Chemical Analysis
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I : Qualitative and Quantitative aspects of analysis:
Sampling, evaluation of analytical data, errors, accuracy and precision, methods of their
expression, normal law of distribution if indeterminate errors, statistical test of data; F,
Q, and T test, rejection of data, and confidence intervals.
Unit II: Optical methods of analysis:
Origin of spectra, interaction of radiation with matter, fundamental laws of
spectroscopy and selection rules, validity of Beer-Lambert’s law.
UV-Visible Spectrometry: Basic principles of instrumentation (choice of source,
monochromator and detector) for single and double beam instrument;
Basic principle of quantitative analysis: estimation of metal ions from aqueous solution,
geometrical isomers, keto-enol tautomers. Determination of composition of metal
complexes using Job’s method of continuous variation and mole ratio method.
Infrared Spectrometry: Basic principles of instrumentation (choice of source,
monochromator & detector) for single and double beam instrument; sampling
Structural illustration through interpretation of data, Effect and importance of isotope
Flame Atomic Absorption and Emission Spectrometry: Basic principles of
instrumentation (choice of source, monochromator, detector, Choice of flame and
Burner designs. Techniques of atomization and sample introduction; Method of
background correction, sources of chemical interferences and their method of removal.
Techniques for the quantitative estimation of trace level of metal ions from water
Unit III: Thermal method of analysis:
Theory of thermogravimetry (TG), basic principle of instrumentation.
Techniques for quantitative estimation of Ca and Mg from their mixture.
Unit IV: Electro analytical methods:
Classification of electroanalytical methods, basic principle of pH metric, potentiometric
and conductometric titrations. Techniques used for the determination of equivalence
point. Techniques used for the determination of pKa values.
Unit V: Separation Techniques:
Solvent extraction: Classification and principle and efficiency of the technique.
Mechanism of extraction: extraction by solvation and chelation.
Technique of extraction: batch, continuous and counter current extractions.
Qualitative and quantitative aspects of solvent extraction: extraction of metal ions from
aqueous solution, extraction of organic species from the aqueous and non aqueous media.
Chromatography: Classification and principle and efficiency of the technique.
Mechanism of separation: adsorption, partition & ion exchange.
Development of chromatograms: frontal, elution and displacement methods.
Qualitative and quantitative aspects of chromatographic methods of analysis: IC, GLC,
Stereo isomeric separation and analysis: Measurement of optical rotation, calculation of
Enantiomeric excess (ee)/ diastereomeric excess (de) ratios and determination of
Enantiomeric composition using NMR, Chiral solvents and chiral shift reagents Chiral
chromatographic techniques using chiral columns (GC and HPLC).
Role of computers in instrumental methods of analysis.
Recommended texts:
1. Vogel, Arthur I: A Test book of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis (Rev. by GH
Jeffery and others) 5th Ed. The English Language Book Society of Longman
2. Willard, Hobert H. et. al: Instrumental Methods of Analysis, 7th Ed. Wardsworth
Publishing Company, Belmont, California, USA, 1988.
3. Christian, Gary D; Analytical Chemistry, 6th Ed. New York- John Willy, 2004.
4. Harris, Daniel C: Exploring Chemical Analysis, 2nd Ed. New York, W.H.
Freeman, 2001.
5. Khopkar, S.M. Basic Concepts of Analytical Chemistry New Age, International
Publisher, 2009.
6. SKoog, D.A. Holler F.J. and Nieman, T.A. Principles of Instrumental Analysis,
Thomson Asia Pvt. Ltd. Singapore.
7. Mikes, O. & Chalmes, R.A. Laboratory Hand Book of Chromatographic & Allied
Methods, Elles Harwood Ltd. London.
8. Ditts, R.V. Analytical Chemistry – Methods of separation.
THEORY Marks: 100
Cell and Cellular Processes
Unit 1. Techniques in Biology (Ch 1 Sheeler) (12 Periods)
Principles of microscopy; Light Microscope; Phase contrast microscopy; Fluorescence
microscopy; Confocal microscopy; Sample Preparation for light microscopy; Electron
microscopy (EM)- Scanning EM and Scanning Transmission EM (STEM); Sample Preparation
for electron microscopy; X-ray diffraction analysis
Unit 2. Cell as a unit of Life (Ch 6 Campbell) (10 Periods)
The Cell Theory; Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Cell size and shape; Eukaryotic Cell
Unit 3. Cell Organelles (Ch 15, 16, 17,18,19,20 Sheeler) (22 Periods)
Structure, marker enzymes, composition; mitochondrial biogenesis; Semiautonomous
organelle; Symbiont hypothesis; Proteins synthesized within mitochondria; mitochondrial
Structure, marker enzymes, composition; semiautonomous nature, chloroplast DNA
ER, Golgi body & Lysosomes
Structures and roles. Signal peptide hypothesis, N-linked glycosylation, Role of golgi in O-
linked glycosylation. Cell secretion, Lysosome formation.
Peroxisomes and Glyoxisomes:
Structures, composition, functions in animals and plants and biogenesis
Nuclear Envelope- structure of nuclear pore complex; chromatin; molecular organization,
DNA packaging in eukaryotes, euchromatin and heterochromatin, nucleolus and ribosome
structure (brief).
Unit 4. Cell Membrane and Cell Wall (Ch 7 Campbell / Ch 15 Sheeler / Ch 3 Raven)
(8 Periods)
The functions of membranes; Models of membrane structure; The fluidity of membranes;
Membrane proteins and their functions; Carbohydrates in the membrane; Faces of the
membranes; Selective permeability of the membranes; Cell wall
Unit 5. Cell Cycle: Interphase, Mitosis and Meiosis (Ch 12, 13 Campbell) (8 Periods)
Role of Cell division; Overview of Cell cycle; Molecular controls; Meiosis
1. Campbell, N.A. and Reece, J. B. (2008) Biology 8th edition, Pearson Benjamin
Cummings, San Francisco.
2. Raven, P.H et al (2006) Biology 7th edition Tata McGrawHill Publications, New Delhi
3. Sheeler, P and Bianchi, D.E. (2006) Cell and Molecular Biology, 3rd edition, John Wiley
& sons NY
Paper 8-PHCT 201: Physics-I
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I :Mathematical Physics: Scalar and vector products, polar and axial vectors, triple and
quadruple products.
Unit II:Vector calculus:
Scalar and vector fields, differentiation of a vector, gradient, divergence, curl and O
operations and their meaning, idea of line, surface and volume integrals, Gauss and
Stokes’ theorem.
Unit III: Classical Mechanics:
Particle dynamics: Newton’s laws of motion, conservation of linear momentum, centre
of mass, conservative forces, work energy theorem, particle collision.
Rotational kinematics and dynamics: Rotational motion, forces and pseudo forces, torque
and angular momentum, kinetic energy of rotation, rigid body rotation dynamics,
moment of inertia, conservation of angular momentum, comparison of linear and
angular momentum, motion of a top.
Oscillations: Linearity and superposition principle, free oscillation with one and two
degrees of freedom, simple pendulum, combination of two simple harmonic motions.
Lissajous figures, free and damped vibrations, forced vibrations and resonance, Q factor,
wave equation, travelling and standing waves, superposition of waves, phase and group
Unit IV :Wave optics: Interference, division of amplitudes, Young’s double split, Fresnel’s
biprism, interference in thin films and wedged shaped films.
Fresnel diffraction: Diffraction at a single slit and a circular aperture, diffraction at a
double split, plane transmission grating, resolving power of a telescope and a
microscope, resolving and dispersive power of a plane diffraction grating.
Polarization: Polarization by reflection and refraction, Brewster’s law, double refraction,
nicol prism, quarter and half-wave plates, Production and analysis of circularly and
elliptically polarized light.
Recommended Texts:
1. Spiegel, M. R. Vector Analysis Schaum’s Outline Series. McGraw-Hill Book Co.:
Singapore (1974)
2. Beiser, A. Concepts of Modern Physics McGraw-Hill Education (2002).
3. Resnick, R., Halliday, D. & Krane, K. S. Physics Vol. I and II 5th Ed. John Wiley &
Sons (2004)
4. Serway, R. A. & Jewett, J. W. Physics for Scientists and Engineers 6th Ed.
Paper 5-CHHP 203: Physical Chemistry - I
(I) Surface tension measurements (use of organic solvents excluded).
a) Determine the surface tension by (i) drop number (ii) drop weight method.
b) Study the variation of surface tension of detergent solutions with concentration
(II) Viscosity measurement using Ostwald’s viscometer (use of organic solvents
(a) Study the effect of the addition of solutes such as (i) polymer (ii) ethanol (iii) sodium
chloride on the viscosity of water at room temperature.
(b) Study the effect of variation of viscosity of an aqueous solution with the
concentration of solute.
(III) pH measurements
b) Measurement of pH of different solutions using pH-meter.
c) Preparation of buffer solutions
(i) Sodium acetate-acetic acid
(ii) Ammonium chloride-ammonium hydroxide
Measurement of the pH of buffer solutions and comparison of the values with theoretical values.
d) pH metric titrations of
(i) strong acid and strong base
(ii) weak acid and strong base
Any other experiment carried out in the class.
Paper 6-CHHP 204: Analytical Methods in Chemical Analysis
Separation Techniques
1. Chromatography:
(a) Separation of mixtures
(i) Paper chromatographic separation of Fe3+, Al3+, and Cr3+
(ii) Separate and identify the monosaccharides present in the given mixture
(glucose & fructose) by paper chromatography.
Report the Rf values.
(b) Separate a mixture of Sudan yellow and Sudan Red by TLC technique and
identify them on the basis of their Rf values.
(c) Chromatographic separation of the active ingredients of plants, flowers and juices
by TLC
2. Solvent Extractions:
(i) To separate a mixture of Ni2+ & Fe3+ by complexing with DMG and extracting
the Ni2+ DMG complex in chloroform, and determine its concentration with
(ii) Solvent extraction of zisconium with amberliti LA-1, separation from a
mixture of irons and gallium.
3. Determine the pH of given aerated drinks fruit juices, shampoos and soaps.
4. Determination of Na, Ca, Li in cola drinks and fruit juices using fame photometric
5. Analysis of soil:
(i) Determination of pH of soil.
(ii) Total soluble salt
(iii) Estimation of calcium, magnesium, phosphate, nitrate
6. Ion exchange:
(i) Determination of exchange capacity of cation exchange resins and anion
exchange resins.
(ii) Separation of metal ions from their binary mixture.
(iii)Separation of amino acids from organic acids by ion exchange
7. Determination of pKa values of indicator using spectrophotometry.
8. Structural characterization of compounds by Infra-Red spectroscopy.
9. Determination of dissolved oxygen in water.
10. Determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD).
11. Determination of Biological oxygen demand (BOD).
Paper 7- LSPP 202-BIOLOGY-II
1. To study prokaryotic cells (bacteria), viruses, eukaryotic cells with the help of light and
electron micrographs.
2. Study of the photomicrographs of cell organelles
3. To study the structure of plant cell through temporary mounts.
4. To study the structure of animal cells by temporary mounts-squamous epithelial cell and
nerve cell.
5. Preparation of temporary mounts of striated muscle fiber
6. To prepare temporary stained preparation of mitochondria from striated muscle cells /cheek
epithelial cells using vital stain Janus green.
7. To prepare temporary stained squash from root tips of Allium cepa and to study the various
stages of mitosis.
8. Study the effect of temperature, organic solvent on semi permeable membrane.
9. Demonstration of dialysis of starch and simple sugar.
10. Study of plasmolysis and deplasmolysis on Rhoeo leaf.
11. Measure the cell size (either length or breadth/diameter) by micrometry.
12. Study the structure of nuclear pore complex by photograph (from Gerald Karp)
Paper 8- PHCP 201-PHYSICS-I
Each student is expected to do at least 3 experiments each from Group A and Group B.
Group A experiments
A-1. Determination of spring constant of a spring by (i) static, and (ii) dynamic methods.
A-2. Study of damped harmonic oscillator- Q factor.
A-3. Determination of temperature coefficient of resistance using platinum resistance
A-4. Study of thermal couple calibration and inversion temperature.
A-5. LCR study of resonance Q-factor.
A-6. Kator’s pendulum- Bar pendulum.
Group B experiments
B-1. Determination of wavelength of light by Fresnel’s biprism.
B-2. Determination of wavelength of sodium light by Newton’s arrangement.
B-3. Determination of refractive index of tint glass using a spectrometer.
B-4. Determination of dispersive power of a glass prism using Cauchy’s constant. Also
determine the resolving power of a prism.
B-5. Determination of wavelength of sodium light using a plane transmission grating and
resolving power of a diffraction grating.
B-6. Determination of specific rotation of cane sugar solution using a polarimeter.
Paper 9-CHHT 305: Inorganic Chemistry -II
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I: Chemical Bonding:
(i) lonic bond: General characteristics, types of ions, size effects, radius ratio rule
and its limitations. Packing of ions in crystals. Born-Lande equation with
derivation and importance of Kapustinskii expression for lattice energy.
Madelung constant, Born-Haber cycle and its application, Solvation energy.
(ii) Covalent bond: Lewis structure, Valence Bond theory (Heitler-London approach).
Energetics of hybridization, equivalent and non-equivalent hybrid orbitals. Bent’s
rule, Resonance and resonance energy, Molecular orbital theory. Molecular
orbital diagrams of diatomic and simple polyatomic molecules N2, O2, C2, B2, F2,
CO, NO, and their ions; HCl, BeF2, CO2, (idea of s-p mixing and orbital
interaction to be given). Formal charge, Valence shell electron pair repulsion
theory (VSEPR), shapes of simple molecules and ions containing lone pairs and
bond pairs of electrons, multiple bonding (and bond approach), and bond
Covalent character in ionic compounds, polarizing power and polarizability.
Fajan’s rules and consequences of polarization.
Ionic character in covalent compounds: Bond moment and dipole moment.
Percentage ionic character from dipole moment and electronegativity difference.
(iii) Metallic Bond: Qualitative idea of valence bond and band theories.
Semiconductors and insulators, defects in solids.
(iv) Weak Chemical forces: van der Waals forces, ion-dipole forces, dipole-dipole
interactions, induced dipole interactions, Instantaneous dipole-induced dipole
interactions. Repulsive forces, Hydrogen bonding (theories of hydrogen bonding,
valence bond treatment) Effects of chemical force, melting and boiling points,
solubility energetics of dissolution process.
(v) Acids and Bases: Bronsted- Lowry concept of acid-base reaction, solvated
proton, relative strength of acids, types of acid-base reactions, levelling solvents,
Lewis acid-base concept, Classification of Lewis acids, Hard and Soft Acids and
Bases (HSAB) Application of HSAB principle.
Recommended Texts:
1. Huheey, J.E. Inorganic Chemistry, Prentice Hall 1993
2. Douglas, B.E. and Mc Daniel, D.H., Concepts & Models of Inorganic Chemistry, Oxford
3. Lee, J.D. Concise Inorganic Chemistry, ELBS (1991)
4. Shriver & Atkins, Inorganic Chemistry, Third Edition, Oxford Press 1994.
5. H.W. Porterfield, Inorganic Chemistry, Second Edition, Academic Press, 2005.
Paper 10-CHHT 306: Organic Chemistry -II
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I: Chemistry of Halogenated hydrocarbons:
Alkyl halides: Methods of preparation, nucleophilic substitution reactions – SN1, SN2 and SNi
mechanisms with stereochemical aspects and effect of solvent etc.; nucleophilic substitution vs
Aryl halides: Preparation, including preparation from diazonium salts. nucleophilic aromatic
substitution; SNAr, Benzyne mechanism
Relative reactivity of Alkyl, allyl/benzyl, vinyl and aryl halides towards nucleophilic substitution
Organometallic compounds of Mg and Li – Use in synthesis of organic compounds.
Unit II: Alchols, Phenols, Ethers and epoxide:
Alcohols: preparation, properties and relative reactivity of 10, 20, 30 alcohols, Bouvaelt-Blanc
Reduction; Preparation and properties of glycols: Oxidation by periodic acid and lead
tetraacetate, Pinacol- Pinacolone rearrangement;
Phenols: Preparation and properties; Acidity and factors effecting it, Ring substitution reactions,
Reimer – Tiemann and Kolbe’s – Schmidt Reactions, Fries and Claisen rearrangements with
Ethers and Epoxides: Preparation and reactions with acids. Reactions of epoxides with alcohols,
ammonia derivatives and LiAlH4
Unit III: Carbonyl Compounds:
Structure, reactivity and preparation;
Nucleophilic additions, Nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions with ammonia derivatives
with mechanism; Mechanisms of Aldol and Benzoin condensation, Knoevenagel condensation,
Claisan-Schmidt, Perkin, Cannizzaro and Wittig reaction, Beckmann and Benzil-Benzilic acid
rearrangements, haloform reaction and Baeyer Villiger oxidation, α-substitution reactions,
oxidations and reductions (Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, LiAlH4, NaBH4, MPV, PDC and PGC);
Addition reactions of unsaturated carbonyl compounds: Michael addition.
Active methylene compounds: Keto-enol tautomerism. Preparation and synthetic applications of
diethyl malonate and ethyl acetoacetate:
Unit IV:Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives:
Preparation, physical properties and reactions of monocarboxylic acids:
Typical reactions of dicarboxylic acids, hydroxy acids and unsaturated acids: succinic/phthalic,
lactic, malic, tartaric, citric, maleic and fumaric acids;
Preparation and reactions of acid chlorides, anhydrides, esters and amides; Comparative study of
nucleophilic sustitution at acyl group - Mechanism of acidic and alkaline hydrolysis of esters,
Claisen condensation, Dieckmann and Reformatsky reactions, Hofmann-bromamide degradation
and Curtius rearrangement
Unit V: Sulphur containing compounds:
Preparation and reactions of thiols, thioethers and sulphonic acids.
Recommended Texts:
1. Morrison, R. T. & Boyd, R. N. Organic Chemistry, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
(Pearson Education).
2. Finar, I. L. Organic Chemistry (Volume 1), Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson
Paper 11-CHHT 307: Physical Chemistry -II
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I : Chemical thermodynamics:
Intensive and extensive variables; state and path functions; isolated, closed and open systems;
zeroth law of thermodynamics.
First law: Concept of heat, q, work, w, internal energy U and statement of first law; enthalpy, H,
relation between heat capacities, calculations of q, w, U and H for reversible, irreversible and
free expansion of gases (ideal and van der Waals) under isothermal and adiabatic conditions.
Thermochemistry: Heats of reactions: standard states; enthalpy of formation of molecules and
ions and enthalpy of combustion and its applications; calculation of bond energy, bond
dissociation energy and resonance energy from thermochemical data, effect of temperature
(Kirchoff’s equations) and pressure on enthalpy of reactions. Adiabatic flame temperature,
explosion temperature.
Second Law: Concept of entropy; thermodynamic scale of temperature, statement of the second
law of thermodynamics; molecular and statistical interpretation of entropy. Calculation of
entropy change for reversible and irreversible processes.
Third Law: Statement of third law, concept of residual entropy, calculation of absolute entropy
of molecules.
Free Energy Functions: Gibbs and Helmholtz energy; variation of S, G, A with T, V, P; Free
energy change and spontaneity. Relation between Joule-Thomson coefficient and other
thermodynamic parameters; inversion temperature; Gibbs-Helmholtz equation; Maxwell
relations; thermodynamic equation of state.
Unit II : Systems of variable composition:
Partial molar quantities, dependence of thermodynamic parameters on composition; Gibbs-
Duhem equation, chemical potential of ideal mixtures, change in thermodynamic functions in
mixing of ideal gases.
Unit III: Chemical equilibrium:
Criteria of thermodynamic equilibrium, degree of advancement of reaction, chemical equilibria
in ideal gases, concept of fugacity. Thermodynamic derivation of relation between Gibbs free
energy of reaction and reaction quotient. Coupling of exoergic and endoergic reactions.
Equilibrium constants and their quantitative dependence on temperature, pressure and
concentration. Free energy of mixing and spontaneity; thermodynamic derivation of relations
between the various equilibrium constants Kp, Kc and Kx. Le Chatelier principle (quantitative
treatment); equilibrium between ideal gases and a pure condensed phase.
Unit IV: Solutions and colligative properties:
Dilute solutions; lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s and Henry’s Laws and their applications.
Excess thermodynamic functions.
Thermodynamic derivation using chemical potential to derive relations between the four
colligative properties [(i) relative lowering of vapour pressure, (ii) elevation of boiling point, (iii)
Depression of freezing point, (iv) osmotic pressure] and amount of solute. Applications in
calculating molar masses of normal, dissociated and associated solutes in solution.
Recommended Texts:
1. Atkins, P. W. & Paula, J. de Atkin’s Physical Chemistry 8th Ed., Oxford University
Press (2006).
2. Castellan, G. W. Physical Chemistry 4th Ed. Narosa (2004).
3. Engel, T. & Reid, P. Thermodynamics, Statistical Thermodynamics, & Kinetics
Pearson Education, Inc: New Delhi (2007).
4. McQuarrie, D. A. & Simon, J. D. Molecular Thermodynamics Viva Books Pvt. Ltd.:
New Delhi (2004).
Paper 12-MACT 302: Mathematics - II
THEORY Marks: 100
Differential equations: differential equations with separable variables, series solution, numerical
solutions of differential equations. Newton’ laws of motion. The linear harmonic oscillator:
Linear differential equations with constant coefficients.
Partial differential equations: separation of variables. The wave equation. Schrodinger’s
Multiple integrals. Changing variables. Vector derivative operators. Multiple integrals involving
other coordinate systems (spherical polar). Maximum and minimum values of functions of
several variables.
Stationary points, imaginary and complex numbers, complex plane, Euler’s formula and polar
form of complex numbers, complex conjugates, modulus of a complex number.
Operators: operator algebra, linear operators, eigenfunctions and eigenvalues, commutators of
operators, Hermitian operators.
Vectors and coordinate systems: Unit vectors (application in solid state), addition and subtraction
of vectors, multiplication of vectors. Vector calculus. Vectors and coordinate systems in three
dimensions (Cartesian, spherical polar and their interconversion).
Determinants. Matrix algebra, Simultaneous equations: method of substitution and elimination,
consistency and independence. Homogeneous linear equations. Simultaneous equations with
more than two unknowns (e.g. spectrophotometry), Cramer’s rule, matrix inversion, orthogonal
and unitary matrices, matrix eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization of a matrix.
Recommended Texts:
1. McQuarrie, D. A. Mathematics for Physical Chemistry University Science Books (2008).
2. Mortimer, R. Mathematics for Physical Chemistry. 3rd Ed. Elsevier (2005).
3. Steiner, E. The Chemical Maths Book Oxford University Press (1996).
4. Yates, P. Chemical calculations. 2nd Ed. CRC Press (2007).
Paper 9-CHHP 305: Inorganic Chemistry -II
(a) Iodo / Iodimetric Titrations
(i) Estimation of Cu (II) and K2Cr2 O7 Using sodium thiosulphate
solution (Iodimetrically).
(ii) Estimation of (i) arsenite and (ii) antimony in tartar-emetic iodimetrically
(iii) Estimation of available chlorine in bleaching powder iodometrically.
(b) Inorganic preparations
(i) Cuprous Chloride, Cu2Cl2
(ii) Preparation of Manganese (III) phosphate, MnPO4.H2O
(iii) Preparation of Aluminium Potassium sulphate KAl(SO4)2.12H2O (Potash
alum) or Chrome alum.
Recommended Texts:
1. Vogel, A.I. A text book of quantitative Inorganic Analysis, ELBS. 1978.
Paper 10-CHHP 306: Organic Chemistry -II
Organic preparations
1. Acetylation of one of the following compounds: amines ( aniline, o-,m- ,p- toluidines
and o-,m-,p- anisidine ) and phenols (β-naphthol, vanillin, salicylic acid)
2. Benzolyation of one of the following compounds: amines (aniline, o-,m-,p- toluidines
and o-,m-,p- anisidine) and phenols (β-naphthol, resorcinol, p-cresol) by Schotten-
Baumann reaction
3. Hydrolysis of amides and esters to obtain benzoic acid
4. Derivatives of the carbonyl compounds:
2,4-DNP of one the following compounds- acetone, ethyl methyl ketone, di-ethyl
ketone, cyclohexanone
semicarbazone of one the following compounds- acetone, ethyl methyl ketone, di-
ethyl ketone, cyclohexanone
oxime of one the following compounds- di-ethyl ketone, cyclohexanone
5. Nitration of one the following compounds: nitrobenzene, chlorobenzene,
6. Oxidation of the following compounds: benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol acetophenone to
benzoic acid (by iodoform reaction)
The above derivatives should be prepared using 0.5-1g of the organic compound. The solid
samples must be collected and may used for recrystallization, melting point etc.
Paper 11-CHHP 307: Physical Chemistry -II
(I) Thermochemistry
(a) Determination of heat capacity of a calorimeter for different volumes using change of
enthalpy data of a known system (method of back calculation of heat capacity of
calorimeter from known enthalpy of solution or enthalpy of neutralization).
(b) Determination of heat capacity of the calorimeter and enthalpy of neutralization of
hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide.
(c) Calculation of the enthalpy of ionization of ethanoic acid.
(d) Determination of heat capacity of the calorimeter and integral enthalpy (endothermic
and exothermic) solution of salts.
(e) Determination of basicity/proticity of a polyprotic acid by the thermochemical
method in terms of the changes of temperatures observed in the graph of temperature
versus time for different additions of a base. Also calculate the enthalpy of
neutralization of the first step.
(f) Determination of enthalpy of hydration of copper sulphate.
(g) Study of the solubility of benzoic acid in water and determination of ∆H.
(II) Indexing of given powder diffraction pattern of a cubic crystalline system.
Any other experiment carried out in the class.
Paper 13-CHHT 408: Inorganic Chemistry -III
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I : Chemistry of s and p block elements:
Inert pair effect, Relative stability of different oxidation states, diagonal relationship and
anomalous behaviour of first member of each group. Allotropy and catenation.
Complex formation tendency of s and p block elements.
Hydrides and their classification ionic, covalent and interstitial. Basic beryllium acetate
and nitrate.
Study of the following compounds with emphasis on structure, bonding, preparation,
properties and uses.
Boric acid and borates, boron nitrides, borohydrides (diborane) carboranes and graphitic
compounds, silanes, Oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen, Phosphorus and chlorine. Peroxo
acids of sulphur, interhalogen compounds, polyhalide ions, pseudohalogens and basic
properties of halogens.
Theoretical principles involved in volumetric analysis, done in the lab.
Unit II : Noble gases :
Occurrence & uses, rationalization of inertness of noble gases, Clathrates; preparation
and properties of XeF2 and XeF4, XeF6; Nature of bonding in noble gas compounds
(Valence bond treatment and MO treatment for XeF2). Molecular shapes of noble gas
compounds (VSEPR theory).
Unit III : Inorganic Polymers:
Types of inorganic polymers, comparison with organic polymers, synthesis, structural
aspects and applications of silicones and siloxanes. Borazines, silicates and
phosphazenes, and polysulphates.
Recommended Texts:
1. Greenwood, N.N. and Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements, Butterworth-
Heinemann. 1997.
2. Lee, J.D. Concise Inorganic Chemistry, ELBS (1991).
3. Canham, G.R. and Overton, T., Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry, Freeman &
4. Cotton, F.A. and Wilkinson, G, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, Wiley, VCH, 1999.
Paper 14-CHHT 409: Organic Chemistry -III
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I: Nitrogen Containing Functional Groups
Preparation and important reactions of nitro and compounds, nitriles and isonitriles
Amines: Effect of substituent and solvent on basicity; Preparation and properties: Gabriel
phthalimide synthesis, Carbylamine reaction, Mannich reaction, Hoffmann’s exhaustive
methylation, Hofmann-elimination reaction; Distinction between 10, 20 and 30 amines with
Hinsberg reagent and nitrous acid;
Diazonium Salts: Preparation and their synthetic applications.
Unit II: Polynuclear Hydrocarbons
Reactions of naphthalene phenanthrene and anthracene Structure, Preparation and structure
elucidation and important derivatives of naphthalene and anthracene; Polynuclear hydrocarbons.
Unit III: Heterocyclic Compounds
Classification and nomenclature, Structure, aromaticity in 5-numbered and 6-membered rings
containing one heteroatom; Synthesis, reactions and mechanism of substitution reactions of:
Furan, Pyrrole (Paal-Knorr synthesis, Knorr pyrrole synthesis, Hantzsch synthesis), Thiophene,
Pyridine (Hantzsch synthesis), Pyrimidine, Structure elucidation of indole, Fischer indole
synthesis and Madelung synthesis), Structure elucidation of quinoline and isoquinoline, Skraup
synthesis, Friedlander’s synthesis, Knorr quinoline synthesis, Doebner-Miller synthesis,
Bischler-Napieralski reaction, Pictet-Spengler reaction, Pomeranz-Fritsch reaction
Derivatives of furan: Furfural and furoic acid.
Unit IV: Alkaloids
Natural occurrence, General structural features, Isolation and their physiological action
Hoffmann’s exhaustive methylation, Emde’s modification, Structure elucidation and synthesis of
Hygrine and Nicotine. Medicinal importance of Nicotine, Hygrine, Quinine, Morphine, Cocaine,
and Reserpine.
Recommended Texts:
1. Morrison, R. T. & Boyd, R. N. Organic Chemistry, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt.
Ltd. (Pearson Education).
2. Finar, I. L. Organic Chemistry (Volume 1), Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
(Pearson Education).
3. Finar, I. L. Organic Chemistry (Volume 2: Stereochemistry and the Chemistry of
Natural Products), Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education).
Paper 15-CHHT 410: Physical Chemistry -III
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I: Phase equilibria
Concept of phases, components and degrees of freedom, derivation of Gibbs Phase Rule for non-
reactive and reactive systems; Clausius-Clapeyron equation and its applications to solid-liquid,
liquid-vapour and solid-vapour equilibria, phase diagram for one component systems, with
Phase diagrams for systems of solid-liquid equilibria involving eutectic, congruent and
incongruent melting points, solid solutions.
Three component systems, water-chloroform-acetic acid system, triangular plots.
Binary solutions: Gibbs-Duhem-Margules equation, its derivation and applications to fractional
distillation of binary miscible liquids (ideal and nonideal), azeotropes, lever rule, partial
miscibility of liquids, CST, miscible pairs, steam distillation.
Nernst distribution law: its derivation and applications.
Unit II: Electrochemistry
Quantitative aspects of Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, rules of oxidation/reduction of ions based
on half-cell potentials, applications of electrolysis in metallurgy and industry.
Chemical cells, reversible and irreversible cells with examples. Electromotive force of a cell and
its measurement, Nernst equation; Standard electrode (reduction) potential and its application to
different kinds of half-cells. Application of EMF measurements in determining (i) free energy,
enthalpy and entropy of a cell reaction, (ii) equilibrium constants, and (iii) pH values, using
hydrogen, quinone-hydroquinone, glass and SbO/Sb2O3 electrodes. Concentration cells with and
without transference, liquid junction potential; determination of activity coefficients and
transference numbers. Qualitative discussion of potentiometric titrations (acid-base, redox,
Recommended Texts:
1.Atkins, P. W. & Paula, J. de Atkin’s Physical Chemistry 8th Ed., Oxford University
Press (2006).
2.Ball, D. W. Physical Chemistry Thomson Press, India (2007).
3.Castellan, G. W. Physical Chemistry 4th Ed. Narosa (2004).
4.Mortimer, R. G. Physical Chemistry 3rd Ed. Elsevier: NOIDA, UP (2009).
Paper 16-PHCT 402: Physics-II
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I: Electrostatics:
Electric field, potential due to a charge distribution and due to a dipole, electrical
potential energy, flux, Gauss’s law, electric field in a dielectric, polarization, energy
stored in an electric field.
Unit II : Magnetism:
Magnetic field due to a current-carrying conductor, Biot Savart law, magnetic force on
a current, Lorentz force, electromagnetic induction, Lenz’s law, magnetic properties of
matter, para- dia- and ferromagnetism, spinning of a magnetic dipole in an external
magnetic field.
Unit III: Fundamental laws of electromagnetism:
Modification of Ampere’s law, equation of continuity and displacement current,
Maxwell’s equations, wave equation and its plane wave solution, nature of
electromagnetic waves, tranversality and polarization, propagation of electromagnetic
plane waves in dielectric media.
Unit IV : Electronics:
Half-wave, full-wave and bridge rectifiers, ripple factor, rectification efficiency, filters
(series in inductor, shunt capacitator, LC and π sections), voltage regulations, load
regulation, Zener diode as voltage regulator. Characteristic curves of bipolar
transistors, static and dynamic load line, biasing (fixed and self) of transistor circuit,
thermal instability of bias, the black box idea of CE, CB and CC transistor circuits as
two-port network, small signal active output, hybrid model of a CE transistor circuit,
analysis of a small signal amplifier: its voltage and current gains, negative and positive
feedback. Barkhausen’s criterion for self-sustaining oscillations, LC and phase shift
Unit V: Digital electronics:
Number systems (binary, BCD, octal and hexadecimal), 1’s and 2’s complements.
Logic gates, AND, OR, NAND, NOR, XOR and NXOR. Boolean algebra (Boolean
laws and simple expressions), binary adders, half adder, half subtractor, full adder and
full subtractor.
Recommended Texts:
1. Griffiths, D. J. Introduction to Electromagnetism 3rd Ed. Prentice-Hall (1999).
2. Malvino, A.P. & Leach, D. P. Digital Principles and Applications, Tata McGraw-
Hill (2008).
3. Ryder, J. D. Electronic Fundamentals and Applications: Integrated and Discrete
Systems. 5th Ed. Prentice-Hall, Inc. (2007).
4. Floyd, T. L. & Buchla, D. M. Electronics Fundamentals: Circuits, Devices and
Applications (8th Ed.) Prentice-Hall (2009).
Paper 13-CHHP 408: Inorganic Chemistry -III
(a) Complexometric Titrations:
(i) Complexometric estimation of (i) Mg2+ (ii) Zn2+ using EDTA
(ii) Estimation of total hardnesss of water samples
(iii) Estimation of Ca2+ in solution by (substitution method) using Erio-chrome
black-T as indicator.
(ii) Estimation of Ca/Mg in drugs and Biological samples.
(b) Argentometry
Estimation of Cl‾ (i) By Mohr’s method, (ii) By Vohlard’s method, (iii) By
Fajan’s method.
(c) Paper Chromatographic separation of Ni (II) and Co(II); Cu(II) and Cd (II)C
Paper 14-CHHP 409: Organic Chemistry -III
Organic Preparations
1. Diels-Alder reaction between anthracene and maleic anhydride
2. Reduction: nitrobenzene to azobenzene (TLC of the mixture), m-dinitrobenzene to
3. S-benzylisothiuranum salts of any one water soluble and one water insoluble acid:
acetic acid, phenyl acetic acid, oxalic acid, benzoic acid, phthalic acid
4. Photochemical reduction of benzophenone to benzopinacol
5. Benzoin condensation of benzaldehyde (using thiamine hydrochloride)
6. Condensation of p-toluidine with benzaldehyde/salicylaldehyde/2-hydroxy-3-
methoxy benzadehyde to get Schiff’s base (solventless condensation)
Estimation of:
1. Phenol and aniline by bromination with potassium bromate-potassium bromide method
2. Glycine by formylation method
3. Saponification value of an oil/fat
Paper 15-CHHP 410: Physical Chemistry -III
(I) Study the equilibrium of at least one of the following reactions by the distribution
(i) I2(aq) + I- → I3
- (aq)
(ii) Cu2+(aq) + nNH3 → Cu(NH3)n
(II) Perform the following potentiometric titrations (at least two):
(i) Strong acid with strong base (ii) weak acid with strong base and (iii) dibasic acid
with strong base
(III) Potentiometric titration of Mohr's salt with potassium dichromate.
(IV) Determination of critical solution temperature and composition of the phenol-water
system and to study the effect of impurities on it.
(V) Phase equilibria: Construction of the phase diagram of (i) simple eutectic and (ii)
congruently melting systems, using cooling curves and ignition tube methods.
Any other experiment carried out in the class.
Paper 16-PHCP 402: Physics-II
1. Study of a Ballistic Galvanometer: resistance, current sensitivity, charge sensitivity, and
critical damping resistance of the galvanometer.
2. Determination of high resistance by leakage method.
3. Determination of mutual inductance by Ballistic Galvanometer.
4. Operations and measurements by Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO). Calibration of DC and
AC voltages, frequency and phase measurements of a signal.
5. Study of transistor characeteristics (CB, CE, CC configurations).
6. Study of power supply (rectification factor, voltage and load regulation for C, L, CL and π
7. Study of basic RC coupled amplifier (frequency response and band width).
8. Study of Colpitts oscillator.
9. Self-inductance measurement by Owen’s bridge.
10. Measurement of magnetic field by search coil.
11. To verify experimentally OR, NAD, NOT, NOR, NAND gates.
12. Study of Half-Adder/ Subtractor.
Paper 17-CHHT 511: Inorganic Chemistry -IV
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I : Coordination Chemistry
Werner’s theory, valence bond theory (inner and outer orbital complexes),
electroneutrality principle and back bonding. Crystal field theory, measurement of 10 Dq
(o), CFSE in weak and strong fields, pairing energies, factors effecting the magnitude of
10 Dq (o, t). Octahedral vs. tetrahedral coordination, tetragonal distortions from
octahedral geometry Jahn-Teller theorem, square planar geometry. Qualitative aspect of
Ligand field and MO Theory.
IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds, isomerism in coordination
compounds. Stereochemistry of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination numbers. Chelate
effect, polynuclear complexes, Labile and inert complexes.
Unit II: Transition elements: General group trends with special reference to electronic
configuration, colour, variable valency, magnetic and catalytic properties, ability to form
complexes. Stability of various oxidation states and e.m.f. (Latimer & Bsworth
diagrams). Difference between the first, second and third transition series.
Chemistry of Ti, V, Cr Mn, Fe and Co in various oxidation states (excluding their metallurgy)
Unit III: Lanthanoids and actinoids: electronic configuration, oxidation states, colour, spectral
and magnetic properties, lanthanide contraction, separation of lanthanides (ion-exchange
method only).
Recommended Texts:
1. Purecell, K.F. and Kotz, J.C., Inorganic Chemistry W.B. Saunders Co. 1977.
2. Basolo, F, and Pearson, R.C., Mechanisms of Inorganic Chemistry, John Wiley &
Sons, NY, 1967.
3. Greenwood, N.N. & Earnshaw A., Chemistry of the Elements, Butterworth-
Paper 18-CHHT 512: Organic Chemistry -IV
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I: Carbohydrates
Occurrence, classification and their biological importance
Monosaccharides: Constitution and absolute configuration of glucose and fructose, epimers and
anomers, mutarotation, determination of ring size of glucose and fructose, Haworth projections
and conformational structures; Interconversions of aldoses and ketoses; Killiani-Fischer
synthesis and Ruff degradation;
Disaccharides – Structure elucidation of maltose, lactose and sucrose
Polysaccharides – Elementary treatment of starch, cellulose and glycogen.
Unit II: Nucleic Acids
Components of nucleic acids, Nucleosides and nucleotides;
Structure, synthesis and reactions of: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil nd Thymine; Structure
of polynucleotides.
Unit III: Amino acids, Peptides and Proteins
Amino acids, Peptides and their classification.
α-Amino Acids - Synthesis, ionic properties and reactions. Zwitterions, pKa values, isoelectric
point and electrophoresis;
Study of peptides: determination of their primary structures-end group analysis, methods of
peptide synthesis. Synthesis of peptides using N-protecting, C-protecting and C-activating
groups - Solid-phase synthesis
Unit IV: Lipids
Introduction to oils and fats; common fatty acids present in oils and fats, Hydrogenntion of fats
and oils, Saponification value, acid value, iodine number. Reversion and rancidity.
Unit V: Pharmaceutical Compounds: Structure and Importance
Classification, structure and therapeutic uses of antipyretics: Paracetamol (with synthesis),
Analgesics: Ibuprofen (with synthesis), Antimalarials: Chloroquine (with synthesis).
An elementary treatment of Antibiotics and detailed study of chloramphenicol,
Medicinal values of curcumin (haldi), azadirachtin (neem), vitamin C and antacid (ranitidine)
Unit VI: Terpenes
Occurrence, classification, isoprene rule; Elucidation of stucture and synthesis of Citral, Neral
and α- terpineol.
Recommended Texts:
1. Morrison, R. T. & Boyd, R. N. Organic Chemistry, Dorling Kindersley (India)
Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education).
2. Finar, I. L. Organic Chemistry (Volume 1), Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
(Pearson Education).
3. Finar, I. L. Organic Chemistry (Volume 2: Stereochemistry and the Chemistry of
Natural Products), Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education).
4. Nelson, D. L. & Cox, M. M. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry, Fourth
Edition, W. H. Freeman.
5. Berg, J. M., Tymoczko, J. L. & Stryer, L. Biochemistry, Sixth Edition, W. H.
Paper 19-CHHT 513: Physical Chemistry -IV
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I : Conductance
Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation. Conductivity, equivalent and molar conductivity
and their variation with dilution for weak and strong electrolytes. Molar conductivity at infinite
dilution. Kohlrausch law of independent migration of ions. Debye-Huckel-Onsager equation,
Wien effect, Debye-Falkenhagen effect, Walden’s rules.
Ionic velocities, mobilities and their determinations, transference numbers and their relation to
ionic mobilities, determination of transference numbers using Hittorf and Moving Boundary
methods. Applications of conductance measurement: (i) degree of dissociation of weak
electrolytes, (ii) ionic product of water (iii) solubility and solubility product of sparingly soluble
salts, (iv) conductometric titrations, and (v) hydrolysis constants of salts.
Unit II: Chemical Kinetics
Order and molecularity of a reaction, rate laws in terms of the advancement of a reaction,
differential and integrated form of rate expressions up to second order reactions, experimental
methods of the determination of rate laws, kinetics of complex reactions (integrated rate
expressions up to first order only): (i) Opposing reactions (ii) parallel reactions and (iii)
consecutive reactions and their differential rate equations (steady-state approximation in reaction
mechanisms) (iv) chain reactions.
Temperature dependence of reaction rates; Arrhenius equation; activation energy. Collision
theory of reaction rates, Lindemann mechanism, qualitative treatment of the theory of absolute
reaction rates.
Surface chemistry: Physical adsorption, chemisorption, adsorption isotherms. nature of adsorbed
Catalysis: Types of catalyst, specificity and selectivity, mechanisms of catalyzed reactions at
solid surfaces; effect of particle size and efficiency of nanoparticles as catalysts. Enzyme
catalysis, Michaelis-Menten mechanism, acid-base catalysis.
Unit III: Photochemistry
Characteristics of electromagnetic radiation, Lambert-Beer’s law and its limitations, physical
significance of absorption coefficients. Laws, of photochemistry, quantum yield, actinometry,
examples of low and high quantum yields, photochemical equilibrium and the differential rate of
photochemical reactions, photosensitised reactions, quenching. Role of photochemical reactions
in biochemical processes, photostationary states, chemiluminescence.
Recommended Texts:
1. Atkins, P. W. & Paula, J. de Atkin’s Physical Chemistry 8th Ed., Oxford University Press
2. Ball, D. W. Physical Chemistry Thomson Press, India (2007).
3. Castellan, G. W. Physical Chemistry 4th Ed. Narosa (2004).
4. Laidler, K. J. Chemical Kinetics Pearson Education: New Delhi (2004).
Paper 20-CHHT 514: Biochemistry and Environmental Chemistry
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I:
_ Carbohydrates: Biological importance of carbohydrates, Metabolism, Cellular currency of
energy (ATP), Glycolysis, Alcoholic and Lactic acid fermentations,Krebs cycle
_ Proteins: classification, biological importance; Primary, secondary and tertiary structures of
proteins: α-helix and β- pleated sheets, Denaturation of proteins
_ Enzymes: Nomenclature, Characteristics (mention of Ribozymes), Classification;Active site,
Mechanism of enzyme action, Stereospecificity of enzymes,Coenzymes and cofactors, Enzyme
inhibitors, Introduction to Biocatalysis:Importance in “Green Chemistry” and Chemical Industry
Unit II:
_ Lipids: Biological importance of triglycerides and phosphoglycerides and cholesterol; Lipid
membrane, Liposomes and their biological functions and underlying applications.
_ Structure of DNA (Watson-Crick model) and RNA, Genetic Code, Biological roles of DNA
and RNA: Replication, Transcription and Translation, Introduction to Gene therapy.
Unit III:
_ Environment and it’s segments, Ecosystems. Biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and
_ Air Pollution: Major regions of atmosphere. Chemical and photochemical reactions in
atmosphere. Air pollutants: types, sources, particle size and chemical nature; Photochemical
Smog: its constituents and photochemistry, Environmental effects of Ozone, Major sources of
Air pollution
_ Effects of air pollution on living organisms and vegetation, Controls of air pollution, Climate
change, Green house effect, global warming. Techniques of measuring air pollutants.
_ Water Pollution: Hydrological cycle, water resources, aquatic ecosystems, Sources and nature
of water pollutants, Techniques for measuring water pollution, Impacts of water pollution on
hydrological and ecosystems. Water purification methods
Unit IV:
_ Energy and Enviornment: Sources of energy: Coal, petrol and Natural gas. Nuclear Fusion /
Fisson, Solar energy, Hydrogen, geothermal, Tidal and Hydel etc.
_ Nuclear Pollution: Disposal of nuclear waste, nuclear disaster and it’s Management
Recommended Texts:
1. Berg, J.M., Tymoczko, J.L. and Stryer, L. (2006) Biochemistry. VI the Edition. W.H. Freeman
and Co.
2. Nelson, D.L., Cox, M.M. and Lehninger, A.L. (2009) principles of Biochemistry.IV Edition.
W.H. Freeman and Co.
3. Murray, R.K., Granner, D.K., Mayes, P.A. and Rodwell, V.W. (2009) Harper’s Illustrated
Biochemistry. XXVIII edition. Lange medical Books/ McGraw-Hill
4. Manahan S.E. (2005) Environmental Chemistry, CRC Press
5. Miller, G.T. (2006) Environmental Science 11th edition. Brooks/Cole
6. Mishra, A. (2005) Environmental Studies. Selective and Scientific Books, New
Paper 17-CHHP 511: Inorganic Chemistry -IV
(a) Quantitative Analysis: The following quantitative estimations are to be carried
(i) Estimation of nickel (II) using Dimethylglyoxime as the precipitant.
(ii) Estimation of copper as CuSCN
(iii) Estimation of iron as Fe2O3 by precipitating iron as Fe(OH)3 through (i)
Heterogeneous and (ii) Homogeneous media.
(iv) Estimation of Al (III) by precipitating with oxine and weighing as Al(oxine)3
(aluminium oxinate).
(b) Inorganic Preparations
(i) Tetraammine copper (II) sulphate, [Cu(NH3)4]SO4 H2O
(ii) Potassium trisoxalatochromate (III), K3[Cr(C2O4)3]
(iii) Cis and trans K[Cr(C2O4)2 (H2O2] Potassium dioxalatodiaquachromate
(iv) Pentaammine carbonato Cobalt (III) ion
(c) Spectrophotometric estimation of Ferrous ions by using 1,10 phenanthroline
Recommended Texts:
1. Vogel, A.I. A text book of Quantitative Analysis, ELBS 1986.
Paper 18-CHHP 512: Organic Chemistry -IV
1. Systematic analysis of extra elements in the given unknown compounds
2. Tests for following functional groups and unsaturation
3. Qualitative analysis of the following types of unknown organic compounds
Carboxylic acids
Paper 19-CHHP 513: Physical Chemistry -IV
(I) To study changes in conductance in the following systems
(i) strong acid-strong base
(ii) weak acid-strong base and
(iii) mixture of strong acid and weak acid-strong base
(II) Study the kinetics of the following reactions.
1. Initial rate method: Iodide-persulphate reaction
2. Integrated rate method:
(a) Acid hydrolysis of methyl acetate with hydrochloric acid, volumetrically or
(b) Iodide-persulphate reaction
(c) Saponification of ethyl acetate.
Any other experiment carried out in the class.
Paper 20-CHHP 514: Biochemistry and Environmental Chemistry
1. To perform quantitative estimation of protein using Lowry’s method. Determine
the concentration of the unknown sample using the standard curve plotted.
2. Study of the action of salivary amylase at optimum conditions
3. Effect of pH on the action of salivary amylase
4. Effect of temperature on the action of salivary amylase
5. Effect of inhibitor on the action of salivary amylase
6. Study of the activity of Trypsin using fresh tissue extracts.
7. To study the effect of temperature, organic solvents, on semi-permeable
8. Isolation of Genomic DNA from E Coli
9. Qualitative analysis of the soil from different locations for pH and different
water soluble cations and anions
10. Quantitative estimation of oxidisable organic matter in soil, carbonate and
bicarbonates by volumetry and calcium and magnesium by EDTA titration.
11. Hardness of water by EDTA titration
12. Study of pH and conductivity of tap water and polluted water.
Paper 21-CHHT 615: Inorganic Chemistry -V
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I: Theoretical principles:
Theoretical principles and chemistry involved in qualitative analysis of mixture of cations and
anions including interfering and insolubles.
Unit II: Organometallic Compounds:
Definition and classification of organometallic compounds, EAN rule.
Unit III: Metal carbonyls:
Preparation, properties, structure and bonding of mononuclear carbonyls. -acceptor behaviour
of carbon monoxide, synergic effect (MO diagram of CO) Carbonylate anions, ferrocene and its
Unit IV: Bioinorganic Chemistry:
Metal ions present in biological systems, classification of elements according to their action in
biological system. Geochemical effect on the distribution of metals. Sodium / K-pump, carbonic
anhydrase and carboxypeptidase. Excess and deficiency of some trace metals. Toxicity of metal
ions (Hg, Pb, Cd and As), reasons for toxicity, Use of chelating agents in medicine.
Iron and its application in bio-systems, Hemoglobin; Storage and transfer of iron.
Recommended Texts:
1. Purcell, K.F & Kotz, J.C. Inorganic Chemistry W.B. Saunders Co, 1977.
2. Huheey, J.E., Inorganic Chemistry, Prentice Hall, 1993.
3. Lippard, S.J. & Berg, J.M. Principles of Bioinorganic Chemistry Panima
Publishing Company 1994.
4. Cotton, F.A. & Wilkinson, G, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, 1999.
Paper 22-CHHT 616: Organic Chemistry -V
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I: Organic spectroscopy
General principles Introduction to absorption and emission spectroscopy.
UV Spectroscopy: Types of electronic transitions, λmax, Chromophores and Auxochromes,
Bathochromic and Hypsochromic shifts, Intensity of absorption; Application of Woodward
Rules for calculation of λmax for the following systems: α,β unsaturated aldehydes, ketones,
carboxylic acids and esters; Conjugated dienes: alicyclic, homoannular and heteroannular;
Extended conjugated systems (aldehydes, ketones and dienes); distinction between cis and trans
IR Spectroscopy: Fundamental and non-fundamental molecular vibrations; IR absorption
positions of O, N and S containing functional groups; Effect of H- bonding, conjugation,
resonance and ring size on IR absorptions; Fingerprint region and its significance; application in
functional group analysis.
NMR Spectroscopy: Basic principles of Proton Magnetic Resonance, chemical shift and factors
influencing it; Spin – Spin coupling and coupling constant; Anisotropic effects in alkene, alkyne,
aldehydes and aromatics, Interpetation of NMR spectra of simple compounds
Applications of IR, UV and NMR for identification of simple organic molecules.
Unit II: Dyes
Classification, Colour and constitution; Mordant and Vat Dyes; Chemistry of dyeing;
Synthesis and applications of: Azo dyes – Methyl Orange and Congo Red (mechanism of Diazo
Coupling); Triphenyl Methane Dyes - Malachite Green, Rosaniline and Crystal Violet; Phthalein
Dyes – Phenolphthalein and Fluorescein;
Natural dyes –structure elucidation and synthesis of Alizarin and Indigotin;
Edible Dyes with examples.
Unit III: Polymers
Introduction and classification including di-block, tri-block and amphiphilic polymers; Number
average molecular weight, Weight average molecular weight, Degree of polymerization,
Polydispersity Index.
Polymerisation reactions - Addition and condensation - Mechanism of cationic, anionic and free
radical addition polymerization; Metallocene-based Ziegler-Natta polymerisation of alkenes;
Preparation and applications of plastics – thermosetting (phenol-formaldehyde, Polyurethanes)
and thermosoftening (PVC, polythene);
Fabrics – natural and synthetic (acrylic, polyamido, polyester);
Rubbers – natural and synthetic: Buna-S, Chloroprene and Neoprene; Vulcanization;
Polymer additives; Introduction to liquid crystal polymers;
Biodegradable and conducting polymers with examples.
Recommended Texts:
1. Kemp, W. Organic Spectroscopy, Palgrave.
2. Kalsi, P. S. Textbook of Organic Chemistry (1st Ed.), New Age International (P) Ltd.
3. Morrison, R. T. & Boyd, R. N. Organic Chemistry, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt.
Ltd. (Pearson Education).
4. Billmeyer, F. W. Textbook of Polymer Science, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
5. Gowariker, V. R., Viswanathan, N. V. & Sreedhar, J. Polymer Science, New Age
International (P) Ltd. Pub.
Paper 23-CHHT 617: Physical Chemistry -V
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I: Quantum Chemistry
Postulates of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical operators, Schrodinger equation and its
application to free particle and “particle-in-a-box” (rigorous treatment), quantization of energy
levels, zero-point energy and Heisenberg Uncertainty principle; wavefunctions, probability
distribution functions, nodal properties, Extension to two and three dimensional boxes,
separation of variables, degeneracy.
Qualitative treatment of simple harmonic oscillator model of vibrational motion: Setting up of
Schrodinger equation and discussion of solution and wavefunctions. Vibrational energy of
diatomic molecules and zero-point energy.
Angular momentum: Commutation rules, quantization of square of total angular momentum and
Rigid rotator model of rotation of diatomic molecule. Schrodinger equation, transformation to
spherical polar coordinates. Separation of variables. Spherical harmonics. Discussion of solution.
Qualitative treatment of hydrogen atom and hydrogen-like ions: setting up of Schrodinger
equation in spherical polar coordinates, radial part, quantization of energy (only final energy
expression), radial distribution functions of 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p and 3d orbitals. Average and most
probable distances of electron from nucleus.
Setting up of Schrodinger equation for many-electron atoms (He, Li). Need for approximation
methods. Statement of variation theorem and application to simple systems (particle-in-a-box,
harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom).
Chemical bonding: Covalent bonding, valence bond and molecular orbital approaches, LCAO-
MO treatment of H2
+. Bonding and antibonding orbitals. Qualitative extension to H2.
Comparison of LCAO-MO and VB treatments of H2 (only wavefunctions, detailed solution not
required) and their limitations. Refinements of the two approaches (Configuration Interaction for
MO, ionic terms in VB). Qualitative description of LCAO-MO treatment of homonuclear and
heteronuclear diatomic molecules (HF, LiH). Localised and non-localised molecular orbitals
treatment of triatomic (BeH2, H2O) molecules. Qualitative MO theory and its application to AH2
type molecules. Simple Huckel Molecular Orbital (HMO) theory and its application to simple
polyenes (ethene, butadiene).
Unit II: Molecular Spectroscopy:
Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with molecules and various types of spectra; Born-
Oppenheimer approximation.
Rotation spectroscopy: Selection rules, intensities of spectral lines, determination of bond
lengths of diatomic and linear triatomic molecules, isotopic substitution.
Vibrational spectroscopy: Classical equation of vibration, computation of force constant,
amplitude of diatomic molecular vibrations, anharmonicity, Morse potential, dissociation
energies, fundamental frequencies, overtones, hot bands, degrees of freedom for polyatomic
molecules, modes of vibration, concept of group frequencies. Vibration-rotation spectroscopy:
diatomic vibrating rotator, P, Q, R branches.
Raman spectroscopy: Qualitative treatment of Rotational Raman effect; Effect of nuclear spin,
Vibrational Raman spectra, Stokes and anti-Stokes lines; their intensity difference, rule of mutual
Electronic spectroscopy: Franck-Condon principle, electronic transitions, singlet and triplet
states, fluorescence and phosphorescence, dissociation and predissociation, calculation of
electronic transitions of polyenes using free electron model.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy: Principles of NMR spectroscopy, Larmor
precession, chemical shift and low resolution spectra, different scales, spin-spin coupling and
high resolution spectra, interpretation of PMR spectra of organic molecules.
Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy: Its principle, hyperfine structure, ESR of simple
Recommended Texts:
1. Banwell, C. N. & McCash, E. M. Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy 4th Ed.
Tata McGraw-Hill: New Delhi (2006).
2. Chandra, A. K. Introductory Quantum Chemistry Tata McGraw-Hill (2001).
3. House, J. E. Fundamentals of Quantum Chemistry 2nd Ed. Elsevier: USA (2004).
4. Lowe, J. P. & Peterson, K. Quantum Chemistry Academic Press (2005).
Paper 24-CHHT 618: Applications of Computers in Chemistry
THEORY Marks: 100
Unit I :Recapitulation of computer basics:
PC hardware, operating systems, data storage and backup, networks, information technology.
Basic operations using windows.
Unit II: Computer programming:
Constants, variables, bits, bytes, binary and ASCII formats, arithmetic expressions, hierarchy of
operations, inbuilt functions. Elements of the BASIC language. BASIC keywords and
commands. Logical and relative operators. Strings and graphics. Compiled versus interpreted
languages. Debugging. Simple programs using these concepts. Matrix addition and
multiplication. Statistical analysis.
BASIC programs for numerical differentiation and integration (Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s
rule), finding roots (quadratic formula, iterative, Newton-Raphson method), numerical solution
of differential equations.
Conceptual background of molecular modelling: Potential energy surfaces. Elementary ideas of
molecular mechanics and practical MO methods.
Recommended Texts:
1. Noggle, J. H. Physical chemistry on a Microcomputer. Little Brown & Co.
2. Venit, S.M. Programming in Basic: Problem solving with structure and style.
Jaico Publishing House: Delhi (1996).
3. Engel, T. & Reid, P. Physical Chemistry 2nd Ed. Pearson (2010). Chapter on
Computational Chemistry.
Paper 21-CHHP 615: Inorganic Chemistry -V
Qualitative analysis:
Using H2S /PTC/ Thioacetamide or any other reagent. Identification of cations and simple anions
in a mixture of salts containing not more than six ions (Three cations and three anions)
interfering anions using semimicro scheme of analysis. If combination of cations or anions is
given in the mixture, insoluble should be avoided. Spot tests should be carried out for final
identifications wherever feasible.
Cation : Pb2+, Bi3+ Cu2+, Cd2+, As3+, Sb3+, Sn2+ or Sn4+, Fe2+ OR Fe3+, Al3+, Cr3+,Co2+, Ni2+,
Zn2+, Mn2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4
+, K+
Anion : CO3
, SO3
, CO2
3, SO2-
3, S2-, NO-
2, CH3 COO-, NO-
3, Cl-, Br-, I-, SO4
2-, PO4
3-, BO3
F-, C2O2-
Paper 22-CHHP 616: Organic Chemistry -V
1. Tests for following functional groups
2. Qualitative analysis of following types of unknown organic compounds
1. Carbohydrates
2. Primary, secondary and tertiary amines
3. Nitro compounds
4. Amides
5. Aryl halides
6. Hydrocarbons
Identification of the functional groups, C-C and C-N triple bonds, sp3, sp2 and sp hybridized C-H
bonds by IR spectroscopy (IR spectra to be provided)
Paper 23-CHHP 617: Physical Chemistry -V
Verification of Lambert-Beer's Law
Determination of pK (indicator) for phenolphthalein or methyl red
Study the formation of a complex between ferric and thiocyanate (or salicylate) ions.
Study the kinetics of interaction of crystal violet with sodium hydroxide colourimetrically.
Analysis of the given vibration-rotation spectrum of HCl(g)
Record the UV spectrum of p-nitrophenol (in 1:4 ethanol:water mixture). Repeat after
adding a small crystal of NaOH. Comment on the difference, if any.
Record the U.V. spectrum of a given compound (acetone) in cyclohexane
(a) Plot transmittance versus wavelength.
(b) Plot absorbance versus wavelength.
(c) Calculate the energy involved in the electronic transition in different units, i.e.
cm-1, kJ/mol, kcal/mol & eV.
Any other experiment carried out in the class.
Paper 24-CHHP 618: Application of Computers in Chemistry
Word processing:
Incorporating chemical structures into word processing documents, presentation graphics, on-
Handling numeric data: spreadsheet software (Excel), simple calculations, statistical analysis,
plotting graphs using a spreadsheet (radial distribution curves for hydrogenic orbitals, gas kinetic
theory, spectral data, pressure-volume curves of van der Waals gas, data from phase equilibria
studies), graphical solution of equations, solving equations numerically (e.g. pH of a weak acid
ignoring/ not ignoring the ionization of water, volume of a van der Waals gas, equilibrium
constant expressions).
Numeric modelling, numerical curve fitting, linear regression (rate constants from concentration-
time data, molar exinction coefficients from absorbance data), numerical differentiation (e.g.
handling data from potentiometric titrations), integration (e.g. entropy/enthalpy change from heat
capacity data). Numerical solution of differential equations (e.g. kinetics).
Molecular modelling:
Visualization of 3D structures, calculation of molecular structures and properties (e.g.,
conformational energies of butane, rotation of 1,3-butadiene, distribution of isomers, energies of
orbitals and total energy as a function of bond angle for H2O, simulation of Diels-Alder reaction,
SN2 reactions).
Chemical information on the web. Chemical abstracts. Structures and properties.
Note: 1.Software: Microsoft Office, ChemOffice (Free alternatives: OpenOffice
2. References: Internet, documentation of software.
These are representative projects. The students must be encouraged to explore other projects
and prepare a presentation/poster based on their project. Internal assessment may be based on
the project.

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