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Old April 5th, 2016, 10:30 AM
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I want the previous year question paper of Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) exam so can you please provide me? If possible provide me it in a pdf file?
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Old April 5th, 2016, 11:44 AM
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Default Re: TOEFL Pdf

As you want the previous year question paper of Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) exam so here I am providing you.

TOEFL exam question paper

Reading Section


Opportunists and Competitors

Growth, reproduction, and daily metabolism all require an organism to expend energy. The
expenditure of energy is essentially a process of budgeting, just as finances are budgeted. If all of one’s
money is spent on clothes, there may be none left to buy food or go to the movies. Similarly, a plant or
animal cannot squander all its energy on growing a big body if none would be left over for reproduction,
for this is the surest way to extinction.
All organisms, therefore, allocate energy to growth, reproduction, maintenance, and storage. No choice is
involved; this allocation comes as part of the genetic package from the parents. Maintenance for a given
body design of an organism is relatively constant. Storage is important, but ultimately that energy will be
used for maintenance, reproduction, or growth. Therefore the principal differences in energy allocation
are likely to be between growth and reproduction.
Almost all of an organism’s energy can be diverted to reproduction, with very little allocated to building
the body. Organisms at this extreme are “opportunists.” At the other extreme are “competitors,” almost all
of whose resources are invested in building a huge body, with a bare minimum allocated to reproduction.
Dandelions are good examples of opportunists. Their seedheads raised just high enough above the
ground to catch the wind, the plants are no bigger than they need be, their stems are hollow, and all the
rigidity comes from their water content. Thus, a minimum investment has been made in the body that
becomes a platform for seed dispersal. These very short-lived plants reproduce prolifically; that is to say
they provide a constant rain of seed in the neighborhood of parent plants. A new plant will spring up

wherever a seed falls on a suitable soil surface, but because they do not build big bodies, they cannot
compete with other plants for space, water, or sunlight. These plants are termed opportunists because
they rely on their seeds’ falling into settings where competing plants have been removed by natural
processes, such as along an eroding riverbank, on landslips, or where a tree falls and creates a gap in
the forest canopy.
Opportunists must constantly invade new areas to compensate for being displaced by more competitive
species. Human landscapes of lawns, fields, or flowerbeds provide settings with bare soil and a lack of
competitors that are perfect habitats for colonization by opportunists. Hence, many of the strongly
opportunistic plants are the common weeds of fields and gardens.
Because each individual is short-lived, the population of an opportunist species is likely to be adversely
affected by drought, bad winters, or floods. If their population is tracked through time, it will be seen
to be particularly unstable—soaring and plummeting in irregular cycles.
The opposite of an opportunist is a competitor. These organisms tend to have big bodies, are longlived,
and spend relatively little effort each year on reproduction. An oak tree is a good example of a
competitor. A massive oak claims its ground for 200 years or more, outcompeting all other would-be
canopy trees by casting a dense shade and drawing up any free water in the soil. The leaves of an oak
tree taste foul because they are rich in tannins, a chemical that renders them distasteful or indigestible to
many organisms. The tannins are part of the defense mechanism that is essential to longevity. Although
oaks produce thousands of acorns, the investment in a crop of acorns is small compared with the energy
spent on building leaves, trunk, and roots. Once an oak tree becomes established, it is likely to survive
minor cycles of drought and even fire. A population of oaks is likely to be relatively stable through time,
and its survival is likely to depend more on its ability to withstand the pressures of competition or
predation than on its ability to take advantage of chance events. It should be noted, however, that the
pure opportunist or pure competitor is rare in nature, as most species fall between the extremes of a
continuum, exhibiting a blend of some opportunistic and some competitive characteristics.

1. The word squander in the passage is closest in meaning to
extend
transform
activate
waste

2. The word none in the passage refers to

food
plant or animal
energy
big body

3. In paragraph 1, the author explains the concept of energy expenditure by
identifying types of organisms that became extinct
comparing the scientific concept to a familiar human experience
arguing that most organisms conserve rather than expend energy
describing the processes of growth, reproduction, and metabolism

4. According to the passage, the classification of organisms as “opportunists” or “competitors” is
determined by
how the genetic information of an organism is stored and maintained
the way in which the organism invests its energy resources
whether the climate in which the organism lives is mild or extreme
the variety of natural resources the organism consumes in its environment
5. The word dispersal in the passage is closest in meaning to
development
growth
distribution
protection
6. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in
the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
Because their seeds grow in places where competing plants are no longer present, dandelions
are classified as opportunists.
Dandelions are called opportunists because they contribute to the natural processes of erosion
and the creation of gaps in the forest canopy.
The term opportunists applies to plants whose seeds fall in places where they can compete with
the seeds of other plants.
The term opportunists applies to plants whose falling seeds are removed by natural processes.

7. The word massive in the passage is closest in meaning to
huge
ancient
common
successful
8. All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 7 as contributing to the longevity of an oak tree
EXCEPT
the capacity to create shade
leaves containing tannin
the ability to withstand mild droughts and fire
the large number of acorns the tree produces

For complete question paper here is the attachment
Attached Files Available for Download
File Type: pdf TOEFL exam question paper.pdf (896.6 KB, 13 views)
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