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Old August 14th, 2012, 05:26 PM
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Default Re: LSAT Writing Sample Practice

The Law School Admission Test (LSAT) is a half-day, standardized test conducts four times in one year. The test is a part of the law school admission procedure in the United States, Canada, and a growing no. of other countries.

LSAT sample questions:

1. If the last digit of an acceptable product code is 1, it must be true that the
(A) First digit is 2
(B) Second digit is 0
(C) Third digit is 3
(D) Fourth digit is 4
(E) Fourth digit is 0

Rests of the questions are available at the following attachment. You can get more questions from the attachment after downloading it.
Attached Files Available for Download
File Type: pdf LSAT Writing Sample Practice.pdf (511.3 KB, 49 views)
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Old February 11th, 2014, 11:29 AM
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Join Date: Dec 2012
Default Re: LSAT Writing Sample Practice

The Law School Admission Test (LSAT) is a half-day, standardized test conducts four times in one year. The test is a part of the law school admission procedure in the United States, Canada, and a growing no. of other countries.

LSAT sample questions:

Directions: Each group of questions in this section is based on a set of conditions. In answering some of the questions, it may be
useful to draw a rough diagram. Choose the response that most accurately and completely answers each question and blacken
the corresponding space on your answer sheet.
Questions 1–5
A company employee generates a series of five-digit product
codes in accordance with the following rules:
The codes use the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, and no others.
Each digit occurs exactly once in any code.
The second digit has a value exactly twice that of the
first digit.
The value of the third digit is less than the value of the
fifth digit.
1. If the last digit of an acceptable product code is 1, it
must be true that the
(A) first digit is 2
(B) second digit is 0
(C) third digit is 3
(D) fourth digit is 4
(E) fourth digit is 0
2. Which one of the following must be true about any
acceptable product code?
(A) The digit 1 appears in some position before the
digit 2.
(B) The digit 1 appears in some position before the
digit 3.
(C) The digit 2 appears in some position before the
digit 3.
(D) The digit 3 appears in some position before the
digit 0.
(E) The digit 4 appears in some position before the
digit 3.
3. If the third digit of an acceptable product code is not 0,
which one of the following must be true?
(A) The second digit of the product code is 2.
(B) The third digit of the product code is 3.
(C) The fourth digit of the product code is 0.
(D) The fifth digit of the product code is 3.
(E) The fifth digit of the product code is 1.
4. Any of the following pairs could be the third and
fourth digits, respectively, of an acceptable product
code, EXCEPT:
(A) 0, 1
(B) 0, 3
(C) 1, 0
(D) 3, 0
(E) 3, 4
5. Which one of the following must be true about any
acceptable product code?
(A) There is exactly one digit between the digit 0
and the digit 1.
(B) There is exactly one digit between the digit 1
and the digit 2.
(C) There are at most two digits between the digit 1
and the digit 3.
(D) There are at most two digits between the digit 2
and the digit 3.
(E) There are at most two digits between the digit 2
and the digit 4.

Questions 6–10
Exactly three films—Greed, Harvest, and Limelight—are
shown during a film club’s festival held on Thursday, Friday,
and Saturday. Each film is shown at least once during the
festival but never more than once on a given day. On each day
at least one film is shown. Films are shown one at a time. The
following conditions apply:
On Thursday Harvest is shown, and no film is shown after
it on that day.
On Friday either Greed or Limelight, but not both, is
shown, and no film is shown after it on that day.
On Saturday either Greed or Harvest, but not both, is
shown, and no film is shown after it on that day.
6. Which one of the following could be a complete and
accurate description of the order in which the films are
shown at the festival?
(A) Thursday: Limelight, then Harvest; Friday:
Limelight; Saturday: Harvest
(B) Thursday: Harvest; Friday: Greed, then
Limelight; Saturday: Limelight, then Greed
(C) Thursday: Harvest; Friday: Limelight; Saturday:
Limelight, then Greed
(D) Thursday: Greed, then Harvest, then Limelight;
Friday: Limelight; Saturday: Greed
(E) Thursday: Greed, then Harvest; Friday:
Limelight, then Harvest; Saturday: Harvest
7. Which one of the following CANNOT be true?
(A) Harvest is the last film shown on each day of the
festival.
(B) Limelight is shown on each day of the festival.
(C) Greed is shown second on each day of the
festival.
(D) A different film is shown first on each day of the
festival.
(E) A different film is shown last on each day of the
festival.
8. If Limelight is never shown again during the festival
once Greed is shown, then which one of the following is
the maximum number of film showings that could occur
during the festival?
(A) three
(B) four
(C) five
(D) six
(E) seven
9. If Greed is shown exactly three times, Harvest is shown
exactly twice, and Limelight is shown exactly once, then
which one of the following must be true?
(A) All three films are shown on Thursday.
(B) Exactly two films are shown on Saturday.
(C) Limelight and Harvest are both shown on
Thursday.
(D) Greed is the only film shown on Saturday.
(E) Harvest and Greed are both shown on Friday.
10. If Limelight is shown exactly three times, Harvest is
shown exactly twice, and Greed is shown exactly once,
then which one of the following is a complete and
accurate list of the films that could be the first film
shown on Thursday?
(A) Harvest
(B) Limelight
(C) Greed, Harvest
(D) Greed, Limelight
(E) Greed, Harvest, Limelight

Questions 11–17
A cruise line is scheduling seven week-long voyages for the
ship Freedom. Each voyage will occur in exactly one of the
first seven weeks of the season: weeks 1 through 7. Each
voyage will be to exactly one of four destinations:
Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, or Trinidad. Each
destination will be scheduled for at least one of the weeks. The
following conditions apply to Freedom’s schedule:
Jamaica will not be its destination in week 4.
Trinidad will be its destination in week 7.
Freedom will make exactly two voyages to Martinique,
and at least one voyage to Guadeloupe will occur in some
week between those two voyages.
Guadeloupe will be its destination in the week preceding
any voyage it makes to Jamaica.
No destination will be scheduled for consecutive weeks.
11. Which one of the following is an acceptable schedule of
destinations for Freedom, in order from week 1 through
week 7?
(A) Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Trinidad,
Guadeloupe, Martinique, Trinidad
(B) Guadeloupe, Martinique, Trinidad, Martinique,
Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Trinidad
(C) Jamaica, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Martinique,
Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Trinidad
(D) Martinique, Trinidad, Guadeloupe, Jamaica,
Martinique, Guadeloupe, Trinidad
(E) Martinique, Trinidad, Guadeloupe, Trinidad,
Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique
12. Which one of the following CANNOT be true about
Freedom’s schedule of voyages?
(A) Freedom makes a voyage to Trinidad in week 6.
(B) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in
week 5.
(C) Freedom makes a voyage to Jamaica in week 6.
(D) Freedom makes a voyage to Jamaica in week 3.
(E) Freedom makes a voyage to Guadeloupe in
week 3.
13. If Freedom makes a voyage to Trinidad in week 5,
which one of the following could be true?
(A) Freedom makes a voyage to Trinidad in week 1.
(B) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in
week 2.
(C) Freedom makes a voyage to Guadeloupe in
week 3.
(D) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in
week 4.
(E) Freedom makes a voyage to Jamaica in week 6.
14. If Freedom makes a voyage to Guadeloupe in week 1
and a voyage to Jamaica in week 5, which one of the
following must be true?
(A) Freedom makes a voyage to Jamaica in week 2.
(B) Freedom makes a voyage to Trinidad in week 2.
(C) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in
week 3.
(D) Freedom makes a voyage to Guadeloupe in
week 6.
(E) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in
week 6.
15. If Freedom makes a voyage to Guadeloupe in week 1
and to Trinidad in week 2, which one of the following
must be true?
(A) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in
week 3.
(B) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in
week 4.
(C) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in
week 5.
(D) Freedom makes a voyage to Guadeloupe in
week 3.
(E) Freedom makes a voyage to Guadeloupe in
week 5.
16. If Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in week 3,
which one of the following could be an accurate list of
Freedom’s destinations in week 4 and week 5,
respectively?
(A) Guadeloupe, Trinidad
(B) Jamaica, Guadeloupe
(C) Martinique, Trinidad
(D) Trinidad, Jamaica
(E) Trinidad, Martinique
17. Which one of the following must be true about
Freedom’s schedule of voyages?
(A) Freedom makes a voyage to Guadeloupe either in
week 1 or else in week 2.
(B) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique either in
week 2 or else in week 3.
(C) Freedom makes at most two voyages to
Guadeloupe.
(D) Freedom makes at most two voyages to Jamaica.
(E) Freedom makes at most two voyages to Trinidad.


Questions 18–23
There are exactly three recycling centers in Rivertown:
Center 1, Center 2, and Center 3. Exactly five kinds of
material are recycled at these recycling centers: glass,
newsprint, plastic, tin, and wood. Each recycling center
recycles at least two but no more than three of these kinds of
material. The following conditions must hold:
Any recycling center that recycles wood also recycles
newsprint.
Every kind of material that Center 2 recycles is also
recycled at Center 1.
Only one of the recycling centers recycles plastic, and that
recycling center does not recycle glass.
18. Which one of the following could be an accurate account
of all the kinds of material recycled at each recycling
center in Rivertown?
(A) Center 1: newsprint, plastic, wood; Center 2:
newsprint, wood; Center 3: glass, tin, wood
(B) Center 1: glass, newsprint, tin; Center 2: glass,
newsprint, tin; Center 3: newsprint, plastic,
wood
(C) Center 1: glass, newsprint, wood; Center 2: glass,
newsprint, tin; Center 3: plastic, tin
(D) Center 1: glass, plastic, tin; Center 2: glass, tin;
Center 3: newsprint, wood
(E) Center 1: newsprint, plastic, wood; Center 2:
newsprint, plastic, wood; Center 3: glass,
newsprint, tin
19. Which one of the following is a complete and accurate
list of the recycling centers in Rivertown any one of
which could recycle plastic?
(A) Center 1 only
(B) Center 3 only
(C) Center 1, Center 2
(D) Center 1, Center 3
(E) Center 1, Center 2, Center 3
20. If Center 2 recycles three kinds of material, then which
one of the following kinds of material must Center 3
recycle?
(A) glass
(B) newsprint
(C) plastic
(D) tin
(E) wood
21. If each recycling center in Rivertown recycles exactly
three kinds of material, then which one of the following
could be true?
(A) Only Center 2 recycles glass.
(B) Only Center 3 recycles newsprint.
(C) Only Center 1 recycles plastic.
(D) Only Center 3 recycles tin.
(E) Only Center 1 recycles wood.
22. If Center 3 recycles glass, then which one of the
following kinds of material must Center 2 recycle?
(A) glass
(B) newsprint
(C) plastic
(D) tin
(E) wood
23. If Center 1 is the only recycling center that recycles
wood, then which one of the following could be a
complete and accurate list of the kinds of material that
one of the recycling centers recycles?
(A) plastic, tin
(B) newsprint, wood
(C) newsprint, tin
(D) glass, wood
(E) glass, tin

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY.
DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST.
SECTION II
Time—35 minutes
25 Questions
Directions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some
questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that
is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question. You should not make assumptions that are by
commonsense standards implausible, superfluous, or incompatible with the passage. After you have chosen the best answer,
blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.
1. Economist: Every business strives to increase its
productivity, for this increases profits for the
owners and the likelihood that the business will
survive. But not all efforts to increase
productivity are beneficial to the business as a
whole. Often, attempts to increase productivity
decrease the number of employees, which clearly
harms the dismissed employees as well as the
sense of security of the retained employees.
Which one of the following most accurately expresses
the main conclusion of the economist’s argument?
(A) If an action taken to secure the survival of a
business fails to enhance the welfare of the
business’s employees, that action cannot be
good for the business as a whole.
(B) Some measures taken by a business to increase
productivity fail to be beneficial to the business
as a whole.
(C) Only if the employees of a business are also its
owners will the interests of the employees and
owners coincide, enabling measures that will
be beneficial to the business as a whole.
(D) There is no business that does not make efforts
to increase its productivity.
(E) Decreasing the number of employees in a
business undermines the sense of security of
retained employees.
2. All Labrador retrievers bark a great deal. All Saint
Bernards bark infrequently. Each of Rosa’s dogs is a
cross between a Labrador retriever and a Saint Bernard.
Therefore, Rosa’s dogs are moderate barkers.
Which one of the following uses flawed reasoning that
most closely resembles the flawed reasoning used in
the argument above?
(A) All students who study diligently make good
grades. But some students who do not study
diligently also make good grades. Jane studies
somewhat diligently. Therefore, Jane makes
somewhat good grades.
(B) All type A chemicals are extremely toxic to
human beings. All type B chemicals are
nontoxic to human beings. This household
cleaner is a mixture of a type A chemical and
a type B chemical. Therefore, this household
cleaner is moderately toxic.
(C) All students at Hanson School live in Green
County. All students at Edwards School live in
Winn County. Members of the Perry family
attend both Hanson and Edwards. Therefore,
some members of the Perry family live in
Green County and some live in Winn County.
(D) All transcriptionists know shorthand. All
engineers know calculus. Bob has worked both
as a transcriptionist and as an engineer.
Therefore, Bob knows both shorthand and
calculus.
(E) All of Kenisha’s dresses are very well made.
All of Connie’s dresses are very badly made.
Half of the dresses in this closet are very well
made, and half of them are very badly made.
Therefore, half of the dresses in this closet are
Kenisha’s and half of them are Connie’s.


3. A century in certain ways is like a life, and as the end
of a century approaches, people behave toward that
century much as someone who is nearing the end of
life does toward that life. So just as people in their last
years spend much time looking back on the events of
their life, people at a century’s end _______.
Which one of the following most logically completes
the argument?
(A) reminisce about their own lives
(B) fear that their own lives are about to end
(C) focus on what the next century will bring
(D) become very interested in the history of the
century just ending
(E) reflect on how certain unfortunate events of the
century could have been avoided
4. Consumer: The latest Connorly Report suggests that
Ocksenfrey prepackaged meals are virtually
devoid of nutritional value. But the Connorly
Report is commissioned by Danto Foods,
Ocksenfrey’s largest corporate rival, and early
drafts of the report are submitted for approval to
Danto Foods’ public relations department.
Because of the obvious bias of this report, it is
clear that Ocksenfrey’s prepackaged meals really
are nutritious.
The reasoning in the consumer’s argument is most
vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that the
argument
(A) treats evidence that there is an apparent bias as
evidence that the Connorly Report’s claims are
false
(B) draws a conclusion based solely on an
unrepresentative sample of Ocksenfrey’s
products
(C) fails to take into account the possibility that
Ocksenfrey has just as much motivation to
create negative publicity for Danto as Danto
has to create negative publicity for Ocksenfrey
(D) fails to provide evidence that Danto Foods’
prepackaged meals are not more nutritious than
Ocksenfrey’s are
(E) presumes, without providing justification, that
Danto Foods’ public relations department
would not approve a draft of a report that was
hostile to Danto Foods’ products
5. Scientist: Earth’s average annual temperature has
increased by about 0.5 degrees Celsius over the
last century. This warming is primarily the result
of the buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere,
blocking the outward flow of heat from the
planet.
Which one of the following, if true, would count as
evidence against the scientist’s explanation of Earth’s
warming?
(A) Only some of the minor gases whose presence
in the atmosphere allegedly resulted in the
phenomenon described by the scientist were
produced by industrial pollution.
(B) Most of the warming occurred before 1940,
while most of the buildup of minor gases in
the atmosphere occurred after 1940.
(C) Over the last century, Earth received slightly
more solar radiation in certain years than it did
in others.
(D) Volcanic dust and other particles in the
atmosphere reflect much of the Sun’s radiation
back into space before it can reach Earth’s
surface.
(E) The accumulation of minor gases in the
atmosphere has been greater over the last
century than at any other time in Earth’s
history.
6. An undergraduate degree is necessary for appointment
to the executive board. Further, no one with a felony
conviction can be appointed to the board. Thus,
Murray, an accountant with both a bachelor’s and a
master’s degree, cannot be accepted for the position of
Executive Administrator, since he has a felony
conviction.
The argument’s conclusion follows logically if which
one of the following is assumed?
(A) Anyone with a master’s degree and without a
felony conviction is eligible for appointment to
the executive board.
(B) Only candidates eligible for appointment to the
executive board can be accepted for the
position of Executive Administrator.
(C) An undergraduate degree is not necessary for
acceptance for the position of Executive
Administrator.
(D) If Murray did not have a felony conviction, he
would be accepted for the position of
Executive Administrator.
(E) The felony charge on which Murray was
convicted is relevant to the duties of the
position of Executive Administrator.

7. Ethicist: The most advanced kind of moral motivation
is based solely on abstract principles. This form
of motivation is in contrast with calculated selfinterest
or the desire to adhere to societal norms
and conventions.
The actions of which one of the following individuals
exhibit the most advanced kind of moral motivation, as
described by the ethicist?
(A) Bobby contributed money to a local charity
during a charity drive at work because he
worried that not doing so would make him
look stingy.
(B) Wes contributed money to a local charity during
a charity drive at work because he believed
that doing so would improve his employer’s
opinion of him.
(C) Donna’s employers engaged in an illegal but
profitable practice that caused serious damage
to the environment. Donna did not report this
practice to the authorities, out of fear that her
employers would retaliate against her.
(D) Jadine’s employers engaged in an illegal but
profitable practice that caused serious damage
to the environment. Jadine reported this
practice to the authorities out of a belief that
protecting the environment is always more
important than monetary profit.
(E) Leigh’s employers engaged in an illegal but
profitable practice that caused serious damage
to the environment. Leigh reported this practice
to the authorities only because several
colleagues had been pressuring her to do so.
8. Proponents of the electric car maintain that when the
technical problems associated with its battery design
are solved, such cars will be widely used and, because
they are emission-free, will result in an abatement of
the environmental degradation caused by auto
emissions. But unless we dam more rivers, the
electricity to charge these batteries will come from
nuclear or coal-fired power plants. Each of these three
power sources produces considerable environmental
damage. Thus, the electric car _______.
Which one of the following most logically completes
the argument?
(A) will have worse environmental consequences
than its proponents may believe
(B) will probably remain less popular than other
types of cars
(C) requires that purely technical problems be
solved before it can succeed
(D) will increase the total level of emissions rather
than reduce it
(E) will not produce a net reduction in
environmental degradation
9. Although video game sales have increased steadily over
the past 3 years, we can expect a reversal of this trend
in the very near future. Historically, over three quarters
of video games sold have been purchased by people
from 13 to 16 years of age, and the number of people
in this age group is expected to decline steadily over
the next 10 years.
Which one of the following, if true, would most
seriously weaken the argument?
(A) Most people 17 years old or older have never
purchased a video game.
(B) Video game rentals have declined over the past
3 years.
(C) New technology will undoubtedly make entirely
new entertainment options available over the
next 10 years.
(D) The number of different types of video games
available is unlikely to decrease in the near
future.
(E) Most of the people who have purchased video
games over the past 3 years are over the age
of 16.
10. Double-blind techniques should be used whenever
possible in scientific experiments. They help prevent
the misinterpretations that often arise due to
expectations and opinions that scientists already hold,
and clearly scientists should be extremely diligent in
trying to avoid such misinterpretations.
Which one of the following most accurately expresses
the main conclusion of the argument?
(A) Scientists’ objectivity may be impeded by
interpreting experimental evidence on the basis
of expectations and opinions that they already
hold.
(B) It is advisable for scientists to use double-blind
techniques in as high a proportion of their
experiments as they can.
(C) Scientists sometimes neglect to adequately
consider the risk of misinterpreting evidence on
the basis of prior expectations and opinions.
(D) Whenever possible, scientists should refrain
from interpreting evidence on the basis of
previously formed expectations and
convictions.
(E) Double-blind experimental techniques are often
an effective way of ensuring scientific
objectivity.


11. It is now a common complaint that the electronic
media have corroded the intellectual skills required and
fostered by the literary media. But several centuries
ago the complaint was that certain intellectual skills,
such as the powerful memory and extemporaneous
eloquence that were intrinsic to oral culture, were being
destroyed by the spread of literacy. So, what awaits us
is probably a mere alteration of the human mind rather
than its devolution.
The reference to the complaint of several centuries ago
that powerful memory and extemporaneous eloquence
were being destroyed plays which one of the following
roles in the argument?
(A) evidence supporting the claim that the
intellectual skills fostered by the literary media
are being destroyed by the electronic media
(B) an illustration of the general hypothesis being
advanced that intellectual abilities are
inseparable from the means by which people
communicate
(C) an example of a cultural change that did not
necessarily have a detrimental effect on the
human mind overall
(D) evidence that the claim that the intellectual
skills required and fostered by the literary
media are being lost is unwarranted
(E) possible evidence, mentioned and then
dismissed, that might be cited by supporters of
the hypothesis being criticized
12. Suppose I have promised to keep a confidence and
someone asks me a question that I cannot answer
truthfully without thereby breaking the promise.
Obviously, I cannot both keep and break the same
promise. Therefore, one cannot be obliged both to
answer all questions truthfully and to keep all
promises.
Which one of the following arguments is most similar
in its reasoning to the argument above?
(A) It is claimed that we have the unencumbered
right to say whatever we want. It is also
claimed that we have the obligation to be civil
to others. But civility requires that we not
always say what we want. So, it cannot be true
both that we have the unencumbered right to
say whatever we want and that we have the
duty to be civil.
(B) Some politicians could attain popularity with
voters only by making extravagant promises;
this, however, would deceive the people. So,
since the only way for some politicians to be
popular is to deceive, and any politician needs
to be popular, it follows that some politicians
must deceive.
(C) If we put a lot of effort into making this report
look good, the client might think we did so
because we believed our proposal would not
stand on its own merits. On the other hand, if
we do not try to make the report look good,
the client might think we are not serious about
her business. So, whatever we do, we risk her
criticism.
(D) If creditors have legitimate claims against a
business and the business has the resources to
pay those debts, then the business is obliged to
pay them. Also, if a business has obligations to
pay debts, then a court will force it to pay
them. But the courts did not force this business
to pay its debts, so either the creditors did not
have legitimate claims or the business did not
have sufficient resources.
(E) If we extend our business hours, we will either
have to hire new employees or have existing
employees work overtime. But both new
employees and additional overtime would
dramatically increase our labor costs. We
cannot afford to increase labor costs, so we
will have to keep our business hours as they
stand.

13. Standard aluminum soft-drink cans do not vary in the
amount of aluminum that they contain. Fifty percent of
the aluminum contained in a certain group (M) of
standard aluminum soft-drink cans was recycled from
another group (L) of used, standard aluminum softdrink
cans. Since all the cans in L were recycled into
cans in M and since the amount of material other than
aluminum in an aluminum can is negligible, it follows
that M contains twice as many cans as L.
The conclusion of the argument follows logically if
which one of the following is assumed?
(A) The aluminum in the cans of M cannot be
recycled further.
(B) Recycled aluminum is of poorer quality than
unrecycled aluminum.
(C) All of the aluminum in an aluminum can is
recovered when the can is recycled.
(D) None of the soft-drink cans in group L had been
made from recycled aluminum.
(E) Aluminum soft-drink cans are more easily
recycled than are soft-drink cans made from
other materials.
14. A cup of raw milk, after being heated in a microwave
oven to 50 degrees Celsius, contains half its initial
concentration of a particular enzyme, lysozyme. If,
however, the milk reaches that temperature through
exposure to a conventional heat source of 50 degrees
Celsius, it will contain nearly all of its initial
concentration of the enzyme. Therefore, what destroys
the enzyme is not heat but microwaves, which generate
heat.
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously
weakens the argument?
(A) Heating raw milk in a microwave oven to a
temperature of 100 degrees Celsius destroys
nearly all of the lysozyme initially present in
that milk.
(B) Enzymes in raw milk that are destroyed through
excessive heating can be replaced by adding
enzymes that have been extracted from other
sources.
(C) A liquid exposed to a conventional heat source
of exactly 50 degrees Celsius will reach that
temperature more slowly than it would if it
were exposed to a conventional heat source
hotter than 50 degrees Celsius.
(D) Milk that has been heated in a microwave oven
does not taste noticeably different from milk
that has been briefly heated by exposure to a
conventional heat source.
(E) Heating any liquid by microwave creates small
zones within it that are much hotter than the
overall temperature that the liquid will
ultimately reach.
15. A new government policy has been developed to avoid
many serious cases of influenza. This goal will be
accomplished by the annual vaccination of high-risk
individuals: everyone 65 and older as well as anyone
with a chronic disease that might cause them to
experience complications from the influenza virus.
Each year’s vaccination will protect only against the
strain of the influenza virus deemed most likely to be
prevalent that year, so every year it will be necessary
for all high-risk individuals to receive a vaccine for a
different strain of the virus.
Which one of the following is an assumption that
would allow the conclusion above to be properly drawn?
(A) The number of individuals in the high-risk
group for influenza will not significantly
change from year to year.
(B) The likelihood that a serious influenza epidemic
will occur varies from year to year.
(C) No vaccine for the influenza virus protects
against more than one strain of that virus.
(D) Each year the strain of influenza virus deemed
most likely to be prevalent will be one that had
not previously been deemed most likely to be
prevalent.
(E) Each year’s vaccine will have fewer side effects
than the vaccine of the previous year since the
technology for making vaccines will constantly
improve.


16. Taylor: Researchers at a local university claim that
61 percent of the information transferred during a
conversation is communicated through nonverbal
signals. But this claim, like all such
mathematically precise claims, is suspect, because
claims of such exactitude could never be
established by science.
Sandra: While precision is unobtainable in many areas
of life, it is commonplace in others. Many
scientific disciplines obtain extremely precise
results, which should not be doubted merely
because of their precision.
The statements above provide the most support for
holding that Sandra would disagree with Taylor about
which one of the following statements?
(A) Research might reveal that 61 percent of the
information taken in during a conversation is
communicated through nonverbal signals.
(B) It is possible to determine whether 61 percent of
the information taken in during a conversation
is communicated through nonverbal signals.
(C) The study of verbal and nonverbal
communication is an area where one cannot
expect great precision in one’s research results.
(D) Some sciences can yield mathematically precise
results that are not inherently suspect.
(E) If inherently suspect claims are usually false,
then the majority of claims made by scientists
are false as well.
17. Hospital executive: At a recent conference on nonprofit
management, several computer experts
maintained that the most significant threat faced
by large institutions such as universities and
hospitals is unauthorized access to confidential
data. In light of this testimony, we should make
the protection of our clients’ confidentiality our
highest priority.
The hospital executive’s argument is most vulnerable to
which one of the following objections?
(A) The argument confuses the causes of a problem
with the appropriate solutions to that problem.
(B) The argument relies on the testimony of experts
whose expertise is not shown to be sufficiently
broad to support their general claim.
(C) The argument assumes that a correlation
between two phenomena is evidence that one is
the cause of the other.
(D) The argument draws a general conclusion about
a group based on data about an
unrepresentative sample of that group.
(E) The argument infers that a property belonging to
large institutions belongs to all institutions.
18. Modern science is built on the process of posing
hypotheses and testing them against observations—in
essence, attempting to show that the hypotheses are
incorrect. Nothing brings more recognition than
overthrowing conventional wisdom. It is accordingly
unsurprising that some scientists are skeptical of the
widely accepted predictions of global warming. What is
instead remarkable is that with hundreds of researchers
striving to make breakthroughs in climatology, very
few find evidence that global warming is unlikely.
The information above provides the most support for
which one of the following statements?
(A) Most scientists who are reluctant to accept the
global warming hypothesis are not acting in
accordance with the accepted standards of
scientific debate.
(B) Most researchers in climatology have substantial
motive to find evidence that would discredit
the global warming hypothesis.
(C) There is evidence that conclusively shows that
the global warming hypothesis is true.
(D) Scientists who are skeptical about global
warming have not offered any alternative
hypotheses to explain climatological data.
(E) Research in global warming is primarily driven
by a desire for recognition in the scientific
community.
19. Historian: The Land Party achieved its only national
victory in Banestria in 1935. It received most of
its support that year in rural and semirural areas,
where the bulk of Banestria’s population lived at
the time. The economic woes of the years
surrounding that election hit agricultural and
small business interests the hardest, and the Land
Party specifically targeted those groups in 1935. I
conclude that the success of the Land Party that
year was due to the combination of the Land
Party’s specifically addressing the concerns of
these groups and the depth of the economic
problems people in these groups were facing.
Each of the following, if true, strengthens the
historian’s argument EXCEPT:
(A) In preceding elections the Land Party made no
attempt to address the interests of economically
distressed urban groups.
(B) Voters are more likely to vote for a political
party that focuses on their problems.
(C) The Land Party had most of its successes when there
was economic distress in the agricultural sector.
(D) No other major party in Banestria specifically
addressed the issues of people who lived in
semirural areas in 1935.
(E) The greater the degree of economic distress
someone is in, the more likely that person is
to vote.

20. Gamba: Muñoz claims that the Southwest Hopeville
Neighbors Association overwhelmingly opposes
the new water system, citing this as evidence of
citywide opposition. The association did pass a
resolution opposing the new water system, but
only 25 of 350 members voted, with 10 in favor
of the system. Furthermore, the 15 opposing
votes represent far less than 1 percent of
Hopeville’s population. One should not assume
that so few votes represent the view of the
majority of Hopeville’s residents.
Of the following, which one most accurately describes
Gamba’s strategy of argumentation?
(A) questioning a conclusion based on the results of
a vote, on the grounds that people with certain
views are more likely to vote
(B) questioning a claim supported by statistical data
by arguing that statistical data can be
manipulated to support whatever view the
interpreter wants to support
(C) attempting to refute an argument by showing
that, contrary to what has been claimed, the
truth of the premises does not guarantee the
truth of the conclusion
(D) criticizing a view on the grounds that the view
is based on evidence that is in principle
impossible to disconfirm
(E) attempting to cast doubt on a conclusion by
claiming that the statistical sample on which
the conclusion is based is too small to be
dependable
21. Driver: My friends say I will one day have an accident
because I drive my sports car recklessly. But I
have done some research, and apparently
minivans and larger sedans have very low
accident rates compared to sports cars. So trading
my sports car in for a minivan would lower my
risk of having an accident.
The reasoning in the driver’s argument is most
vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that this
argument
(A) infers a cause from a mere correlation
(B) relies on a sample that is too narrow
(C) misinterprets evidence that a result is likely as
evidence that the result is certain
(D) mistakes a condition sufficient for bringing
about a result for a condition necessary for
doing so
(E) relies on a source that is probably not
well-informed
22. Editorialist: News media rarely cover local politics
thoroughly, and local political business is usually
conducted secretively. These factors each tend to
isolate local politicians from their electorates.
This has the effect of reducing the chance that
any particular act of resident participation will
elicit a positive official response, which in turn
discourages resident participation in local politics.
Which one of the following is most strongly supported
by the editorialist’s statements?
(A) Particular acts of resident participation would be
likely to elicit a positive response from local
politicians if those politicians were less isolated
from their electorate.
(B) Local political business should be conducted
less secretively because this would avoid
discouraging resident participation in local
politics.
(C) The most important factor influencing a
resident’s decision as to whether to participate
in local politics is the chance that the
participation will elicit a positive official
response.
(D) More-frequent thorough coverage of local
politics would reduce at least one source of
discouragement from resident participation in
local politics.
(E) If resident participation in local politics were
not discouraged, this would cause local
politicians to be less isolated from their
electorate.
23. Philosopher: An action is morally right if it would be
reasonably expected to increase the aggregate
well-being of the people affected by it. An action
is morally wrong if and only if it would be
reasonably expected to reduce the aggregate wellbeing
of the people affected by it. Thus, actions
that would be reasonably expected to leave
unchanged the aggregate well-being of the people
affected by them are also right.
The philosopher’s conclusion follows logically if which
one of the following is assumed?
(A) Only wrong actions would be reasonably
expected to reduce the aggregate well-being of
the people affected by them.
(B) No action is both right and wrong.
(C) Any action that is not morally wrong is morally
right.
(D) There are actions that would be reasonably
expected to leave unchanged the aggregate
well-being of the people affected by them.
(E) Only right actions have good consequences.


24. Car companies solicit consumer information on such
human factors as whether a seat is comfortable or
whether a set of controls is easy to use. However,
designer interaction with consumers is superior to
survey data; the data may tell the designer why a
feature on last year’s model was given a low rating,
but data will not explain how that feature needs to be
changed in order to receive a higher rating.
The reasoning above conforms most closely to which
one of the following propositions?
(A) Getting consumer input for design modifications
can contribute to successful product design.
(B) Car companies traditionally conduct extensive
postmarket surveys.
(C) Designers aim to create features that will appeal
to specific market niches.
(D) A car will have unappealing features if
consumers are not consulted during its design
stage.
(E) Consumer input affects external rather than
internal design components of cars.
25. During the nineteenth century, the French academy of
art was a major financial sponsor of painting and
sculpture in France; sponsorship by private individuals
had decreased dramatically by this time. Because the
academy discouraged innovation in the arts, there was
little innovation in nineteenth century French sculpture.
Yet nineteenth century French painting showed a
remarkable degree of innovation.
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to
explain the difference between the amount of
innovation in French painting and the amount of
innovation in French sculpture during the nineteenth
century?
(A) In France in the nineteenth century, the French
academy gave more of its financial support to
painting than it did to sculpture.
(B) The French academy in the nineteenth century
financially supported a greater number of
sculptors than painters, but individual painters
received more support, on average, than
individual sculptors.
(C) Because stone was so much more expensive
than paint and canvas, far more unsponsored
paintings were produced than were
unsponsored sculptures in France during the
nineteenth century.
(D) Very few of the artists in France in the
nineteenth century who produced sculptures
also produced paintings.
(E) Although the academy was the primary sponsor
of sculpture and painting, the total amount of
financial support that French sculptors and
painters received from sponsors declined
during the nineteenth century.

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY.
DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST.
SECTION III
Time—35 minutes
25 Questions
Directions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some
questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that
is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question. You should not make assumptions that are by
commonsense standards implausible, superfluous, or incompatible with the passage. After you have chosen the best answer,
blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.
1. Situation: Someone living in a cold climate buys a
winter coat that is stylish but not warm in order to
appear sophisticated.
Analysis: People are sometimes willing to sacrifice
sensual comfort or pleasure for the sake of
appearances.
The analysis provided for the situation above is most
appropriate for which one of the following situations?
(A) A person buys an automobile to commute to
work even though public transportation is
quick and reliable.
(B) A parent buys a car seat for a young child
because it is more colorful and more
comfortable for the child than the other car
seats on the market, though no safer.
(C) A couple buys a particular wine even though
their favorite wine is less expensive and better
tasting because they think it will impress their
dinner guests.
(D) A person sets her thermostat at a low
temperature during the winter because she is
concerned about the environmental damage
caused by using fossil fuels to heat her home.
(E) An acrobat convinces the circus that employs
him to purchase an expensive outfit for him so
that he can wear it during his act to impress
the audience.
2. After replacing his old gas water heater with a new,
pilotless, gas water heater that is rated as highly
efficient, Jimmy’s gas bills increased.
Each of the following, if true, contributes to an
explanation of the increase mentioned above EXCEPT:
(A) The new water heater uses a smaller percentage
of the gas used by Jimmy’s household than did
the old one.
(B) Shortly after the new water heater was installed,
Jimmy’s uncle came to live with him, doubling
the size of the household.
(C) After having done his laundry at a laundromat,
Jimmy bought and started using a gas dryer
when he replaced his water heater.
(D) Jimmy’s utility company raised the rates for gas
consumption following installation of the new
water heater.
(E) Unusually cold weather following installation of
the new water heater resulted in heavy gas
usage.
3. Carolyn: The artist Marc Quinn has displayed, behind a
glass plate, biologically replicated fragments of
Sir John Sulston’s DNA, calling it a “conceptual
portrait” of Sulston. But to be a portrait, something
must bear a recognizable resemblance to its
subject.
Arnold: I disagree. Quinn’s conceptual portrait is a
maximally realistic portrait, for it holds actual
instructions according to which Sulston was
created.
The dialogue provides most support for the claim that
Carolyn and Arnold disagree over whether the object
described by Quinn as a conceptual portrait of Sir John
Sulston
(A) should be considered to be art
(B) should be considered to be Quinn’s work
(C) bears a recognizable resemblance to Sulston
(D) contains instructions according to which Sulston
was created
(E) is actually a portrait of Sulston


4. Many corporations have begun decorating their halls
with motivational posters in hopes of boosting their
employees’ motivation to work productively. However,
almost all employees at these corporations are already
motivated to work productively. So these corporations’
use of motivational posters is unlikely to achieve its
intended purpose.
The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to
criticism on the grounds that the argument
(A) fails to consider whether corporations that do
not currently use motivational posters would
increase their employees’ motivation to work
productively if they began using the posters
(B) takes for granted that, with respect to their
employees’ motivation to work productively,
corporations that decorate their halls with
motivational posters are representative of
corporations in general
(C) fails to consider that even if motivational
posters do not have one particular beneficial
effect for corporations, they may have similar
effects that are equally beneficial
(D) does not adequately address the possibility that
employee productivity is strongly affected by
factors other than employees’ motivation to
work productively
(E) fails to consider that even if employees are
already motivated to work productively,
motivational posters may increase that
motivation
5. Atrens: An early entomologist observed ants carrying
particles to neighboring ant colonies and inferred
that the ants were bringing food to their
neighbors. Further research, however, revealed
that the ants were emptying their own colony’s
dumping site. Thus, the early entomologist was
wrong.
Atrens’s conclusion follows logically if which one of
the following is assumed?
(A) Ant societies do not interact in all the same
ways that human societies interact.
(B) There is only weak evidence for the view that
ants have the capacity to make use of objects
as gifts.
(C) Ant dumping sites do not contain particles that
could be used as food.
(D) The ants to whom the particles were brought
never carried the particles into their own
colonies.
(E) The entomologist cited retracted his conclusion
when it was determined that the particles the
ants carried came from their dumping site.
6. Jablonski, who owns a car dealership, has donated cars
to driver education programs at area schools for over
five years. She found the statistics on car accidents to be
disturbing, and she wanted to do something to
encourage better driving in young drivers. Some
members of the community have shown their support for
this action by purchasing cars from Jablonski’s
dealership.
Which one of the following propositions is best
illustrated by the passage?
(A) The only way to reduce traffic accidents is
through driver education programs.
(B) Altruistic actions sometimes have positive
consequences for those who perform them.
(C) Young drivers are the group most likely to
benefit from driver education programs.
(D) It is usually in one’s best interest to perform
actions that benefit others.
(E) An action must have broad community support
if it is to be successful.
7. Antonio: One can live a life of moderation by never
deviating from the middle course. But then one
loses the joy of spontaneity and misses the
opportunities that come to those who are
occasionally willing to take great chances, or to
go too far.
Marla: But one who, in the interests of moderation,
never risks going too far is actually failing to live
a life of moderation: one must be moderate even
in one’s moderation.
Antonio and Marla disagree over
(A) whether it is desirable for people occasionally
to take great chances in life
(B) what a life of moderation requires of a person
(C) whether it is possible for a person to embrace
other virtues along with moderation
(D) how often a person ought to deviate from the
middle course in life
(E) whether it is desirable for people to be
moderately spontaneous

8. Advertisement: Fabric-Soft leaves clothes soft and
fluffy, and its fresh scent is a delight. We
conducted a test using over 100 consumers to
prove Fabric-Soft is best. Each consumer was
given one towel washed with Fabric-Soft and one
towel washed without it. Ninety-nine percent of
the consumers preferred the Fabric-Soft towel. So
Fabric-Soft is the most effective fabric softener
available.
The advertisement’s reasoning is most vulnerable to
criticism on the grounds that it fails to consider whether
(A) any of the consumers tested are allergic to
fabric softeners
(B) Fabric-Soft is more or less harmful to the
environment than other fabric softeners
(C) Fabric-Soft is much cheaper or more expensive
than other fabric softeners
(D) the consumers tested find the benefits of using
fabric softeners worth the expense
(E) the consumers tested had the opportunity to
evaluate fabric softeners other than Fabric-Soft
9. Naturalist: The recent claims that the Tasmanian tiger is
not extinct are false. The Tasmanian tiger’s
natural habitat was taken over by sheep farming
decades ago, resulting in the animal’s systematic
elimination from the area. Since then naturalists
working in the region have discovered no hard
evidence of its survival, such as carcasses or
tracks. In spite of alleged sightings of the animal,
the Tasmanian tiger no longer exists.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which
the naturalist’s argument depends?
(A) Sheep farming drove the last Tasmanian tigers
to starvation by chasing them from their
natural habitat.
(B) Some scavengers in Tasmania are capable of
destroying tiger carcasses without a trace.
(C) Every naturalist working in the Tasmanian
tiger’s natural habitat has looked systematically
for evidence of the tiger’s survival.
(D) The Tasmanian tiger did not move and adapt to
a different region in response to the loss of
habitat.
(E) Those who have reported sightings of the
Tasmanian tiger are not experienced naturalists.
10. Advertisers have learned that people are more easily
encouraged to develop positive attitudes about things
toward which they originally have neutral or even
negative attitudes if those things are linked, with
pictorial help rather than exclusively through prose, to
things about which they already have positive attitudes.
Therefore, advertisers are likely to _______.
Which one of the following most logically completes
the argument?
(A) use little if any written prose in their
advertisements
(B) try to encourage people to develop positive
attitudes about products that can be better
represented pictorially than in prose
(C) place their advertisements on television rather
than in magazines
(D) highlight the desirable features of the advertised
product by contrasting them pictorially with
undesirable features of a competing product
(E) create advertisements containing pictures of
things most members of the target audience
like
11. Feathers recently taken from seabirds stuffed and
preserved in the 1880s have been found to contain only
half as much mercury as feathers recently taken from
living birds of the same species. Since mercury that
accumulates in a seabird’s feathers as the feathers grow
is derived from fish eaten by the bird, these results
indicate that mercury levels in saltwater fish are higher
now than they were 100 years ago.
The argument depends on assuming that
(A) the proportion of a seabird’s diet consisting of
fish was not as high, on average, in the 1880s
as it is today
(B) the amount of mercury in a saltwater fish
depends on the amount of pollution in the
ocean habitat of the fish
(C) mercury derived from fish is essential for the
normal growth of a seabird’s feathers
(D) the stuffed seabirds whose feathers were tested
for mercury were not fully grown
(E) the process used to preserve birds in the 1880s
did not substantially decrease the amount of
mercury in the birds’ feathers


12. Novel X and Novel Y are both semiautobiographical
novels and contain many very similar themes and
situations, which might lead one to suspect plagiarism
on the part of one of the authors. However, it is more
likely that the similarity of themes and situations in the
two novels is merely coincidental, since both authors are
from very similar backgrounds and have led similar
lives.
Which one of the following most accurately expresses
the conclusion drawn in the argument?
(A) Novel X and Novel Y are both
semiautobiographical novels, and the two
novels contain many very similar themes and
situations.
(B) The fact that Novel X and Novel Y are both
semiautobiographical novels and contain many
very similar themes and situations might lead
one to suspect plagiarism on the part of one of
the authors.
(C) The author of Novel X and the author of
Novel Y are from very similar backgrounds
and have led very similar lives.
(D) It is less likely that one of the authors of
Novel X or Novel Y is guilty of plagiarism
than that the similarity of themes and
situations in the two novels is merely
coincidental.
(E) If the authors of Novel X and Novel Y are from
very similar backgrounds and have led similar
lives, suspicions that either of the authors
plagiarized are very likely to be unwarranted.
13. Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on
changing a patient’s conscious beliefs. Thus,
cognitive psychotherapy is likely to be more
effective at helping patients overcome
psychological problems than are forms of
psychotherapy that focus on changing
unconscious beliefs and desires, since only
conscious beliefs are under the patient’s direct
conscious control.
Which one of the following, if true, would most
strengthen the therapist’s argument?
(A) Psychological problems are frequently caused
by unconscious beliefs that could be changed
with the aid of psychotherapy.
(B) It is difficult for any form of psychotherapy to
be effective without focusing on mental states
that are under the patient’s direct conscious
control.
(C) Cognitive psychotherapy is the only form of
psychotherapy that focuses primarily on
changing the patient’s conscious beliefs.
(D) No form of psychotherapy that focuses on
changing the patient’s unconscious beliefs and
desires can be effective unless it also helps
change beliefs that are under the patient’s
direct conscious control.
(E) All of a patient’s conscious beliefs are under the
patient’s conscious control, but other
psychological states cannot be controlled
effectively without the aid of psychotherapy.

14. Commentator: In academic scholarship, sources are
always cited, and methodology and theoretical
assumptions are set out, so as to allow critical
study, replication, and expansion of scholarship.
In open-source software, the code in which the
program is written can be viewed and modified by
individual users for their purposes without getting
permission from the producer or paying a fee. In
contrast, the code of proprietary software is kept
secret, and modifications can be made only by the
producer, for a fee. This shows that open-source
software better matches the values embodied in
academic scholarship, and since scholarship is
central to the mission of universities, universities
should use only open-source software.
The commentator’s reasoning most closely conforms to
which one of the following principles?
(A) Whatever software tools are most advanced and
can achieve the goals of academic scholarship
are the ones that should alone be used in
universities.
(B) Universities should use the type of software
technology that is least expensive, as long as
that type of software technology is adequate
for the purposes of academic scholarship.
(C) Universities should choose the type of software
technology that best matches the values
embodied in the activities that are central to
the mission of universities.
(D) The form of software technology that best
matches the values embodied in the activities
that are central to the mission of universities is
the form of software technology that is most
efficient for universities to use.
(E) A university should not pursue any activity that
would block the achievement of the goals of
academic scholarship at that university.
15. A consumer magazine surveyed people who had sought
a psychologist’s help with a personal problem. Of those
responding who had received treatment for 6 months or
less, 20 percent claimed that treatment “made things a
lot better.” Of those responding who had received longer
treatment, 36 percent claimed that treatment “made
things a lot better.” Therefore, psychological treatment
lasting more than 6 months is more effective than
shorter-term treatment.
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously
weakens the argument?
(A) Of the respondents who had received treatment
for longer than 6 months, 10 percent said that
treatment made things worse.
(B) Patients who had received treatment for longer
than 6 months were more likely to respond to
the survey than were those who had received
treatment for a shorter time.
(C) Patients who feel they are doing well in
treatment tend to remain in treatment, while
those who are doing poorly tend to quit earlier.
(D) Patients who were dissatisfied with their
treatment were more likely to feel a need to
express their feelings about it and thus to
return the survey.
(E) Many psychologists encourage their patients to
receive treatment for longer than 6 months.
16. Philosopher: Nations are not literally persons; they
have no thoughts or feelings, and, literally
speaking, they perform no actions. Thus they
have no moral rights or responsibilities. But no
nation can survive unless many of its citizens
attribute such rights and responsibilities to it, for
nothing else could prompt people to make the
sacrifices national citizenship demands.
Obviously, then, a nation _______.
Which one of the following most logically completes
the philosopher’s argument?
(A) cannot continue to exist unless something other
than the false belief that the nation has moral
rights motivates its citizens to make sacrifices
(B) cannot survive unless many of its citizens have
some beliefs that are literally false
(C) can never be a target of moral praise or blame
(D) is not worth the sacrifices that its citizens make
on its behalf
(E) should always be thought of in metaphorical
rather than literal terms



17. When exercising the muscles in one’s back, it is
important, in order to maintain a healthy back, to
exercise the muscles on opposite sides of the spine
equally. After all, balanced muscle development is
needed to maintain a healthy back, since the muscles on
opposite sides of the spine must pull equally in
opposing directions to keep the back in proper
alignment and protect the spine.
Which one of the following is an assumption required
by the argument?
(A) Muscles on opposite sides of the spine that are
equally well developed will be enough to keep
the back in proper alignment.
(B) Exercising the muscles on opposite sides of the
spine unequally tends to lead to unbalanced
muscle development.
(C) Provided that one exercises the muscles on
opposite sides of the spine equally, one will
have a generally healthy back.
(D) If the muscles on opposite sides of the spine are
exercised unequally, one’s back will be
irreparably damaged.
(E) One should exercise daily to ensure that the
muscles on opposite sides of the spine keep
the back in proper alignment.
18. Editorialist: In all cultures, it is almost universally
accepted that one has a moral duty to prevent
members of one’s family from being harmed.
Thus, few would deny that if a person is known
by the person’s parents to be falsely accused of a
crime, it would be morally right for the parents to
hide the accused from the police. Hence, it is also
likely to be widely accepted that it is sometimes
morally right to obstruct the police in their work.
The reasoning in the editorialist’s argument is most
vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that this argument
(A) utilizes a single type of example for the purpose
of justifying a broad generalization
(B) fails to consider the possibility that other moral
principles would be widely recognized as
overriding any obligation to protect a family
member from harm
(C) presumes, without providing justification, that
allowing the police to arrest an innocent
person assists rather than obstructs justice
(D) takes for granted that there is no moral
obligation to obey the law
(E) takes for granted that the parents mentioned in
the example are not mistaken about their
child’s innocence
19. Editor: Many candidates say that if elected they will
reduce governmental intrusion into voters’ lives.
But voters actually elect politicians who instead
promise that the government will provide
assistance to solve their most pressing problems.
Governmental assistance, however, costs money,
and money can come only from taxes, which can
be considered a form of governmental intrusion.
Thus, governmental intrusion into the lives of
voters will rarely be substantially reduced over
time in a democracy.
Which one of the following, if true, would most
strengthen the editor’s argument?
(A) Politicians who win their elections usually keep
their campaign promises.
(B) Politicians never promise what they really
intend to do once in office.
(C) The most common problems people have are
financial problems.
(D) Governmental intrusion into the lives of voters
is no more burdensome in nondemocratic
countries than it is in democracies.
(E) Politicians who promise to do what they
actually believe ought to be done are rarely
elected.

20. We should accept the proposal to demolish the old train
station, because the local historical society, which
vehemently opposes this, is dominated by people who
have no commitment to long-term economic well-being.
Preserving old buildings creates an impediment to new
development, which is critical to economic health.
The flawed reasoning exhibited by the argument above
is most similar to that exhibited by which one of the
following arguments?
(A) Our country should attempt to safeguard works
of art that it deems to possess national cultural
significance. These works might not be
recognized as such by all taxpayers, or even
all critics. Nevertheless, our country ought to
expend whatever money is needed to procure
all such works as they become available.
(B) Documents of importance to local heritage
should be properly preserved and archived for
the sake of future generations. For, if even one
of these documents is damaged or lost, the
integrity of the historical record as a whole
will be damaged.
(C) You should have your hair cut no more than
once a month. After all, beauticians suggest
that their customers have their hair cut twice a
month, and they do this as a way of generating
more business for themselves.
(D) The committee should endorse the plan to
postpone construction of the new expressway.
Many residents of the neighborhoods that
would be affected are fervently opposed to that
construction, and the committee is obligated to
avoid alienating those residents.
(E) One should not borrow even small amounts of
money unless it is absolutely necessary. Once
one borrows a few dollars, the interest starts to
accumulate. The longer one takes to repay, the
more one ends up owing, and eventually a
small debt has become a large one.
21. Ethicist: On average, animals raised on grain must be
fed sixteen pounds of grain to produce one pound
of meat. A pound of meat is more nutritious for
humans than a pound of grain, but sixteen pounds
of grain could feed many more people than could
a pound of meat. With grain yields leveling off,
large areas of farmland going out of production
each year, and the population rapidly expanding,
we must accept the fact that consumption of meat
will soon be morally unacceptable.
Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken
the ethicist’s argument?
(A) Even though it has been established that a
vegetarian diet can be healthy, many people
prefer to eat meat and are willing to pay for it.
(B) Often, cattle or sheep can be raised to maturity
on grass from pastureland that is unsuitable for
any other kind of farming.
(C) If a grain diet is supplemented with protein
derived from non-animal sources, it can have
nutritional value equivalent to that of a diet
containing meat.
(D) Although prime farmland near metropolitan
areas is being lost rapidly to suburban
development, we could reverse this trend by
choosing to live in areas that are already
urban.
(E) Nutritionists agree that a diet composed solely
of grain products is not adequate for human
health.



22. If the price it pays for coffee beans continues to
increase, the Coffee Shoppe will have to increase its
prices. In that case, either the Coffee Shoppe will begin
selling noncoffee products or its coffee sales will
decrease. But selling noncoffee products will decrease
the Coffee Shoppe’s overall profitability. Moreover, the
Coffee Shoppe can avoid a decrease in overall
profitability only if its coffee sales do not decrease.
Which one of the following statements follows logically
from the statements above?
(A) If the Coffee Shoppe’s overall profitability
decreases, the price it pays for coffee beans
will have continued to increase.
(B) If the Coffee Shoppe’s overall profitability
decreases, either it will have begun selling
noncoffee products or its coffee sales will have
decreased.
(C) The Coffee Shoppe’s overall profitability will
decrease if the price it pays for coffee beans
continues to increase.
(D) The price it pays for coffee beans cannot
decrease without the Coffee Shoppe’s overall
profitability also decreasing.
(E) Either the price it pays for coffee beans will
continue to increase or the Coffee Shoppe’s
coffee sales will increase.
23. Political candidates’ speeches are loaded with promises
and with expressions of good intention, but one must
not forget that the politicians’ purpose in giving these
speeches is to get themselves elected. Clearly, then,
these speeches are selfishly motivated and the promises
made in them are unreliable.
Which one of the following most accurately describes a
flaw in the argument above?
(A) The argument presumes, without providing
justification, that if a person’s promise is not
selfishly motivated then that promise is
reliable.
(B) The argument presumes, without providing
justification, that promises made for selfish
reasons are never kept.
(C) The argument confuses the effect of an action
with its cause.
(D) The argument overlooks the fact that a promise
need not be unreliable just because the person
who made it had an ulterior motive for doing so.
(E) The argument overlooks the fact that a
candidate who makes promises for selfish
reasons may nonetheless be worthy of the
office for which he or she is running.
24. Sociologist: Romantics who claim that people are not
born evil but may be made evil by the imperfect
institutions that they form cannot be right, for
they misunderstand the causal relationship
between people and their institutions. After all,
institutions are merely collections of people.
Which one of the following principles, if valid, would
most help to justify the sociologist’s argument?
(A) People acting together in institutions can do
more good or evil than can people acting
individually.
(B) Institutions formed by people are inevitably
imperfect.
(C) People should not be overly optimistic in their
view of individual human beings.
(D) A society’s institutions are the surest gauge of
that society’s values.
(E) The whole does not determine the properties of
the things that compose it.
25. Some anthropologists argue that the human species
could not have survived prehistoric times if the species
had not evolved the ability to cope with diverse natural
environments. However, there is considerable evidence
that Australopithecus afarensis, a prehistoric species
related to early humans, also thrived in a diverse array
of environments, but became extinct. Hence, the
anthropologists’ claim is false.
The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to
criticism on the grounds that the argument
(A) confuses a condition’s being required for a
given result to occur in one case with the
condition’s being sufficient for such a result to
occur in a similar case
(B) takes for granted that if one species had a
characteristic that happened to enable it to
survive certain conditions, at least one related
extinct species must have had the same
characteristic
(C) generalizes, from the fact that one species with
a certain characteristic survived certain
conditions, that all related species with the
same characteristic must have survived exactly
the same conditions
(D) fails to consider the possibility that
Australopithecus afarensis had one or more
characteristics that lessened its chances of
surviving prehistoric times
(E) fails to consider the possibility that, even if a
condition caused a result to occur in one case,
it was not necessary to cause the result to
occur in a similar case

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY.
DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST.

SECTION IV
Time—35 minutes
27 Questions
Directions: Each set of questions in this section is based on a single passage or a pair of passages. The questions are to be
answered on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage or pair of passages. For some of the questions, more than one
of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that is, the response that
most accurately and completely answers the question, and blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.
For decades, there has been a deep rift between
poetry and fiction in the United States, especially in
academic settings; graduate writing programs in
universities, for example, train students as poets or as
(5) writers of fiction, but almost never as both. Both poets
and writers of fiction have tended to support this
separation, in large part because the current
conventional wisdom holds that poetry should be
elliptical and lyrical, reflecting inner states and
(10) processes of thought or feeling, whereas character and
narrative events are the stock-in-trade of fiction.
Certainly it is true that poetry and fiction are
distinct genres, but why have specialized education
and literary territoriality resulted from this distinction?
(15) The answer lies perhaps in a widespread attitude in
U.S. culture, which often casts a suspicious eye on the
generalist. Those with knowledge and expertise in
multiple areas risk charges of dilettantism, as if ability
in one field is diluted or compromised by
(20) accomplishment in another.
Fortunately, there are signs that the bias against
writers who cross generic boundaries is diminishing;
several recent writers are known and respected for
their work in both genres. One important example of
(25) this trend is Rita Dove, an African American writer
highly acclaimed for both her poetry and her fiction. A
few years ago, speaking at a conference entitled “Poets
Who Write Fiction,” Dove expressed gentle
incredulity about the habit of segregating the genres.
(30) She had grown up reading and loving both fiction and
poetry, she said, unaware of any purported danger
lurking in attempts to mix the two. She also studied for
some time in Germany, where, she observes, “Poets
write plays, novelists compose libretti, playwrights
(35) write novels—they would not understand our
restrictiveness.”
It makes little sense, Dove believes, to persist in
the restrictive approach to poetry and fiction prevalent
in the U.S., because each genre shares in the nature of
(40) the other. Indeed, her poetry offers example after
example of what can only be properly regarded as
lyric narrative. Her use of language in these poems is
undeniably lyrical—that is, it evokes emotion and
inner states without requiring the reader to organize
(45) ideas or events in a particular linear structure. Yet this
lyric expression simultaneously presents the elements
of a plot in such a way that the reader is led repeatedly
to take account of clusters of narrative details within
the lyric flow. Thus while the language is lyrical, it
(50) often comes to constitute, cumulatively, a work of
narrative fiction. Similarly, many passages in her
fiction, though undeniably prose, achieve the status of
lyric narrative through the use of poetic rhythms and
elliptical expression. In short, Dove bridges the gap
(55) between poetry and fiction not only by writing in both
genres, but also by fusing the two genres within
individual works.
1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses
the main point of the passage?
(A) Rita Dove’s work has been widely acclaimed
primarily because of the lyrical elements she
has introduced into her fiction.
(B) Rita Dove’s lyric narratives present clusters of
narrative detail in order to create a cumulative
narrative without requiring the reader to
interpret it in a linear manner.
(C) Working against a bias that has long been
dominant in the U.S., recent writers like Rita
Dove have shown that the lyrical use of
language can effectively enhance narrative
fiction.
(D) Unlike many of her U.S. contemporaries, Rita
Dove writes without relying on the traditional
techniques associated with poetry and fiction.
(E) Rita Dove’s successful blending of poetry and
fiction exemplifies the recent trend away from
the rigid separation of the two genres that has
long been prevalent in the U.S.
2. Which one of the following is most analogous to the
literary achievements that the author attributes to Dove?
(A) A chef combines nontraditional cooking
methods and traditional ingredients from
disparate world cuisines to devise new recipes.
(B) A professor of film studies becomes a film
director and succeeds, partly due to a wealth
of theoretical knowledge of filmmaking.
(C) An actor who is also a theatrical director teams
up with a public health agency to use street
theater to inform the public about health
matters.
(D) A choreographer defies convention and
choreographs dances that combine elements of
both ballet and jazz dance.
(E) A rock musician records several songs from
previous decades but introduces extended
guitar solos into each one.


3. According to the passage, in the U.S. there is a widely
held view that
(A) poetry should not involve characters or
narratives
(B) unlike the writing of poetry, the writing of
fiction is rarely an academically serious
endeavor
(C) graduate writing programs focus on poetry to
the exclusion of fiction
(D) fiction is most aesthetically effective when it
incorporates lyrical elements
(E) European literary cultures are suspicious of
generalists
4. The author’s attitude toward the deep rift between
poetry and fiction in the U.S. can be most accurately
described as one of
(A) perplexity as to what could have led to the
development of such a rift
(B) astonishment that academics have overlooked
the existence of the rift
(C) ambivalence toward the effect the rift has had
on U.S. literature
(D) pessimism regarding the possibility that the rift
can be overcome
(E) disapproval of attitudes and presuppositions
underlying the rift
5. In the passage the author conjectures that a cause of the
deep rift between fiction and poetry in the United States
may be that
(A) poets and fiction writers each tend to see their
craft as superior to the others’ craft
(B) the methods used in training graduate students
in poetry are different from those used in
training graduate students in other literary
fields
(C) publishers often pressure writers to concentrate
on what they do best
(D) a suspicion of generalism deters writers from
dividing their energies between the two genres
(E) fiction is more widely read and respected than
poetry
6. In the context of the passage, the author’s primary
purpose in mentioning Dove’s experience in Germany
(lines 32–36) is to
(A) suggest that the habit of treating poetry and
fiction as nonoverlapping domains is
characteristic of English-speaking societies but
not others
(B) point to an experience that reinforced Dove’s
conviction that poetry and fiction should not
be rigidly separated
(C) indicate that Dove’s strengths as a writer derive
in large part from the international character of
her academic background
(D) present an illuminating biographical detail about
Dove in an effort to enhance the human
interest appeal of the passage
(E) indicate what Dove believes to be the origin of
her opposition to the separation of fiction and
poetry in the U.S.
7. It can be inferred from the passage that the author
would be most likely to believe which one of the
following?
(A) Each of Dove’s works can be classified as
either primarily poetry or primarily fiction,
even though it may contain elements of both.
(B) The aesthetic value of lyric narrative resides in
its representation of a sequence of events,
rather than in its ability to evoke inner states.
(C) The way in which Dove blends genres in her
writing is without precedent in U.S. writing.
(D) Narrative that uses lyrical language is generally
aesthetically superior to pure lyric poetry.
(E) Writers who successfully cross the generic
boundary between poetry and fiction often try
their hand at genres such as drama as well.
8. If this passage had been excerpted from a longer text,
which one of the following predictions about the near
future of U.S. literature would be most likely to appear
in that text?
(A) The number of writers who write both poetry
and fiction will probably continue to grow.
(B) Because of the increased interest in mixed
genres, the small market for pure lyric poetry
will likely shrink even further.
(C) Narrative poetry will probably come to be
regarded as a sub-genre of fiction.
(D) There will probably be a rise in specialization
among writers in university writing programs.
(E) Writers who continue to work exclusively in
poetry or fiction will likely lose their
audiences.

The two passages discuss recent scientific research on
music. They are adapted from two different papers
presented at a scholarly conference.
Passage A
Did music and human language originate
separately or together? Both systems use intonation
and rhythm to communicate emotions. Both can be
produced vocally or with tools, and people can produce
(5) both music and language silently to themselves.
Brain imaging studies suggest that music and
language are part of one large, vastly complicated,
neurological system for processing sound. In fact,
fewer differences than similarities exist between the
(10) neurological processing of the two. One could think of
the two activities as different radio programs that can
be broadcast over the same hardware. One noteworthy
difference, though, is that, generally speaking, people
are better at language than music. In music, anyone
(15) can listen easily enough, but most people do not
perform well, and in many cultures composition is left
to specialists. In language, by contrast, nearly
everyone actively performs and composes.
Given their shared neurological basis, it appears
(20) that music and language evolved together as brain size
increased over the course of hominid evolution. But
the primacy of language over music that we can
observe today suggests that language, not music, was
the primary function natural selection operated on.
(25) Music, it would seem, had little adaptive value of its
own, and most likely developed on the coattails of
language.
Passage B
Darwin claimed that since “neither the enjoyment
nor the capacity of producing musical notes are
(30) faculties of the least [practical] use to manthey must
be ranked amongst the most mysterious with which he
is endowed.” I suggest that the enjoyment of and the
capacity to produce musical notes are faculties
of indispensable use to mothers and their infants and
(35) that it is in the emotional bonds created by the
interaction of mother and child that we can discover
the evolutionary origins of human music.
Even excluding lullabies, which parents sing to
infants, human mothers and infants under six months
(40) of age engage in ritualized, sequential behaviors,
involving vocal, facial, and bodily interactions. Using
face-to-face mother-infant interactions filmed at 24
frames per second, researchers have shown that
mothers and infants jointly construct mutually
(45) improvised interactions in which each partner tracks
the actions of the other. Such episodes last from
one-half second to three seconds and are composed of
musical elements—variations in pitch, rhythm, timbre,
volume, and tempo.
(50) What evolutionary advantage would such
behavior have? In the course of hominid evolution,
brain size increased rapidly. Contemporaneously, the
increase in bipedality caused the birth canal to narrow.
This resulted in hominid infants being born ever-more
(55) prematurely, leaving them much more helpless at birth.
This helplessness necessitated longer, better maternal
care. Under such conditions, the emotional bonds
created in the premusical mother-infant interactions we
observe in Homo sapiens today—behavior whose
(60) neurological basis essentially constitutes the capacity
to make and enjoy music—would have conferred
considerable evolutionary advantage.
9. Both passages were written primarily in order to answer
which one of the following questions?
(A) What evolutionary advantage did larger brain
size confer on early hominids?
(B) Why do human mothers and infants engage in
bonding behavior that is composed of musical
elements?
(C) What are the evolutionary origins of the human
ability to make music?
(D) Do the human abilities to make music and to
use language depend on the same neurological
systems?
(E) Why are most people more adept at using
language than they are at making music?
10. Each of the two passages mentions the relation of music
to
(A) bonding between humans
(B) human emotion
(C) neurological research
(D) the increasing helplessness of hominid infants
(E) the use of tools to produce sounds



11. It can be inferred that the authors of the two passages
would be most likely to disagree over whether
(A) the increase in hominid brain size necessitated
earlier births
(B) fewer differences than similarities exist between
the neurological processing of music and
human language
(C) brain size increased rapidly over the course of
human evolution
(D) the capacity to produce music has great
adaptive value to humans
(E) mother-infant bonding involves temporally
patterned vocal interactions
12. The authors would be most likely to agree on the
answer to which one of the following questions
regarding musical capacity in humans?
(A) Does it manifest itself in some form in early
infancy?
(B) Does it affect the strength of mother-infant
bonds?
(C) Is it at least partly a result of evolutionary
increases in brain size?
(D) Did its evolution spur the development of new
neurological systems?
(E) Why does it vary so greatly among different
individuals?
13. Which one of the following principles underlies the
arguments in both passages?
(A) Investigations of the evolutionary origins of
human behaviors must take into account the
behavior of nonhuman animals.
(B) All human capacities can be explained in terms
of the evolutionary advantages they offer.
(C) The fact that a single neurological system
underlies two different capacities is evidence
that those capacities evolved concurrently.
(D) The discovery of the neurological basis of a
human behavior constitutes the discovery of
the essence of that behavior.
(E) The behavior of modern-day humans can
provide legitimate evidence concerning the
evolutionary origins of human abilities.
14. Which one of the following most accurately
characterizes a relationship between the two passages?
(A) Passage A and passage B use different evidence
to draw divergent conclusions.
(B) Passage A poses the question that passage B
attempts to answer.
(C) Passage A proposes a hypothesis that passage B
attempts to substantiate with new evidence.
(D) Passage A expresses a stronger commitment to
its hypothesis than does passage B.
(E) Passage A and passage B use different evidence
to support the same conclusion.

The World Wide Web, a network of electronically
produced and interconnected (or “linked”) sites, called
pages, that are accessible via personal computer, raises
legal issues about the rights of owners of intellectual
(5) property, notably those who create documents for
inclusion on Web pages. Some of these owners of
intellectual property claim that unless copyright law is
strengthened, intellectual property on the Web will not
be protected from copyright infringement. Web users,
(10) however, claim that if their ability to access
information on Web pages is reduced, the Web cannot
live up to its potential as an open, interactive medium
of communication.
The debate arises from the Web’s ability to link
(15) one document to another. Links between sites are
analogous to the inclusion in a printed text of
references to other works, but with one difference: the
cited document is instantly retrievable by a user who
activates the link. This immediate accessibility creates
(20) a problem, since current copyright laws give owners of
intellectual property the right to sue a distributor of
unauthorized copies of their material even if that
distributor did not personally make the copies. If
person A, the author of a document, puts the document
(25) on a Web page, and person B, the creator of another
Web page, creates a link to A’s document, is B
committing copyright infringement?
To answer this question, it must first be
determined who controls distribution of a document on
(30) the Web. When A places a document on a Web page,
this is comparable to recording an outgoing message
on one’s telephone answering machine for others to
hear. When B creates a link to A’s document, this is
akin to B’s giving out A’s telephone number, thereby
(35) allowing third parties to hear the outgoing message for
themselves. Anyone who calls can listen to the
message; that is its purpose. While B’s link may
indeed facilitate access to A’s document, the crucial
point is that A, simply by placing that document on the
(40) Web, is thereby offering it for distribution. Therefore,
even if B leads others to the document, it is A who
actually controls access to it. Hence creating a link to a
document is not the same as making or distributing a
copy of that document. Moreover, techniques are
(45) already available by which A can restrict access to a
document. For example, A may require a password to
gain entry to A’s Web page, just as a telephone owner
can request an unlisted number and disclose it only to
selected parties. Such a solution would compromise
(50) the openness of the Web somewhat, but not as much as
the threat of copyright infringement litigation.
Changing copyright law to benefit owners of
intellectual property is thus ill-advised because it
would impede the development of the Web as a public
(55) forum dedicated to the free exchange of ideas.
15. Which one of the following most accurately expresses
the main point of the passage?
(A) Since distribution of a document placed on a
Web page is controlled by the author of that
page rather than by the person who creates a
link to the page, creating such a link should
not be considered copyright infringement.
(B) Changes in copyright law in response to the
development of Web pages and links are
ill-advised unless such changes amplify rather
than restrict the free exchange of ideas
necessary in a democracy.
(C) People who are concerned about the access
others may have to the Web documents they
create can easily prevent such access without
inhibiting the rights of others to exchange
ideas freely.
(D) Problems concerning intellectual property rights
created by new forms of electronic media are
not insuperably difficult to resolve if one
applies basic commonsense principles to these
problems.
(E) Maintaining a free exchange of ideas on the
Web offers benefits that far outweigh those
that might be gained by a small number of
individuals if a radical alteration of copyright
laws aimed at restricting the Web’s growth
were allowed.
16. Which one of the following is closest in meaning to the
term “strengthened” as that term is used in line 8 of the
passage?
(A) made more restrictive
(B) made uniform worldwide
(C) made to impose harsher penalties
(D) dutifully enforced
(E) more fully recognized as legitimate



17. With which one of the following claims about
documents placed on Web pages would the author be
most likely to agree?
(A) Such documents cannot receive adequate
protection unless current copyright laws are
strengthened.
(B) Such documents cannot be protected from
unauthorized distribution without significantly
diminishing the potential of the Web to be a
widely used form of communication.
(C) The nearly instantaneous access afforded by the
Web makes it impossible in practice to limit
access to such documents.
(D) Such documents can be protected from
copyright infringement with the least damage
to the public interest only by altering existing
legal codes.
(E) Such documents cannot fully contribute to the
Web’s free exchange of ideas unless their
authors allow them to be freely accessed by
those who wish to do so.
18. Based on the passage, the relationship between
strengthening current copyright laws and relying on
passwords to restrict access to a Web document is most
analogous to the relationship between
(A) allowing everyone use of a public facility and
restricting its use to members of the
community
(B) outlawing the use of a drug and outlawing its
sale
(C) prohibiting a sport and relying on participants to
employ proper safety gear
(D) passing a new law and enforcing that law
(E) allowing unrestricted entry to a building and
restricting entry to those who have been issued
a badge
19. The passage most strongly implies which one of the
following?
(A) There are no creators of links to Web pages
who are also owners of intellectual property on
Web pages.
(B) The person who controls access to a Web page
document should be considered the distributor
of that document.
(C) Rights of privacy should not be extended to
owners of intellectual property placed on the
Web.
(D) Those who create links to Web pages have
primary control over who reads the documents
on those pages.
(E) A document on a Web page must be converted
to a physical document via printing before
copyright infringement takes place.
20. According to the passage, which one of the following
features of outgoing messages left on telephone
answering machines is most relevant to the debate
concerning copyright infringement?
(A) Such messages are carried by an electronic
medium of communication.
(B) Such messages are not legally protected against
unauthorized distribution.
(C) Transmission of such messages is virtually
instantaneous.
(D) People do not usually care whether or not
others might record such messages.
(E) Such messages have purposely been made
available to anyone who calls that telephone
number.
21. The author’s discussion of telephone answering
machines serves primarily to
(A) compare and contrast the legal problems created
by two different sorts of electronic media
(B) provide an analogy to illustrate the positions
taken by each of the two sides in the copyright
debate
(C) show that the legal problems produced by new
communication technology are not themselves
new
(D) illustrate the basic principle the author believes
should help determine the outcome of the
copyright debate
(E) show that telephone use also raises concerns
about copyright infringement
22. According to the passage, present copyright laws
(A) allow completely unrestricted use of any
document placed by its author on a Web page
(B) allow those who establish links to a document
on a Web page to control its distribution to
others
(C) prohibit anyone but the author of a document
from making a profit from the document’s
distribution
(D) allow the author of a document to sue anyone
who distributes the document without
permission
(E) should be altered to allow more complete
freedom in the exchange of ideas

In tracing the changing face of the Irish
landscape, scholars have traditionally relied primarily
on evidence from historical documents. However, such
documentary sources provide a fragmentary record at
(5) best. Reliable accounts are very scarce for many parts
of Ireland prior to the seventeenth century, and many
of the relevant documents from the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries focus selectively on matters
relating to military or commercial interests.
(10) Studies of fossilized pollen grains preserved in
peats and lake muds provide an additional means of
investigating vegetative landscape change. Details of
changes in vegetation resulting from both human
activities and natural events are reflected in the kinds
(15) and quantities of minute pollen grains that become
trapped in sediments. Analysis of samples can identify
which kinds of plants produced the preserved pollen
grains and when they were deposited, and in many
cases the findings can serve to supplement or correct
(20) the documentary record.
For example, analyses of samples from Long
Lough in County Down have revealed significant
patterns of cereal-grain pollen beginning by about 400
A.D. The substantial clay content of the soil in this part
(25) of Down makes cultivation by primitive tools difficult.
Historians thought that such soils were not tilled to
any significant extent until the introduction of the
moldboard plough to Ireland in the seventh century
A.D. Because cereal cultivation would have required
(30) tilling of the soil, the pollen evidence indicates that
these soils must indeed have been successfully tilled
before the introduction of the new plough.
Another example concerns flax cultivation in
County Down, one of the great linen-producing areas
(35) of Ireland during the eighteenth century. Some aspects
of linen production in Down are well documented, but
the documentary record tells little about the cultivation
of flax, the plant from which linen is made, in that
area. The record of eighteenth-century linen
(40) production in Down, together with the knowledge that
flax cultivation had been established in Ireland
centuries before that time, led some historians to
surmise that this plant was being cultivated in Down
before the eighteenth century. But pollen analyses
(45) indicate that this is not the case; flax pollen was found
only in deposits laid down since the eighteenth
century.
It must be stressed, though, that there are limits to
the ability of the pollen record to reflect the vegetative
(50) history of the landscape. For example, pollen analyses
cannot identify the species, but only the genus or
family, of some plants. Among these is madder, a
cultivated dye plant of historical importance in Ireland.
Madder belongs to a plant family that also comprises
(55) various native weeds, including goosegrass. If madder
pollen were present in a deposit it would be
indistinguishable from that of uncultivated native
species.
23. Which one of the following most accurately expresses
the main point of the passage?
(A) Analysis of fossilized pollen is a useful means
of supplementing and in some cases correcting
other sources of information regarding changes
in the Irish landscape.
(B) Analyses of historical documents, together with
pollen evidence, have led to the revision of
some previously accepted hypotheses regarding
changes in the Irish landscape.
(C) Analysis of fossilized pollen has proven to be a
valuable tool in the identification of ancient
plant species.
(D) Analysis of fossilized pollen has provided new
evidence that the cultivation of such crops as
cereal grains, flax, and madder had a
significant impact on the landscape of Ireland.
(E) While pollen evidence can sometimes
supplement other sources of historical
information, its applicability is severely
limited, since it cannot be used to identify
plant species.
24. The passage indicates that pollen analyses have provided
evidence against which one of the following views?
(A) The moldboard plough was introduced into
Ireland in the seventh century.
(B) In certain parts of County Down, cereal grains
were not cultivated to any significant extent
before the seventh century.
(C) In certain parts of Ireland, cereal grains have
been cultivated continuously since the
introduction of the moldboard plough.
(D) Cereal grain cultivation requires successful
tilling of the soil.
(E) Cereal grain cultivation began in County Down
around 400 A.D.
25. The phrase “documentary record” (lines 20 and 37)
primarily refers to
(A) documented results of analyses of fossilized
pollen
(B) the kinds and quantities of fossilized pollen
grains preserved in peats and lake muds
(C) written and pictorial descriptions by current
historians of the events and landscapes of past
centuries
(D) government and commercial records, maps, and
similar documents produced in the past that
recorded conditions and events of that time
(E) articles, books, and other documents by current
historians listing and analyzing all the
available evidence regarding a particular
historical period



26. The passage indicates that prior to the use of pollen
analysis in the study of the history of the Irish
landscape, at least some historians believed which one
of the following?
(A) The Irish landscape had experienced significant
flooding during the seventeenth century.
(B) Cereal grain was not cultivated anywhere in
Ireland until at least the seventh century.
(C) The history of the Irish landscape during the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was well
documented.
(D) Madder was not used as a dye plant in Ireland
until after the eighteenth century.
(E) The beginning of flax cultivation in County
Down may well have occurred before the
eighteenth century.
27. Which one of the following most accurately describes
the relationship between the second paragraph and the
final paragraph?
(A) The second paragraph proposes a hypothesis for
which the final paragraph offers a supporting
example.
(B) The final paragraph describes a problem that
must be solved before the method advocated in
the second paragraph can be considered viable.
(C) The final paragraph qualifies the claim made in
the second paragraph.
(D) The second paragraph describes a view against
which the author intends to argue, and the final
paragraph states the author’s argument against
that view.
(E) The final paragraph offers procedures to
supplement the method described in the second
paragraph.
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Default Re: LSAT Writing Sample Practice

LSAT India is a standardized test of reading and verbal reasoning skills designed by USA–based Law School Admission Council (LSAC) for use by law schools in India.

LSAT India is generally administered across 15 cities in India by the 3rd week of May 2014 (tentatively)

Exam Pattern:
Test scores are reported on a percentile basis, comparing each candidate’s performance to that of others within his or her candidate group (Five-Year Integrated LL.B. Programme or Two-Year LL.M./ Three-Year LL.B. Programme).
Section Number of questions Timing
Analytical Reasoning Approx 24 35 minutes
1st Logical Reasoning Approx 24 35 minutes
2nd Logical Reasoning Approx 24 35 minutes
Reading Comprehension Approx 24 35 minutes
Total : 4 sections 92-100 questions 2 hours 20 minutes

The sections on the LSAT India may appear in any order but always consist of one Analytical Reasoning section, one Reading Comprehension section, and two Logical Reasoning sections.
The LSAT India is paper-and-pencil test.
All questions are in a multiple-choice format, some with four answer choices and others with five.

Important Dates:
Registration window (Online payments)-November 12, 2013 to April 30, 2014
Registration window (Demand Draft Payments)-November 12, 2013 to April 28, 2014
Admit Card release-May 8, 2014 to May 17, 2014
LSAT-India 2014, Test Date -May 18, 2014
Announcement of Results-June 14, 2014

LSAT Sample Question Paper

Directions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some
questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that
is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question. You should not make assumptions that are by
commonsense standards implausible, superfluous, or incompatible with the passage. After you have chosen the best answer,
blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.

1. French divers recently found a large cave along the
coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The cave is accessible
only through an underwater tunnel. The interior of the
cave is completely filled with seawater and contains
numerous large stalagmites, which are stony pillars
that form when drops of water fall repeatedly on a
single spot on a cave floor, leaving behind mineral
deposits that accumulate over time.
The information above most strongly supports
which one of the following?
(A) The Mediterranean Sea was at a higher level in
the past than it is now.
(B) The water level within the cave is higher now
than it once was.
(C) The French divers were the first people who knew
that the tunnel leading to the cave existed.
(D) There was once an entrance to the cave besides
the underwater tunnel.
(E) Seawater in the Mediterranean has a lower
mineral content now than it had when the
stalagmites were being formed.

2. Adirector of the Rexx Pharmaceutical Company argued
that the development costs for new vaccines that the
health department has requested should be subsidized by
the government, since the marketing of vaccines
promised to be less profitable than the marketing of any
other pharmaceutical product. In support of this claim
the director argued that sales of vaccines are likely to be
lower since each vaccine is administered to a patient
only once, whereas medicines that combat diseases and
chronic illnesses are administered many times to each
patient.
Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the
support offered by the company director for the claim
concerning the marketing of vaccines?
(A) Vaccines are administered to many more people
than are most other pharmaceutical products.
(B) Many of the diseases that vaccines are designed
to prevent can be successfully treated by
medicines.
(C) Pharmaceutical companies occasionally market
products that are neither medicines nor vaccines.
(D) Pharmaceutical companies other than the Rexx
Pharmaceutical Company produce vaccines.
(E) The cost of administering a vaccine is rarely
borne by the pharmaceutical company that
manufactures that vaccine.

3. Manager: Our new computer network, the purpose of
which is to increase productivity, can be installed
during the day, which would disrupt our
employees’ work, or else at night, which would
entail much higher installation charges. Since
saving money is important, we should have the
network installed during the day.
The manager’s argument assumes which one of the
following?
(A) The monetary value of the network equipment
would not exceed the cost of having the
equipment installed at night.
(B) The monetary value of any productivity lost
during a daytime installation would be less
than the difference between daytime and
nighttime installation costs.
(C) A daytime installation would be completed by
no larger a crew and would take the crew no
more time than would a nighttime installation.
(D) Once the network has been installed, most of the
company’s employees will be able to use it
immediately to increase their productivity.
(E) Most of the company’s employees would be
able to work productively while a daytime
installation is in progress.

4. An ingredient in marijuana known as THC has been
found to inactivate herpesviruses in experiments. In
previous experiments researchers found that inactivated
herpesviruses can convert healthy cells into cancer cells.
It can be concluded that the use of marijuana can cause
cancer.
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously
weakens the argument?
(A) Several teams of scientists performed the various
experiments and all of the teams had similar
results.
(B) The carcinogenic effect of THC could be
neutralized by the other ingredients found in
marijuana.
(C) When THC kills herpesviruses it weakens the
immune system, and it might thus diminish the
body’s ability to fight other viruses, including
viruses linked to cancers.
(D) If chemists modify the structure of THC, THC
can be safely incorporated into medications to
prevent herpes.
(E) To lessen the undesirable side effects of
chemotherapy, the use of marijuana has been
recommended for cancer patients who are free of
the herpesvirus.

5. Archaeologist: Alarge corporation has recently offered
to provide funding to restore an archaeological site
and to construct facilities to make the site readily
accessible to the general public. The restoration will
conform to the best current theories about
how the site appeared at the height of the ancient
civilization that occupied it. This offer should be
rejected, however, because many parts of the site
contain unexamined evidence.
Which one of the following principles, if valid, justifies
the archaeologist’s argument?
(A) The ownership of archaeological sites should not
be under the control of business interests.
(B) Any restoration of an archaeological site should
represent only the most ancient period of that
site’s history.
(C) No one should make judgments about what
constitutes the height of another civilization.
(D) Only those with a true concern for an
archaeological site’s history should be involved
in the restoration of that site.
(E) The risk of losing evidence relevant to possible
future theories should outweigh any advantages
of displaying the results of theories already
developed.

6. Besides laying eggs in her own nest, any female wood
duck will lay an egg in the nest of another female wood
duck if she sees the other duck leaving her nest. Under
natural nesting conditions, this parasitic behavior is
relatively rare because the ducks’ nests are well hidden.
However, when people put up nesting boxes to help the
ducks breed, they actually undercut the ducks’
reproductive efforts. These nesting boxes become so
crowded with extra eggs that few, if any, of the eggs in
those boxes hatch.
The statements above, if true, most strongly support
which one of the following?
(A) Female wood ducks will establish nests in nest
boxes only when natural nesting sites are not
available.
(B) Nesting female wood ducks who often see other
female wood ducks are the most successful in
their breeding efforts.
(C) The nesting boxes for wood ducks have less space
for eggs than do natural nesting sites.
(D) The nesting boxes would be more effective in
helping wood ducks breed if they were less
visible to other wood ducks than they currently
are.
(E) Nesting boxes are needed to supplement the
natural nesting sites of wood ducks because of
the destruction of much of the ducks’ habitat.

7. The crux of creativity resides in the ability to
manufacture variations on a theme. If we look at the
history of science, for instance, we see that every idea is
built upon a thousand related ideas. Careful analysis
leads us to understand that what we choose to call a new
theme or a new discovery is itself always and without
exception some sort of variation, on a deep level, of
previous themes.
If all of the statements in the passage are true, each of
the following must also be true EXCEPT:
(A) A lack of ability to manufacture a variation on a
previous theme connotes a lack of creativity.
(B) No scientific idea is entirely independent of all
other ideas.
(C) Careful analysis of a specific variation can reveal
previous themes of which it is a variation.
(D) All great scientific discoverers have been able to
manufacture a variation on a theme.
(E) Some new scientific discoveries do not represent,
on a deep level, a variation on previous themes.

8. Millions of female bats rear their pups in Bracken Cave.
Although the mothers all leave the cave nightly, on their
return each mother is almost always swiftly reunited
with her own pup. Since the bats’ calls are their only
means of finding one another, and a bat pup cannot
distinguish the call of its mother from that of any other
adult bat, it is clear that each mother bat can recognize
the call of her pup.
The argument seeks to do which one of the following?
(A) derive a general conclusion about all members of
a group from facts known about representative
members of that group
(B) establish the validity of one explanation for a
phenomenon by excluding alternative
explanations
(C) support, by describing a suitable mechanism, the
hypothesis that a certain phenomenon can occur
(D) conclude that members of two groups are likely to
share a certain ability because of other
characteristics they share
(E) demonstrate that a general rule applies in a
particular case

9. Someone who gets sick from eating a meal will often
develop a strong distaste for the one food in the meal
that had the most distinctive flavor, whether or not that
food caused the sickness. This phenomenon explains
why children are especially likely to develop strong
aversions to some foods.
Which one of the following, if true, provides the
strongest support for the explanation?
(A) Children are more likely than adults to be given
meals composed of foods lacking especially
distinctive flavors.
(B) Children are less likely than adults to see a
connection between their health and the foods
they eat.
(C) Children tend to have more acute taste and to
become sick more often than adults do.
(D) Children typically recover more slowly than
adults do from sickness caused by food.
(E) Children are more likely than are adults to refuse
to eat unfamiliar foods.

10. Premiums for automobile accident insurance are often
higher for red cars than for cars of other colors. To
justify these higher charges, insurance companies claim
that, overall, a greater percentage of red cars are
involved in accidents than are cars of any other color. If
this claim is true, then lives could undoubtedly be saved
by banning red cars from the roads altogether.
The reasoning in the argument is flawed because
the argument
(A) accepts without question that insurance
companies have the right to charge higher
premiums for higher-risk clients
(B) fails to consider whether red cars cost the same to
repair as cars of other colors
(C) ignores the possibility that drivers who drive
recklessly have a preference for red cars
(D) does not specify precisely what percentage of red
cars are involved in accidents
(E) makes an unsupported assumption that every
automobile accident results in some loss of life

11. A certain credit-card company awards its customers
bonus points for using its credit card. Customers can
use accumulated points in the purchase of brand name
merchandise by mail at prices lower than the
manufacturers’ suggested retail prices. At any given
time, therefore, customers who purchase merchandise
using the bonus points spend less than they would spend
if they purchased the same merchandise in retail stores.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which
the argument depends?
(A) The merchandise that can be ordered by mail
using the bonus points is not offered at lower
prices by other credit-card companies that award
bonus points.
(B) The bonus points cannot be used by the creditcard
customers in the purchase of brand name
merchandise that is not available for purchase in
retail stores.
(C) The credit-card company does not require its
customers to accumulate a large number of
bonus points before becoming eligible to order
merchandise at prices lower than the
manufacturers’ suggested retail price.
(D) The amount credit-card customers pay for
shipping the merchandise ordered by mail does
not increase the amount customers spend to an
amount greater than they would spend if they
purchased the same merchandise in retail stores.
(E) The merchandise available to the company’s
credit-card customers using the bonus points
is frequently sold in retail stores at prices that are
higher than the manufacturers’ suggested retail
prices.

12. It is probably not true that colic in infants is caused by
the inability of those infants to tolerate certain antibodies
found in cow’s milk, since it is often the case that
symptoms of colic are shown by infants that are fed
breast milk exclusively.
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously
weakens the argument?
(A) A study involving 500 sets of twins has found
that if one infant has colic, its twin will probably
also have colic.
(B) Symptoms of colic generally disappear as infants
grow older, whether the infants have been fed
breast milk exclusively or have been fed infant
formula containing cow’s milk.
(C) In a study of 5,000 infants who were fed only
infant formula containing cow’s milk, over
4,000 of the infants never displayed any
symptoms of colic.
(D) When mothers of infants that are fed only breast
milk eliminate cow’s milk and all products made
from cow’s milk from their own diets, any colic
symptoms that their infants have manifested
quickly disappear.
(E) Infants that are fed breast milk develop mature
digestive systems at an earlier age than do those
that are fed infant formulas, and infants with
mature digestive systems are better able to
tolerate certain proteins and antibodies found in
cow’s milk.

Questions 13–14
Yolanda: Gaining access to computers without
authorization and manipulating the data and
programs they contain is comparable to joyriding
in stolen cars; both involve breaking into private
property and treating it recklessly. Joyriding,
however, is the more dangerous crime because it
physically endangers people, whereas only
intellectual property is harmed in the case of
computer crimes.
Arjun: I disagree! For example, unauthorized use of
medical records systems in hospitals could
damage data systems on which human lives
depend, and therefore computer crimes also
cause physical harm to people.

13. An issue in dispute between Yolanda and Arjun is
(A) whether joyriding physically endangers human
lives
(B) whether the unauthorized manipulation of
computer data involves damage to private
property
(C) whether damage to physical property is more
criminal than damage to intellectual property
(D) whether the unauthorized use of computers is as
dangerous to people as is joyriding
(E) whether treating private property recklessly is
ever a dangerous crime
14. The reasoning in Arjun’s response is flawed because he
(A) fails to maintain a distinction made in Yolanda’s
argument
(B) denies Yolanda’s conclusion without providing
evidence against it
(C) relies on the actuality of a phenomenon that he
has only shown to be possible
(D) mistakes something that leads to his conclusion
for something that is necessary for his
conclusion
(E) uses as evidence a phenomenon that is
inconsistent with his own conclusion

15. Areport of a government survey concluded that Center
City was among the ten cities in the nation with the
highest dropout rate from its schools. The survey data
were obtained by asking all city residents over the age of
19 whether they were high school graduates and
computing the proportion who were not. Acity school
official objected that the result did not seem accurate
according to the schools’ figures.
The school official can most properly criticize the
reasoning by which the survey report reached its result
for failure to do which one of the following?
(A) take into account instances of respondents’
dropping out that occurred before the
respondents reached high school
(B) ask residents whether they had completed their
high school work in fewer than the usual number
of years
(C) distinguish between residents who had
attended the city’s schools and those who had
received their schooling elsewhere
(D) predict the effect of the information contained in
the report on future high school dropout rates
for the city
(E) consider whether a diploma from the city’s high
schools signaled the same level of achievement
over time

16. Brown dwarfs—dim red stars that are too cool to burn
hydrogen—are very similar in appearance to red dwarf
stars, which are just hot enough to burn hydrogen. Stars,
when first formed, contain substantial amounts of the
element lithium. All stars but the coolest of the brown
dwarfs are hot enough to destroy lithium completely by
converting it to helium. Accordingly, any star found that
contains no lithium is not one of these coolest brown
dwarfs.
The argument depends on assuming which one of the
following?
(A) None of the coolest brown dwarfs has ever been
hot enough to destroy lithium.
(B) Most stars that are too cool to burn hydrogen
are too cool to destroy lithium completely.
(C) Brown dwarfs that are not hot enough to destroy
lithium are hot enough to destroy helium.
(D) Most stars, when first formed, contain roughly the
same percentage of lithium.
(E) No stars are more similar in appearance to red
dwarfs than are brown dwarfs.

17. Whenever a company loses a major product-liability
lawsuit, the value of the company’s stocks falls
significantly within hours after the announcement. Cotoy
has long been involved in a major product-liability
lawsuit, and its stocks fell significantly in value today.
Therefore, we can be sure that an unfavorable judgment
against Cotoy in that lawsuit was announced earlier
today.
Which one of the following contains flawed reasoning
that most closely parallels that in the argument above?
(A) Whenever a business treats its customers
discourteously, its customers begin to shop
elsewhere. Shopwell wants to keep all of its
customers; therefore, its employees will never
treat customers discourteously.
(B) Whenever the large airlines decrease fares, the
financial stability of smaller competing airlines
is adversely affected. Therefore, the smaller
competing airlines’ financial stability must be
seriously threatened when the large airlines
announce a large price decrease.
(C) Whenever a country shows a lack of leadership
on international issues, respect for the country’s
policies begins to decline. Therefore, to gain
respect for its policies, a country should show
leadership on international issues.
(D) Whenever an entering student at Cashman
College wins the Performance Fellowship, he or
she receives $10,000. Therefore, Eula, a student
who has enrolled at Cashman, must have won
the Performance Fellowship, because she just
received $10,000 from the college.
(E) Whenever a company advertises its products
effectively, the company’s sales increase.
Oroco’s sales have not increased; therefore, it is
likely that the company did not advertise its
products effectively.

18. In recent years the climate has been generally cool in
northern Asia. But during periods when the average
daily temperature and humidity in northern Asia were
slightly higher than their normal levels the yields of most
crops grown there increased significantly. In the next
century, the increased average daily temperature and
humidity attained during those periods are expected to
become the norm. Yet scientists predict that the yearly
yields of most of the region’s crops will decrease during
the next century.
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to resolve
the apparent paradox in the information above?
(A) Crop yields in southern Asia are expected to
remain constant even after the average daily
temperature and humidity there increase from
recent levels.
(B) Any increases in temperature and humidity would
be accompanied by higher levels of atmospheric
carbon dioxide, which is vital to plant
respiration.
(C) The climate in northern Asia has generally been
too cool and dry in recent years for populations
of many crop insect pests to become established.
(D) In many parts of Asia, the increased annual
precipitation that would result from warmer and
wetter climates would cause most edible plant
species to flourish.
(E) The recent climate of northern Asia prevents
many crops from being farmed there during the
winter.

19. No one in the French department to which Professor
Alban belongs is allowed to teach more than one
introductory level class in any one term. Moreover, the
only language classes being taught next term are
advanced ones. So it is untrue that both of the French
classes Professor Alban will be teaching next term will
be introductory level classes.
The pattern of reasoning displayed in the argument
above is most closely paralleled by that in which one of
the following arguments?
(A) The Morrison Building will be fully occupied by
May and since if a building is occupied by May
the new tax rates apply to it, the Morrison
Building will be taxed according to the new
rates.
(B) The revised tax code does not apply at all to
buildings built before 1900, and only the first
section of the revised code applies to buildings
built between 1900 and 1920, so the revised
code does not apply to the Norton Building,
since it was built in 1873.
(C) All property on Overton Road will be
reassessed for tax purposes by the end of the
year and the Elnor Company headquarters is
on Overton Road, so Elnor’s property taxes
will be higher next year.
(D) New buildings that include public space are
exempt from city taxes for two years and all new
buildings in the city’s Alton district are exempt
for five years, so the building with the large
public space that was recently completed in
Alton will not be subject to city taxes next year.
(E) Since according to recent statute, a building that
is exempt from property taxes is charged for
city water at a special rate, and hospitals are
exempt from property taxes, Founder’s
Hospital will be charged for city water at the
special rate.

Questions 20–21
Some people have been promoting a new herbal mixture
as a remedy for the common cold. The mixture contains,
among other things, extracts of the plants purple coneflower
and goldenseal. A cold sufferer, skeptical of the
claim that the mixture is an effective cold remedy, argued,
“Suppose that the mixture were an effective cold remedy.
Since most people with colds wish to recover quickly, it
follows that almost everybody with a cold would be using
it. Therefore, since there are many people who have colds
but do not use the mixture, it is obviously not effective.”
20. Each of the following is an assumption required by
the skeptical cold sufferer’s argument EXCEPT:
(A) Enough of the mixture is produced to provide the
required doses to almost everybody with a cold.
(B) The mixture does not have side effects severe
enough to make many people who have colds
avoid using it.
(C) The mixture is powerful enough to prevent
almost everybody who uses it from
contracting any further colds.
(D) The mixture is widely enough known that
almost everybody with a cold is aware of it.
(E) There are no effective cold remedies available
that many people who have colds prefer to the
mixture.

21. Which one of the following most accurately describes
the method of reasoning the cold sufferer uses to
reach the conclusion of the argument?
(A) finding a claim to be false on the grounds that it
would if true have consequences that are false
(B) accepting a claim on the basis of public opinion
of the claim
(C) showing that conditions necessary to establish
the truth of a claim are met
(D) basing a generalization on a representative
group of instances
(E) showing that a measure claimed to be effective
in achieving a certain effect would actually
make achieving the effect more difficult

22. To hold criminals responsible for their crimes
involves a failure to recognize that criminal actions,
like all actions, are ultimately products of the
environment that forged the agent’s character. It is
not criminals but people in the law-abiding majority
who by their actions do most to create and maintain
this environment. Therefore, it is law-abiding people
whose actions, and nothing else, make them alone
truly responsible for crime.
The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to
criticism on the grounds that
(A) it exploits an ambiguity in the term
“environment” by treating two different
meanings of the word as though they were
equivalent
(B) it fails to distinguish between actions that are
socially acceptable and actions that are socially
unacceptable
(C) the way it distinguishes criminals from crimes
implicitly denies that someone becomes a
criminal solely in virtue of having committed a
crime
(D) its conclusion is a generalization of statistical
evidence drawn from only a small minority of
the population
(E) its conclusion contradicts an implicit principle on
which an earlier part of the argument is based

23. Chronic back pain is usually caused by a herniated or
degenerated spinal disk. In most cases the disk will
have been damaged years before chronic pain
develops, and in fact an estimated one in five people
over the age of 30 has a herniated or degenerated
disk that shows no chronic symptoms. If chronic pain
later develops in such a case, it is generally brought
about by a deterioration of the abdominal and spinal
muscles caused by insufficient exercise.
The statements above, if true, most strongly support
which one of the following?
(A) Four out of five people over the age of 30 can be
sure they will never develop chronic back pain.
(B) People who exercise their abdominal and spinal
muscles regularly are sure to be free from
chronic back pain.
(C) Patients rarely suffer even mild and fleeting
back pain at the time that a spinal disk first
becomes herniated or degenerated.
(D) Doctors can accurately predict which people
who do not have chronic back pain will
develop it in the future.
(E) There is a strategy that can be effective in
delaying or preventing the onset of pain from
a currently asymptomatic herniated or
degenerated spinal disk.

24. Each December 31 in Country Q, a tally is made of
the country’s total available coal supplies—that is,
the total amount of coal that has been mined
throughout the country but not consumed. In 1991
that amount was considerably lower than it had been
in 1990. Furthermore, Country Q has not imported or
exported coal since 1970.
If the statements above are true, which one of the
following must also be true on the basis of them?
(A) In Country Q, more coal was mined in 1990 than
was mined in 1991.
(B) In Country Q, the amount of coal consumed in
1991 was greater than the amount of coal
mined in 1991.
(C) In Country Q, the amount of coal consumed in
1990 was greater than the amount of coal
consumed in 1991.
(D) In Country Q, the amount of coal consumed in
1991 was greater than the amount of coal
consumed in 1990.
(E) In Country Q, more coal was consumed during
the first half of 1991 than was consumed
during the first half of 1990.

25. Tom: Employers complain that people graduating
from high school too often lack the vocational
skills required for full-time employment.
Therefore, since these skills are best acquired on
the job, we should require high school students to
work at part-time jobs so that they acquire the
skills needed for today’s job market.
Mary: There are already too few part-time jobs for
students who want to work, and simply requiring
students to work will not create jobs for them.
Which one of the following most accurately describes
how Mary’s response is related to Tom’s argument?
(A) It analyzes an undesirable result of undertaking
the course of action that Tom recommends.
(B) It argues that Tom has mistaken an unavoidable
trend for an avoidable one.
(C) It provides information that is inconsistent with
an explicitly stated premise in Tom’s
argument.
(D) It presents a consideration that undercuts an
assumption on which Tom’s argument depends.
(E) It defends an alternative solution to the problem
that Tom describes.
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Old February 24th, 2014, 04:33 PM
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Join Date: Nov 2011
Default Re: LSAT Writing Sample Practice

Here I am uploading a PDF file having the Previous Years Papers of LSAT Exam, there are objective types of the questions available. Following is the content of attachment:

If Freedom makes a voyage to Trinidad in week 5,
Which one of the following could be true?
(A) Freedom makes a voyage to Trinidad in week 1.
(B) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in
Week 2.
(C) Freedom makes a voyage to Guadeloupe in
Week 3.
(D) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in
week 4.
(E) Freedom makes a voyage to Jamaica in week 6.

17. Which one of the following must be true about
Freedom’s schedule of voyages?
(A) Freedom makes a voyage to Guadeloupe either in
week 1 or else in week 2.
(B) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique either in
week 2 or else in week 3.
(C) Freedom makes at most two voyages to
Guadeloupe.
(D) Freedom makes at most two voyages to Jamaica.
(E) Freedom makes at most two voyages to Trinidad.

Previous Years Papers of LSAT Exam









Rest is in the given attachment file please have a look in that it is free for you just download it
Attached Files Available for Download
File Type: pdf Previous Years Papers of LSAT Exam.pdf (507.1 KB, 25 views)
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