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Can you please give me the NAARM - ICAR Senior Research Fellowship (PGS) exam syllabus so can you provide me that?

As you want to get the NAARM - ICAR Senior Research Fellowship (PGS) exam syllabus so here is the information of the same for you:

Section 1:
0 History and Geography of India—Events of significance with specific reference to scientific, cultural and economic life in India.
1 General Awareness. Current events and analysis of their significance. Books, authors, persons, awards, places, projects, sports and athletics.
2 Famous personalities and their achievements in Arts/Science/Social life and trends of thought.
3 Major development programmes in India relating to poverty alleviation, agriculture, rural development etc. Five-Year Plans and their achievements—changes in the economic policies in the country and their impact on the agricultural scenario.
Section 2:
4 Agriculture in India. Basic information and data on the natural resources of the country; Agro-climatic and agro-ecological zones, Crops and their production; agricultural inputs and their use.
5 Basic information on animal sciences and fisheries; Major breeds of livestock and their geographic distribution; Information on production and major recent achievements.
6 Nutrition and agriculture—Basic information on foods and human nutrition.
7 Quantitative analysis of data relating to agriculture/animal sciences/fisheries. Drawing of conclusions from data, based upon reasoning and logic.
8 Policies in India relating to science, industry, agricultural, forestry. World trade agreement and its possible impact on Indian agriculture.
9 Current trends and achievements in science and scientific research on the global scene. Recent scientific achivements of significance in the country in major areas and their impact on agriculture, animal and fisheries.


Section 1: Basic Principles
Evaluation of scientific agriculture in India and the world. Origin and distribution of field crops. Physical, chemical and biological factors affecting growth and development of field crops. Modern concepts of tillage. Cropping patterns and systems. Laws of agrobiology. Root development and distribution. Plant growth analysis. Plant population, sowing techniques, time and depth. Crop yield components. Constraints in crop production and factors for crop yield maximization,
Section 2: Crop Ecology and Geography
Geography of cereals, legumes, oilseeds, vegetables, fodders and forages, commercial, spices and condiment crops, medicinal and masticatory crops. Environmental factors affecting distribution and adoptation of crops. Agro-ecological and agroclimatic regions. Ecological factors affecting crop growth. Crop yield and agro-meteorological relationships. Crop yields and ecological optima. Adverse climatic factors and crop productivity. Soil and groundwater pollution by fertilizers and herbicides.
Section 3: Weed Management
Scope and principles of weed management. Weed-classification, biology, ecology and allelopathy. Crop weed competition. Herbicides-classification, formulation, mode of action, selectivity and resistance. Persistence of herbicides in soils and plants. Application-methods and equipment. Biological weed control, bio-herbicides and myco-herbicides, Integrated weed management. Special weeds, parasitic and aquatic weeds and their management in crops, cropping systems, and non-cropped lands.
Section 4: Water Management
Soil-water-plant relationships. Water movement in saturated and unsaturated soils. Soil moisture stress and plant growth. History of water resources development in India. Major irrigation projects in India and irrigation project planning. Modern concepts in irrigation management. Methods of determining water and irrigation requirements of field crops. Consumptive use of water and methods of computation including empirical formulae.

Quality of irrigation water. Scheduling of irrigation under assured and limited water supply. Factors affecting water use efficiency. Water management in field crops and cropping systems. Methods of irrigation-merits and limitations. Conjunctive use of water.
Section 5: Soil and Fertilizer Use
History of soil fertility and fertilizer use. Concept of essentiality of plant nutrients, their availability, management and diagnostic techniques. Concepts of soil fertility and productivity. Organic matter and organic manures. Green manuring. Cropping systems and soil fertility relationships. Fertilizer materials, their classification, composition, mineralization, availability and reaction products in relation to crop nutrition. Principles and methods of fertilizer application. Fertilizer use efficiency in different situations. Integrated nutrient management.
Section 6: Dryland Agronomy
History and development of dryland agriculture in India, crop selection criteria for drylands. Concept of intercropping/ mixed cropping in drylands. Precipitation-collection, conservation and utilization. Crop production under moisture stress situations. Contingency crop planning for aberrant weather conditions. Use of mulches and transpiration suppressants, Fertilizer management in dryland crops. Cropping patterns and crop diversification in dryland.
Section 7: Crop Production in Problem Areas
Principles of field drainage. Excess soil water and plant growth. Cropping systems/patterns on poorly drained soils. Problem soils and their distribution in India. Management of acid, saline and alkali soils. Excess salt and water tolerant crops. Crop production techniques in problem soils.
Section 8: Crop Production
Crop production techniques for cereals, legumes, oilseeds, fibre crops, sugarcane, tobacco, potato, onion, fodder and pasture crops including history, distribution, season, adaptability, climate, soil and water requirements, and component technology, quality characteristics, uses and seed production techniques.
Section 9: Agricultural Statistics
Frequency distribution, mean, media and mode, Correlation and response function. Tests of significance-t, f and chi; -square tests. Designs of experiments—basic principles, completely randomised, randomised block design, latin square split, strip, factorial and simple confounding designs.
Section 10: Sustainable Land Use Systems
Concept of sustainability. Alternate land use systems. Types, extent and causes of wastelands. Shifting cultivation. History and concept of agroforestry. Types of agro-forestry systems. Energy and fuel wood plantations. Agricultural and ago-industrial residues and their recycling/safe disposal. Allelopathy and biomass production. Bioenergetics of crop production systems.
Section 1: Basic Genetic Principles
Mendelian inheritance. Structure, organization and division of cells. Physical basis of heredity. Sex linkage and sex determination. Linkage and crossing over, detection and estimation of linkage. Gene mapping in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Gene concept, allelism and fine structure of the gene, Extra-chromosomal inheritance, male sterility and incompatibility.
Section 2: Genetic Material
Structure, function, replication and repair. Primary and secondary structures of DNA and RNA, Genetic code. Gene-enzyme relationships. Transcription and RNA processing. Translation. Gene regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Dynamic genome—insertion sequences, transposable elements, genome organization and repetitive DNA. DNA restriction and modification. Chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes.
Section 3: Chromosomes
Structure, function and replication. Chromosomal differentiation and banding techniques. Chromosome labelling and in situ hybridization. Karyotype. Artificial chromosomes. Special types of chromosomes.
Section 4: Structural and Numerical Variations of Chromosomes
Interchanges, inversions, duplications and deletions. Polyploids, haploids, aneuploids and their utility. Chromosomal manipulation. Cytogenetic techniques for gene location and gene transfer. Wide hybridization.
Section 5: Genome Analysis and Cytogenetics of Crop Plants
Wheat, maize, rice, Brassica, cotton, Vigna, potato and sugarcane.
Section 6: Mutation
Induction, detection and utilization of mutation. Mutagens. Molecular mechanisms of mutation. Directed mutagenesis, Transposon-induced mutations.
Section 7: Genetics of Development
Genome constancy in development. Nucleo-cytoplasmic interaction. Differential gene expression. Gene amplification.
Cell determination, tissue differentiation and pattern formation. Homeotic genes. Double fertilization. Embryo and endosperm development. Seed storage protein synthesis. Human genetic disorders.
Section 8: Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
Artificial synthesis of gene. Gene cloning and vectors. Genomic and c-DNA library. Transposon tagging. DNA sequencing. Nucleic acid hybridization and immune-chemical detection. Chromosome walking RFLP, RAPD and PCR approaches. Molecular markers for crop improvement. Recombinant DNA technology. Antisense RNA and ribozymes. Genetic transformation and transgencies.
Section 9: Population Genetics
Gene and genotypic frequencies and forces changing gence frequency. Concept of natural, idealized and non-idealized populations. Hardy-Weinberg Law. Linkage disequilibrium. Small populations and genetic drift. Inbreeding and systems of inbreeding. Genetic load. Polymorphism.
Section 10: Quantitative and Biometrical Genetics
Quantitative character. Multiple factor inheritance, polygenic variation. Concept of breeding value. Heritability. Selection response. Mating designs-diallel and line x tester. Combining ability, basic concepts and estimation of gene effects. Components of variance and their partitioning. Random and fixed effect models. Genotype x environmental interactions. Heterosis.
Section 11: Statistics
Frequency distribution, Measures of central tendency. probability theory and its implications in genetics, probability distributions and tests of significance. Correlation, linear, partial and multiple regression. Genetic divergence. D2 Design of experiments-basic principles, CRD, RBD and Split plot.
Section 1: Role of Plant Breeding in Agriculture
Objectives of plant breeding. Development of plant breeding from ancient time. Early plant breeders and their~ accomplishments. Characteristics improved by plant breeding.
Section 2: Reproductive Systems
Cell division, gametogenesis and fertilization. Sexual and asexual reproduction. Apomixis. Incompatibility and male sterility systems and their use in plant breeding.
Section 3: Genetic Principles
Mendelian principles of inheritance. Linkage and crossing over. Mutation. Chromosomal aberrations and polyploidy. Extrachromosomal inheritance.
Section 4: Quantitative Inheritance and Selection
Drift. Inbreeding, inbreeding depression and heterosis. Combining ability and heritability. Responses to selection, types of selection, and correlated response to selection. Mating systems. Estimation of variance components and covariance among relatives.
Section 5: Breeding plans
Basic schemes: Pure lines and inbred lines. Breeding methods for improvement of self-pollinated plants, cross-pollinated plants and clones. Component and transgressive breeding. Backcrossing. Single-seed descent method. Multilines. Intra-and inter-population improvement methods. Development of synthetics and composites. Genetic basis of heterosis and development of hybrid cultivars. Concept of plant ideotype and its role in crop improvement.
Section 6: Genotype x Environment Interactions
Types of interactions. Assessment of genotype x environment interactions. Selection of testing locations. Allocations of resources. Stability of genotype performance and its estimation.
Section 7: Breeding for Biotic and Abiotic Stresses
Kinds of resistance. Mechanisms for disease and insect resistance. Breeding for specific resistance and general resistance. Breeding for quality traits and for resistance to heat, frost, flood, drought and soil stresses.
Section 8: Special Techniques for Plant Improvement
Use of cytogenetical and biotechnological tools and techniques-haploids, aneuploids, wide-hybridization, embryoculture, meristem culture, cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, protoplast fusion, RFLP, RAPD, QTL and molecular marker assisted selection, gene tagging and antisense RNA technology.
Section 9: Genetic Resources and Germplasm Conservation
Centers of origin, New domestication and new adaptation. Need for conservation strategy. Methods of maintenance.
Section 10: Release, Seed Production and Distribution of Cultivars
Objectives and types of trials. Design of trials and trial systems. Breeder Seed multiplication. Hybrid seed production. production of parental lines. Identification and release of varieties. Seed certification and regulatory agencies. Plant Breeder's right and variety protection.

Section 11: Statistical Methods and Field Plot Techniques
Sources of variation. Field plot techniques and methods for increasing accuracy of field experiments. Design of experiments and analysis of variance. Factorial schemes. Complete and incomplete block design, augmented design, grid and honeycomb designs. Hill plots, unreplicated evaluation. Data collection and interpretation. Correlation and regression. Tests of significance (t, F and chi-square).
Section 1: Seed Biology
Floral biology, mode of reproduction, sporogenesis, pollination, fertilization, embryogenesis, fruit and seed development. Apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony and somatic embryoids. Seed structure of monocot and dicot. Chemical composition of seeds. Seed dormancy—types, causes, mechanisms in induction and release, factors affecting, methods to overcome, bud dormancy, and significance in agriculture. Seed germination-requirements, imbibition pattern, physiological and biochemical changes, and role of hormones. Seed invigoration procedures.
Section 2: Seed Production
Introduction to crop breeding methods. Variety testing, release and notification. Genetic purity, concept, and factors responsible for deterioration of varieties. Maintenance breeding. Generation system of seed multiplication. Seed production agencies. Identification of seed production areas and factors affecting. Compact area approach in seed production. Seed production planning, equipment, input and manpower requirement. Factors affecting pollination and seed set—temperature, humidity, wind velocity, insect pollinators, supplementary pollination. Male sterility, self incompatibility and their role in hybrid seed production. Principles and methods of seed production of varieties and hybrids of cereals like wheat, paddy, sorghum, pearlmillet and maize; pulses like chickpea, pigeonpea, greengram, blackgram, soybean and cowpea; oilseeds like groundnut, brassica, sesame, sunflower and castor; fibre crops like cotton and Jute; vegetable crops like tomato, brinjal, okra, chilli, important cole and cucurbitaceous crops; important forages legumes and grasses, and true seed production in potato with reference to land requirements, isolation, rogueing, seed crops management, time of harvesting, threshing/extraction methods. Seed production technology of plantation crops like coffee, tea, rubber, cocoa, cardamom and pepper. Disease-free clonal propagation of crops like potato, sugarcane, sweet potato, tapioca, colocasia, betelvine; fruit crops like mango, citrus, banana, guava, sapota, pineapple, grape, apple, pear, plum, peach, apricot, tea rose; and seed production and clonal propagation of annual and perennial flowers like rose, gladiolus, chrysanthemum, marigold, dahlia, flex and petunia. Clonal standards and degeneration.
Section 3: Seed Processing
Principles of seed processing. Seed drying—principles and methods Pre-cleaning, grading, treating, and packaging. Seed processing machines like cleaner-cum-grader, specific gravity separator, indented cylinder; seed treater, weighing and bagging machines, their operation and maintenance. Seed quality maintenance during processing.
Section 4: Seed Quality Control
Seed legislation-Seed Act, seed rules, Seed Control Order and seed law enforcement. Seed certification-history, concept, organization, phases and minimum certification standards. Field inspection principles and methods. Inspection at harvesting threshing and processing. Pre-and post- quality testing for genetic purity. Seed testing—concepts and objectives, role in seed quality control, seed sampling, seed moisture testing, purity analysis, germination testing, tolerance tests and equipments. Testing of treated and pelleted seeds. Quick viability tests. Seed vigour—concept, significance in productivity and storage, seed vigour tests. Testing for genuineness of varieties-principles and methods based on seed, seedling and plant characters, biochemical techniques namely electrophoresis of proteins and isoenzymes and DNA finger printing.
Section 5: Seed Storage
Need for storage. Storage behaviour of orthodox, recalcitrant and intermediary seeds. Factors affecting seed storage and role of moisture, temperature, RH, and moisture equilibrium. Seed deterioration causes, theories and methods of control. Packaging materials and hermetic packing. Storage structures. Methods of stacking and their impact. Short-and medium-term storage. Controlled storage. Germplasm storage. Cryo preservation. Design features of short-medium-and long-term seed storage buildings. Operation and management of seed stores.
Section 6: Seed Health
Significance of seed health. Mode and mechanism of transmission of micro-organisms-fungi, bacteria and viruses. Procedures for seed health test and rules. Externally and internally seed-borne pathogens, mode of infection, development and spread. Methods of detection of seed -borne diseases. Important seed-borne diseases of cereals, oilseeds, pulses, fibre crops, vegetables and their control measures. Use of fungicides, botanicals, mycotoxins and their harmful effects. Quarantine and international procedures for phytosanitory certificate. Important storage pests, their identification, monitoring and detection, biology, ET value, nature and extent of damage, natural enemies and management. Important insecticides and their uses. Carry over infestation. Ecological factors. Principles of fumigation and safe use of fumigants. Botanicals for seed treatment.
Section 7: Seed Marketing
Economics of seed production. Market survey, demand forecasting, pricing policies: marketing channels, planning and sales production. Buyer behaviour and role of Government, semi-Government, co-operative and private sectors in seed trade. Responsibilities of seed companies and dealers in Seed Act. Seed import and export.
Pedology in relation to other disciplines. Rocks, minerals and other soil-forming materials. Geomorphic processes in land evolution. Geomorphology in soil mapping. Soil-landscape relationships. Basic concepts of soil genesis. Weathering of rocks and minerals. Factors of soil formation. Pedogenic processes. Soil development. Pedon, polypedon, profile, horizons and their nomenclature.
Section 2: Soil Mineralogy
Structure, characteristics and identification of soil minerals. Genesis and transformation of clay minerals. Non-crystalline components of soils.
Section 3: Soil Survey, Mapping and Cartography
Soil survey techniques. Types of soil surveys, base maps arid mapping units. Remote-sensing techniques including aerial photo interpretation for soil resource inventorization Cartography-techniques for preparation of base maps, soil and other interpretive maps, processing of field sheet, compilation and abstraction of maps in different scale.
Section 4: Soil Classification
Basic concepts and history of soil classification. FAO/UNESCO world soil reference system. USDA Soil Taxonomy— epipedons, diagnostic subsurface horizons and other diagnostic characteristics; soil moisture and temperature regimes; categories of the system and their criteria. Orders, sub-orders, great groups and other categories of taxonomic classification. Soil micromorphology-importance, thin section studies for identification of diagnostic horizons and other pedological features, and their interpretation for soil genesis and classification. Soils of India and their placement in Soil Taxonomy.
Section 5: Soil Correlation and Land-Use Planning
Soil correlation-concepts and correlation at various levels. Interpretation of soil resources information for agricultural and non-agricultural uses. Land capability and land irrigability classification. Land evaluation and land use planning. Concept of bench-mark soils for agrotechnology transfer.
Section 6: Soil Physics
Soil texture and soil structure—indices and evaluation. Mass-volume relationships in soil. Soil moisture retention characteristics; energetics of soil water in relation to its availability to plants; water movement in soil, soil water balance. Soil temperature, heat content and heat flow in soil. Soil air and aeration status. Principles of soil and water conservation. Different types of soil erosion and its control.
Section 7: Soil Chemistry
Chemical composition of soil. Soil reaction. Soil colloids, ion exchange-adsorption and desorption; ion activity and ionic equilibria in soils. Q/I relationship of nutrient ions; fixation and release of ions. Development, characteristics and management of saline, sodic, acid and water logged soils.
Section 8: Soil Fertility, Fertilizers and Manures
Essential elements in plant nutrition. Soil fertility evaluation—soil testing, plant tissue tests and biological tests. Soil organic matter decomposition, humus formation and role in soil fertility. Soil organisms, biological N-fixation and nutrient transformations. Mycorrhiza and plant nutrition. Manures, fertilizers, biofertilizers and their use. Quality control of fertilizers. Mechanism of ion absorption by plants. Isotopes and their use in agriculture. Distribution, characteristics and fertility status of major soil groups of India.
Section 9: Methods of Soil Analysis
Methods of soil analysis—particle size distribution, bulk and particle density, moisture constants, soil reaction, organic carbon, alkaline earth carbonates, C.E.C., exchangeable cations, and available nutrients. Instrumental methods, flame photometry, absorption spectrophotometry, potentiometry, conductimetry, X-ray diffractometry, thermal analysis and polarising microscopy.
Section 10: Statistics
Measures of central tendency and dispersion. Correlation and regression. Tests of significance—t and F tests. Principles of computer use.
Soil as a natural body. Rocks and minerals: their classification, composition and characteristics. Weathering of rocks and mineral. Soil formation. Chemical composition of soils. Soil orders. Soil survey, classification and mapping. Major soil groups of India—their characteristics, distribution and fertility status. Land-use classification.

Soil physical properties—their evaluation and relation to plant growth. Mass-volume relationship of soil. Soil texture, structure and consistence. Soil moisture retention characteristics. Energetics of soil water in relation to its availability to plants. Water and solute movement in Soil. Soil temperature-heat content and heat flow in soil. Soil aeration.
Section 3
Chemical composition of soil. Soil colloids-structure, composition, constitution of clay minerals, genesis of clay minerals amorphous clays and other non-crystalline silicate minerals, oxide and hydroxide minerals. Organic matter and humus complexes. Charge development on clays and organic matter. pH-charge relationships. Buffer capacity of soils. Amphoteric nature of soil colloids.
Section 4
Ion exchange and sorption phenomena. Adsorption isotherms. Cation exchange equations and ratio law. lonic activity in soil and its measurement. Donnan distribution of ions and its thermodynamic treatment. Double layer theory. Boltzman distribution. Electro-kinetic phenomena-electro-osmosis, electrophoresis, zeta potential and streaming potential. Chemical equilibria in soils— acid base equilibria, oxidation-reduction equilibria, etc. Chemistry of waterlogged soils, redox potential and nutrient availability. Solubility equilibria for carbonates, alumino-silicates, phosphates and iron.
Section 5
Soil organisms, their role in organic matter decomposition and nutrient trasformations. Soil organic matter, its nature, constitution and role in soil formation, soil fertility and plant growth. Mechanisms of humus formation. Soil enzymes. Biology of root-soil interface. Soil organisms and pedogenesis. Biological equilibria in soil. Biofertilizers. Mycorrhiza and plant nutrition.
Section 6
Essential elements in plant nutrition. Transformation of nutrients (N.P, K, S, Fe, Mn) in soil. Manures and fertilizers. Chemistry of production of different fertilizers. Fertilizer mixtures. Slow release fertilizers and nitrification retarders. Quality control of fertilizers. Mechanisms of ion absorption by plants—active and passive mechanisms.
Section 7
Modem methods of soil, plant and fertilizer analyses—principles and use of flame photometry, spectrophotometry, AAS, UV, visible, IR, potentiometry, conductimetry and X-ray diffractometry. Experimental designs for pot culture and field experiments. Statistical measures of central tendency and dispersion. Correlations and regressions. Tests of significance—t and F tests. Principles of computer use, BASIC language and its use in simple programming.
Section 8
Soil fertility evaluation—soil testing, plant and tissue tests, and biological methods. Common soil test methods for fertilizer recommendation. Soil test crop response correlations. Mechanism of nutrient losses from soil and control measures. Methods of fertilizer application for their efficient use. Direct, residual and cumulative effect of fertilizers. Use of isotopic tracers in soil research.
Section 9
Nature, properties and development of acid, saline and sodic soils and their management. Acid sulphate soils. Lime and gypsum requirements of soils. Irrigation water quality: EC, SAR, BSC, saturation index and specifications. Principles of soil and water conservation—types of soil erosion, factors affecting soil erosion, and measures.
Section 10
Interaction of soils and pesticides. Heavy metal toxicity and soil pollution. Soil pollution through industrial effluents, sewage, pesticides and fertilizers. Soil sickness due to biological agents, toxins and antibiotic production in soil. Soil factors in emission of greenhouse gases. Soil degradation through anthropogenic activity. Radio active contamination of soil. Bio-amelioration of pesticide contaminated soils.
Soil as a natural body. Rocks and minerals in relation to soil development. Weathering and soil formation. Soil profile. Diagnostic horizons. Soil classification. Major soil groups of India—their characteristics and distribution.
Section 2
Chemical composition of soil. Soil colloids—clay, organic matter and clay-humus complexes. Clay minerals—structure characteristics and identification. Soil reaction. Ion exchange and ionic equilibria in soils. Essential elements in plant nutrition. Mechanism of ion absorption by plants. Fixation and release of nutrient ions in soil. Transport of nutrient ions in soil—mass flow and diffusion. Manures and fertilizers and their uses.

Soil organisms, their role in organic matter decomposition and nutrient transformation. Biological nitrogen fixation. Biofertilizers and their use. Assessment of soil fertility, soil testing, plant tissue tests and biological tests. Instrumental methods of soil chemical analysis—flame photometry spectrophotometry, conductimetry and chromatographic techniques.
Section 4
Soil as a three-phase disperse system. Mass-volume relationships. Soil texture—mechanical analysis, Stoke's law. Soil texture in relation to plant growth. Soil structure-classification, genesis and theory of aggregate formation, indices an evaluation, pore-size distribution, soil crust afflicted seeding emergence. Management of highly permeable, slowly permeable and compacted soils. Soil structure and plant growth. Dynamic properties of soils—soil consistency, hydration, swelling, shrinkage hardening and cracking. Soil tilth and tillage. Soil physical properties under different cropping systems. Root growth in relation to soil physical properties.
Section 5
State of soil water. Soil moisture constants, Soil water potential. Gibbs free energy and thermodynamic concept of soil-water potential. Measurement of soil-water content and potential using conventional and modern techniques. Soil moisture characteristics and hysteresis. Water flow—Darcy's law, theories of saturated and unsaturated flow, hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity, and factors affecting it. Infiltration redistribution and evaporation of soil water. Control of soil water evaporation. Soil water balance and measurement of its components. Estimation of evapo-transpiration. Solute' transport in soil.
Section 6
Soil water availability in relation to plant growth. Irrigation water management under adequate and limited water supply. Irrigation scheduling. Water-use efficiency. Water use-yield relationships. Quality of irrigation water. Effect of saline, sodic and industrial effluents on soil properties and crop growth. Use of isotopes, radiations and remote-sensing techniques in soil physics investigations.
Section 7
Soil air—composition, characterization of soil aeration status including ODR and redox potential measurement, renewal of soil air, Fick's laws of diffusion, and soil aeration in relation to plant growth. Sources of soil heat and heat balance, heat capacity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity of soil. Heat flow in soil. Measurement of soil temperature. Soil temperature in relation to plant growth.
Section 8
Principles of soil and water conservation. Hydrologic cycle. Rainfall-runoff relationships, estimation of runoff and sedimentation yield, Different types of soil erosion, nature and extent of the problem in India. Water erosion, and factors affecting it. Soil physical properties in relation to water erosion, and soil erodibility. Universal soil loss equation and evaluation of its parameters. Control of water erosion including gullies and ravines. Wind erosion—equation and evaluation of parameters, factors affecting, processes and control. Sand-dune formation and stabilization. Shelter belts and windbreaks.
Section 9
Soil and water as natural resources. Land degradation—acid, saline, sodic and waterlogged soils, shifting cultivation, and management of their soil physical properties. Soil conservation survey. Land capability classification, land use—land cover mapping using conventional and remote sensing techniques. Productivity rating. Watershed concept—its characterization and management. Soil moisture conservation under rainfed and limited water supply. Rain water harvesting and recycling. Use of mulches, grasses and afforestation for soil and water conservation.
Section 10
Measures of central tendency and dispersion. Binomial distribution, chi-square test, Correlation and regression, t and F test. Experimental designs-randomised. Latin square, split-plot and factorial designs. Spatial statistics-variogram and Kriging techniques. Principles of computer use.
Section 1: Inorganic and Physical Chemistry
Atomic structure, valency, nature of chemical bonds, isotopes and isobars, radioactivity and co-ordination compounds. Kinetic theory of gases. Laws of thermodynamics. Thermochemistry and free energy concept. Solid-liquid-vapour equilibria. Osmosis, osmotic pressure and surface phenomena. Adsorption. Donnan membrane equilibrium. Soil colloids and colloidal electrolytes.
Section 2: Organic Chemistry
Isolation of plant products. Essential oils and terpenes, alkaloids, vitamins, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and fat metabolism in plants. Plant hormones and pigments. Photosynthesis and enzymes. Composition, isolation and properties of humus. Pathways of humus formation.
Section 3: Analytical Chemistry
Principles of analytical chemistry, ionic equilibria, ionic products, solubility products and hydrogen ion activity. Methods of quantitative analysis and separations. Formation and properties of precipitates, coprecipitation, and fractional precipitation. Volumetric analysis and theory of the indicators. Use of organic reagents in inorganic analysis. Flame photometry and atomic
absorption spectro photometry. Application of calorimetric, UV and visible, IR, NMR, ICP and mass spectrometric techniques for analysis of plant constituents. Analysis of gases (CH4, SO2, H2S etc.), soils and rocks. Determination of available nutrients in soil. Sampling of soils, plants, fertilizers and manures: Principles and practices in the use of isotopes (stable and radioactive) in the study of soil-plant relationships.
Section 4: Statistics
Standard distributions, correlation and regression. Tests of significance. Experimental designs and analysis. Computer applications in agricultural chemistry.
Section 5: Manures
Sources and production of organic manures. FYM, compost, sewage and sludges—their forms and behaviour. Production of biogas and manurial value of spent slurry. Green manures. Recycling of organic wastes. organic matter in relation to soil quality.
Section 6: Fertilizers
Production, manufacture and uses of various forms of nitrogenous, phosphatic, potassic and complex fertilizers, and fertilizer mixtures. Slow acting fertilizers and liquid fertilizers. Foliar fertilization, use of anhydrous ammonia and urea solution. Fertilizer practices in relation to soil types and crops. Integrated plant nutrient systems. Residual effects of manures and fertilizers. Methods of fertilizer recommendation and application. Storage and handling of fertilizers. Fertilizer control Order. Soil testing service.
Section 7: Plant Nutrients
Plant nutrient cycles (carbon, nitrogen, P and S). Essential plant nutrients (major, secondary and micro-nutrients). Nutrient requirement of plants. Soil solution and mechanism of ion absorption by plant roots. Ion exchange and fixation. Nutrient interactions. Soil reaction and liming. Chelation and plant nutrition. Nutrient deficiencies and their correlation. Determination of nutrient requirements of crops by chemical and biological methods. Plant tissue analysis.
Section 8: Soil Amendments and Reclamation
Chemistry of problem soils (saline, alkali and acidic soils). Characterization and amelioration of problem soils. Lime and gypsum requirements of soil. Synthetic soil conditioners.
Section 9: Agricultural Chemicals and Soil Health
Chemistry of synthetic pesticides (chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates, synthetic pyrethroids etc.), pesticides of plant origin, and natural and synthetic plant growth regulators. Persistence, metabolism and environmental fate of pesticides. Heavy metal pollution. Waste disposal and soil health. Chronological development, classification, structures, general properties and uses of major conventional, synthetic and natural agrochemicals including plant production chemicals, nitrification inhibitors, chemical hybridizing agents and hydrogels. Formulation, quality control, safety aspects, pesticide poisoning and antidotes. Production, consumption and trade statistics of pesticides. Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Techniques including principles, instrumentation and application of spectroscopic (UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectrometry) and chromatographic (thin layer, high performance liquid, gas liquid, ion-exchange, gel, flash and supercritical fluid chromatography) techniques. Tandem techniques (GC-MS, LC-MS, GC-MS-IR, MS-MS, LC-NMR, GC-IR) with reference to isolation, purification and structure elucidation. Analytical Chemistry including application of latest techniques like GC, HPLC, GC-MS, GC-MS-MS and LC-MS for estimation of pesticide residue in crops, soil and formulated products.
Section 10: Chemistry of Feeds and Fodders
Carbohydrates, proteins and fats, and their metabolism. Protein value of feed. Chemical evaluation of feeds and forages. Importance of trace minerals in animal nutrition. Relation of feed value to chemical composition. Protein, vitamin and mineral supplements. Quality control of feedstuffs. Proximate analysis. Chemical changes during silage making.

Section 1: General Meteorology
Sun, earth and seasons. Laws of radiation; Planck's, Stephan-Boltzman, Wein's displacement Law, Kirchoff's Law, Beer-Lambert and Lambert Law. Solar constant, length of day. Atmospheric and astronomical factors effecting depletion of solar radiation received on earth. Selective absorption by constituents of atmosphere. Raleigh and Mie scattering. Direct and diffuse radiation. Heat transfer-convection, conduction and radiation. Concepts of latent and sensible heat. Radiant flux and flux density. Atmospheric motion under balanced forces. Gas laws, pressure gradiant, isobars, hydrostatic equation and its application. Coriolis force. Geostrophic, gradient and cyclostrophic winds. Pressure systems, cyclones and anti-cyclonic motions, trough, ridge. Thermal wind. Contour charts. Concepts of specific heat at constant volume and pressure, first and second laws of thermodynamics. Vapour pressure, specific humidity, relative humidity, humidity mixing ratio, absolute humidity and dew point. Wet bulb temperature. Vapour pressure deficit. Psychrometric equation, entropy. T-phi gram. Vertical stability of atmosphere, virtual temperature and potential temperature. Moist and dry adiabatic processes. Clouds, their description and classification. Condensation process- artificial rain making, Bergeron-Findeison theory, ' Dew, frost, fog, mist, haze, thunderstorm and hail. Air masses and fronts. Extra tropical cyclones. Land and sea breeze. Mountain and valley winds. Fohn and Chinook winds. Tropical cyclones and their structures.

Section 2: General Climatology
Weather and climate. Climatological elements. Seasonal distribution of radiation, rainfall, temperature, sunshine, wind, pressure over India. Climatic classification-Koppen and Thornthwaite. Gaussen and Emberger systems. Climatology of India: principal weather phenomena occurring in four main seasons of India, mechanism of Indian monsoons, role of physiography and rainfall distribution. Cyclones and cyclonic tracks over the Indian region; North-western and western disturbances; and monsoon breaks. Drought climatology: rainfall and its variability; atmospheric and soil drought; arid and semi-arid climate, aridity and moisture indices. Moisture availability indices Heat and cold waves. Continental maritime and monsoon climates.
Section 3: Agricultural Climatology
Meaning and scope. Effects of thermal environment on growth and yield of crops. Cardinal temperatures, thermoperiodism, photo-nycto temperatures. Vent Hoff's Law. Phenology of crops. Heat unit concept and related parameters. Meteorological factors associated with incidence and development of crop pests and diseases such as rust diseases, potato blight, apple scab, groundnut red hairy caterpillar, etc. Locust meteorology. Thermal and moisture balance of animals. Climatic aspects of animal production and nutrition. Comfort zones for different species and breeds of animals. Adaptation and acclimatization of animals of new environment. Protection of animals from adverse weather and immunity against animal diseases and parasitic afflictions,
Section 4: Micrometeorology
Concept of micro-, meso- and macro-meteorology, Micrometerological processes near bare ground and crop surfaces. Shearing stress, molecular and eddy diffusion, forced and free convection. Boundary layer, frictional velocity, roughness length, and zeroplane displacement. Temperature, wind and CO, profiles in crop canopies. Richardson number, Reyionds analogy, exchange coefficients, fluxes of momentum, water vapours, CO2 and heat. Inversion and its effect on smoke plume distribution. Windbreaks and shelterbelts, and their effect on modification of microclimate. Frost protection. Spectral properties of vegetation, light interception by crop canopies as influenced by leaf area index, leaf arrangement and leaf transmissibility; extinction coefficient.
Section 5: Evapotranspiration
Hydrologic cycle and concept of water balance. Energy balance equation and significance of the components and their estimation. Angstroms formula and estimation of radiation parameters. Concepts of evaporation, evapotranspiration, potential and actual evapotranspiration. Aerodynamic, eddy correlation, and combination approaches. Bowen ratio method and empirical methods—Dalton's approach, consumptive use, and Thomthwaite's climatic water balance method. Advantages and limitation of different methods. Water use, water use efficiency, dry matter production and crop yields. Yield functions. Advection and its effect on water use by crops and yield. Irrigation scheduling based on evapotranspiration. Lysimetry-types and principles. Heat conduction and thermal diffusivity in soils. Soil heat flux and soil temperature.
Section 6: Crop-Weather Modelling
Concepts of mechanistic and deterministic models. General features of dynamical and statistical modelling techniques. Weather data-based and physiology-based approaches to modelling of crop growth and yield. Advantages and limitations of modelling. Climatic change, greenhouse effect, CO increase, global warming, and their impact on agriculture.
Section 7: Weather Forecasting for Agriculture
Crop weather calendars. Short, medium and long range weather forecasting. Monsoon onset and rainfall forecasts. Weather forecasting and agro-advisories. Use of satellite cloud imageries in weather forecasting. Synoptic charts and synoptic approach to weather forecasting.
Section 8: Agrometeorological instruments
Principles, exposure conditions and operation of meteorological equipment in agrometeorological observatory Principles and working of instruments for measurement of solar radiation; direct, diffuse and photosynthetically active radiation; soil heat flux; soil temperature; wind speed and direction; humidity and precipitation; evaporation, sunshine and dew. Automatic weather station, infra red thermometer, spectral radiometer and net radiometer.
Section 9: Supporting Disciplines and Topics
C.G.S. and S.I. systems of units and their conversion. Units for measurement of momentum, force, work, power, surface tension, pressure, temperature, thermal conductivity and diffusivity, resistance, radiation, light intensity and water vapour. Concepts of texture, structure, bulk density and moisture characteristics of soil. Available soil water, soil water potential infiltration and hydraulic conductivity.
Photosynthesis, respiration, net assimilation, solar energy conversion efficiency and relative water content. Light intensity, water and CO, in relation to photosynthetic rates and efficiency. Physiological stress in crops. Remote sensing: spectral indices, canopy temperature technique of estimation of evapotranspiration, crop water stress index and crop stress detection.
Section 10: Statistical Techniques in Agroclimatology
Frequency distribution, measures of cental tendency, correlation, variability. Assured rainfall probability analysis using normal, binomial and incomplete gamma distributions. Markov-chain probability and its application. Orthogonal polynomial techniques for crop yield estimation.

C1. BIOCHEMISTRY (Plant Science)
Section 1: Biomolecules and Biophysical Principles
Scope and importance of biochemistry in plants. Chemical bonding in biological systems. Acids, bases and buffers. Cell organelles. Thermodynamics and bioenergetics-concept of entropy, and free energy changes in biological reactions. Redox reactions. Role of high energy phosphates. Classification, structure, chemistry and properties of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Membrane structure and composition. Membrane transport.
Section 2: Intermediary Metabolism
Anabolism, catabolism and their regulation. Metabolism of carbohydrates -glycolytic pathway, HMP pathway, TCA cycle, and glyoxylate pathway. Biological oxidation-electron transfer, oxidative phosphorylation, and mechanisms of oxidative phosphorylation. Lipid metabolism-degradation and biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterol biosynth'esis. Amino acid metabolism-general reactions, degradation and biosynthesis of individual amino acids. Metabolism of nucleic acids-degradation and biosynthesis of purines, pyrimidines and nucleotides. Secondary metabolites. Sulphate reduction,
Section 3: Nutrition
Principles, nutritional requirements in general and for special groups. Balanced diet. Nutritional value of cereals and legumes. Essential amino acids. Biological value. Anti-nutritional factors and toxic constituents. Mode of action and biochemical functions of vitamins and hormones.
Section 4: Enzymes
Classification, kinetics and mechanism of action of enzymes. Enzyme inhibition and activation. Coenzymes, isoenzymes and immobilised enzymes. Regulation of enzyme activity. Allosteric regulation. Isolation, purification and measurement of enzyme activity. Enzyme units. Ribozymes.
Section 5: Molecular Biology
Structure of DNA and RNA. Replication, transcription and translation. Regulation of protein synthesis in prokarvotes and eukarvotes. Post-transcriptional and translational modification. Transcriptional and translational control of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Genetic code. Mutation, DNA damage and repair. Gene expression-operon model, inducible and repressive enzymes Mitochondrial genomes. Replication of viruses. Molecular basis of male sterility.
Section 6: Biotechnology/Genetic Engineering
General principles of gene cloning. Restriction enzymes. Isolation of genes and methods of gene transfer-plasmids, and viruses as vectors. Splicing techniques. Blotting and hybridization. DNA finger and foot printing. Protoplast fusion. Application of recombinant DNA technology, DNA sequence analysis. Antisense RNA. Restriction fragment length polymorphism, polymerase chain reaction and chromosome walking. Benefits of gene manipulations in agriculture. Transgenic plants-methods of development.
Section 7: Immunology
The immune system, antigens, antibodies, complement systems and antigen antibody reaction. Immunity-innate and acquired. Immune response-humoral and cell mediated. Lymphokines and interleukins. Immunization practices. Histocompatability antigens and transplantation-lmmunological, antigens and transplantation. Immunologies! techniques-precipitation, electrophoresis, immunodiffusion, RIA, ELISA, immune-fluorescence and fluorescence immunoassay, flow cytofluorimetry and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), Avidin-biotin mediated immunoassay. Monoclonal antibodies and hybridoma technology Western blotting.
Section 8: Techniques
Principles of optical, phase contrast, fluorescence and electron microscopy. Spectrophotometry UV and Vis, fluorimetry, turbidimetry and. atomic absorption Spectrophotometry. Radioisotopic techniques-detection and measurement of radioactivity and its application in biological sciences. Electrophoresis- general principles and applications, SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focussing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis. HPLC. Centrifugation-principles of sedimentation, differential centrifugation. Cell fractionation. Density, gradient and ultracentrifugation. Organ and tissue slice techniques. Cell disruption. Plant cell and tissue culture. Cell sorting and counting. Cryopreservation.
Section 9: Photosynthesis and Photorespiration
Photosynthesis-basic equation and photosynthetic pigments. Chlorophyll. Photosystems. Photophosphorylation. Chemiosmotic coupling. carbon-cycle and its regulation C3 and C1 pathways. Dark reactions. Ion fluxes and conformational changes during photosynthesis. Photorespiration. Relationship between photosynthesis, photorespiration and crop productivity. Chloroplast morphology, structure and biochemical anatomy chlo-roplasts.
Section 10: Nitrogen Fixation, Plant Growth and Development
Nitrogen cycle. Nitrate and nitrite reduction, denitrification, symbiotic 'and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Assimilation of fixed nitrogen by plants. Genetics and mechanism of nitrogen fixation. Biochemical and physiological role of hydrogenase. chemoautotrophy in rhizobia and nitrifying bacteria. Growth regulation in plants. Phytohormones. Molecular mechanism of plant growth, hormone action, auxins, gibberelins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscissic acid and phenolic inhibitors. Preliminary methods of statistical analysis as applied to agricultural data-standard deviation, standard error, test, anova, correlation and regression.

C2. BIOTECHNOLOGY (Agriculture Science)
Section 1: Cell Structure and Function
Ultrastructure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Cyloskelton. Cell wall and plasma membrane. Cell organelles including vacuoles, plastids, galgi apparatus, ER, peroxisomes, glyoxisomes, etc., their organization and function. Cell division. Different stages of mitosis and meiosis.
Section 2: Biomolecules and Metabolism
Structure, characterization and functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, isolation and purification of enzymes, their classification, catalytic ste, mechanism of action, regulation of enzyme activity, basic enzyme kinetics, inhibition, immobilized enzymes and their application, Catabolism, syntheses of carbohydrate, glycolysis, HMP, citric acid cycle, purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis, metabolic regulation, bioenergetics, etc. Oxidative phosphorylation and substrate level phosphorylation.
Section 3: Molecular Genetics
Concept of gene mutation, recombination, transformation, transduction, conjugation and transpositon. Organisation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes and genomes including operon, exon intron, enhance sequences and other regulatory elements in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Section 4: Gene Expression
Replication, transcription and transposition of genetic material prokaryotes and eukaryots. RNA processing and post-transcriptional modifications, post-translational modification and their significance. DNA modification and repair mechanism. Function of mitochondrial and chloroplast genome.
Section 5: Biophysical
Photoregulation and phytochrome regulation of nuclear and chloroplastic gene expression. Molecular biology of light and dark reaction of photosynthesis. Molecular mechanism of nitrogen fixation, nitrate reductase, and genetics of nif genes. Molecular biology of various stresses. viz. drought, salt, heat and cold. Signal transduction.
Section 6: Molecular Biology Techniques
Isolation and hybridization of nucleic acids. Cot analysis, southern, northern and western blottings and hybridization. Construction and screening of genomic and DNA libraries. Current methods of radioactive and nonradioactive labelling of proteins and nucleic acids. DNA sequencing. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA sequences (RAPD), gene mapping, genome mapping, gene tagging and targetting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA synthesis, monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, ribozyme, antisense RNA methodology, radioimmune assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Section 7: Gene Cloning
Restriction enzymes. Salient features and uses of most commonly used vectors i.e., plasmids, bacteriophages, phagmids and cosmids: expression vectors. Cloning, sub-cloning strategies and transformation. Plant genetic vectors.
Section 8: Tissue Culture
Basic technizues in cell culture and somatic cell genetics. Clonal propagation. Concept of cellular totiopotency. Anther and pollen culture for haploid and double haploid production; somatoclonal and gametoclonal variations. Hybrid embryo culture, somatic hybridization and hybridization. Gemplasm conservation and exchange. Plant bioreactors and production of industrial compounds. Application of tissue culture in crop improvement.
Section 9: Plant Genetic Engineering
Isolation of genes of interest. Gene constructs for tissue specific expression. Different methods of gene transfer to plants viz. direct and vector mediated. Potential applications to crop improvement through plant genetic engineering, i.e. specific and non-specific resistance (defence) genes to disease, pest and herbicide resistance. Storage protein quality, stress resistance and post-harvest, production of secondary metabolites and alien proteins. Current status of transgenics.
Section 10: Fermentation Technology
Principles of fermentation processes, bioreactors and biosensors. Protein engineering. Single cell proteins. Biopesticides. Microbial degradation of waste and biogas production. Bioleaching. Applications of fermentation technology.
C3. MICROBIOLOGY (Agriculture)
Section 1: History of Microbiology
Evolution of microbial life. Theory of spontaneous generation. Contributions of various scientists to the development of different areas of microbiology.
Section 2: Microbial Taxonomy
Eucaryotes, procaryotes and archaebacteria, Kingdom procaryote and detailed classification of precaryotes. Techniques used in identification and classification of bacteria-numerical taxonomy, DNA base composition, nucleic acid hybridization,
RNA sequencing and cataloguing, and serological analysis. Important groups of procaryotes-photosynthetic bacteria, chemoautotrophic bacteria, spore forming bacteria and actinomycetes. Heterotrophic bacteria — enterobacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria and cyanobacteria, lactic acid bacteria, halophiles, thermophiles, acidophiles and methanogens. Structure and classification of viruses. Growth curve of viruses. Lytic and lysogenic cycles. Plant viruses.
Section 3: Morphology and Cytology
Cell structure-procaryotes and eucaryotes. Chemical composition. structure and function of cell wall, cytoplasmic membrance, capsule, flagella, pill, cytoplasmic inclusions, nuclear material and other specialized cell structures-endospore, cysts, heterocysts, akinetes, etc.
Section 4: Microbial Ecology
Principles of microbial ecology and their application to different ecosystems. Microbiology of ecosystems—soil, rhizosphere, phyllosphere, water—fresh and marine, and air, Microbial interactions-symbiosis, synergism, commensalism, parasitism, amensalism, antagonism and predation, Adoption of micro-organism to various ecosystems.
Section 5: Microbial Physiology
Bacterial growth and growth curve. Kinetics of growth—continuous and batch culture, Diauxic and synchronous growth. Microbial nutrition. Bacterial metabolism—aerobic and anaerobic respiration, electron transport chain. Oxidative, substrate level and photo-phosphorylation. Biosynthesis of macromolecules-bacterial cell wall, ribosomes, proteins and nucleic acid.
Section 6: Microbial Genetics
Replication of DNA-primosomes, replisomes, gyrase and heliase. Mutations-spontaneous, induced and site directed; DNA damage and repair, Biochemical genetics-elucidation of biochemical pathways using auxotrophic mutants. Gene transfer-conjugation, transduction and transformation. Plasmid and transposons. Recombinant DNA technology (RDT). Importance of RDT over conventional genetic techniques. Restriction enzymes, vectors, DNA cloning and eDNA cloning. Regulation of gene expression-operator, promoter, operon, positive and negative regulatory control (lac operon) and ryptophan operon.
Section 7: Microbial Biotechnology
Industrial production of metabolites—organic acids, alcohols, amino acids, organic solvents, antibiotics, vitamins and enzymes. Types of bioreactors. Control of fermentation processes—batch, feedback and continuous. Down—stream processing in fermentation industry. Production of single cell proteins, hormones, biofertilizers, biopesticides, bio-pigments, bio-flavours, mushrooms and silage.
Section 8: Food Microbiology
Microbiology of various foods, milk and water. Role of microbes in fermented and processed foods—sauerkraut bread, pickles, cheese, vinegar, bottled and canned foods. Spoilage of fruits, vegetables and processed foods. Methods of food preservation. Food-born diseases and intoxication.
Section 9: Soil Microbiology
Distribution of microorganisms in soil. Root exudates and rhizosphere effects. Manipulation of rhizosphere microflora in plant productivity, Microbial biomass. Decomposition of plant and animal residues—cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and protein. Humus-role in soil fertility. Transformation of nitrogen in soil ammonification, nitrification and denitrification. Biological nitrogen fixation—symbiotic, associative symbiotic and asymbiotic. Biochemistry and genetics of nitrogen fixation. Phosphorus transformations-solubilization and mobilization by bacteria and fungi. Transformations of sulphur. Mycorrhizal symbiosis (ecto and endo)—role in agriculture and forestry. Biodegradation of pesticides. Biofertilizers and their role in sustainable agriculture. Biological control of insect pests and plant pathogens.
Section 10: Environmental Microbiology
Micro-organism pollution of soil, air and water. Sources of pollution and their impact on environment. Microbiology of sewage and industrial effluents and their safe disposal. Management of solid and liquid organic wastes-composting, biogas, production and treatment of sewage, and industrial effluents.
Section 11: Microbiological Techniques
Isolation and preservation of different types of microorganisms. Methods of sterilization and disinfection. Optical phase contrast, fluorescent, dark field and electron microscopy. Colorimetry, spectrophotometry, centrifugation, chromatography and gel electrophoresis. Chromosomal and plasmid DNA isolation and characterization. Physical, chemical and site directed mutagens. Microbiological assay of vitamins, amino acids and antibiotics. Microbiological tests for potability of water. Methods for estimation of microbial biomass and nitrogen fixation.
Section 12: Statistics
Elementary principles of statistics. mean, mode and median. Experimental designs, analysis of variance and chi-square test. Correlation and regression.
C4. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY (Agriculture and Horticultural Crops)
Section l: Structure and Function of Plant Cell and Organelles
Biological membrane, nucleus, genome size, microbodies, cytoskeleton and cell wall.
Section 2: Energy and Enzymes
Energy and work, free energy and chemical potential, redox reactions, and electro-chemical potential. Enzyme classification and action, factors affecting enzyme action and kinetics. Gene expression and protein turnover.
Section 3: Water and Plant Reactions
Cell-water relations. Concept of water potential, soil-water relationships, quanifiction of soil-water relations and soil-water-atmosphere continum. Mechanism of water uptake and transport, movement and loss of water in plants. Environmental influence on plant water relationships. Transpiration and evapo-transpiration. Factors governing transpiration and antitranspirants, Stomata-structure and function, mechanism of stomatal opening and closing. Water balance under field conditions. Water-use efficiency
Section 4: Mineral Nutrition
Mineral nutrients and their classification. Soil and plant factors affecting mineral availability Mechanism of uptake and translocation of ions. Role of essential elements. Diagnosis of nutrient disorders by visual symptoms, Soil and plant tissue analysis. Chemical fertilizers, organic farming, foliar nutrition and hydroponics. Genetics of plant nutrition. Nutrient mobilization by mycorrhiza. Nutrient-use efficiency.
Section 5: Photosynthesis
Chloroplast structure, Photosystems—their structure and function. Chlorophylls and other pigments. Mechanism of light absorption, photosynthetic electron transport chain, photo phosphorylation and quantum yield concept. Carbon metabolism— C3, C4 and CAM pathways and their distinguishing features. Properties of RuBisco structure, assembly and regulation. Photo-respiration and its significance. Chloroplast genome and its expression. Interaction of chloroplast and nuclear genes. Synthesis of sucrose and starch, mechanisms of their translocation, phloem loading and unloading. Translocation of photosynthates, mechanism and significance. Source-sink relationships, partitioning and harvest and harvest index.
Section 6: Respiration and Lipid Metabolism
Pathways of glucose oxidation in plants. Mitochondrial electron transport chain and its role. Cyanide-resistant pathway. Importance of mitochondrial genome. Factors affecting respiration rate. Growth and maintenance, respiration and its significance in crop improvement. Measurements of respiration. Fats and oils. Spherosomes. Biosynthesis of plant lipids and their importance.
Section 7: Nitrogen and Sulphur Metabolism
Dinitrogen fixation by symbiotic and free-living organism. Nitrate metabolism, its uptake and assimilation. Amino acid metabolism and protein synthesis. Sulphate uptake and reduction.
Section 8: Secondary Plant Products
Cutin, suberin, waxes, terpenes, and phenolic compounds—lignin, flavonoids, anthocyanins. tannins, photo-alexins, alkaloids, glycosides, glucosinolates, salicylic acid and essential oils. Importance of secondary products in plants.
Section 9: Environmental and Stress Physiology
Environmental factors influencing plant growth and productivity. Microclimate and its effect. Climatic changes—greenhouse gases and global warming. Water stress: Water deficits and plant growth. Physiological and biochemical functions affected by water stress. Drought—its definition and quantification. Adaptive strategies for drought resistance (avoidance, Scope and tolerance). Significance of water-use efficiency. Importance of osmoregulation and stress responsive proteins. Screening for drought resistance-empirical and analytical techniques. Approaches to breeding drought resistance. Waterlogging and its effect on plant growth. Salt stress: Saline and alkaline soils, salt-stress injury, mechanism of salt tolerance, and halophytes. Temperature stress: High temperature stress, heat shock proteins, chilling and frost injury, and mechanism of tolerance. Light stress: High and low light stresses, UV-B effect on plant growth and development. Pollutants and heavy metal stress: Chemical, air and gaseous pollutants and their effect on plant growth. Effect of heavy metals on plant growth and development.
Section 10: Plant Growth Regulators
Auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene—site or synthesis. Biosynthetic path-ways and metabolism and their influence on plant growth. Concept of hormone action—hormone receptors. Other endogenous growth regulators-brassino-steroids, triacontanol and growth retardants, detection and assay. Role of plant growth regulators on rooting of cuttings, apical dominance, dormancy, germination, flower and fruit retention, sex modification, ripening, senescence and abscission. Commercial applications of growth promoters and retardants in agricultural and horticultural crops. Herbicide physiology. Classification of herbicides based on mode of action. Herbicide resistance. Tissue culture techniques and their applications,
Section 11: Photo-morphogenesis and Seed Physiology
Cellular basis of growth and morphogenesis. Anatomical and ultrastructure aspects of growth. Polarity Molecular basis of differentiation. Morphogenesis in roots and shoots. Phytochrome as a photoreceptor. Structure and properties of phytochrome, dark reversion and destruction, and phytochrome—induced whole plant responses. Seed germination, development and dormancy, and methods of breaking dormancy. Adaptative and ecological advantages and seed viability.
Section 12: Control of Flowering
Effect of plant age, transition from vegetative to reproductive stage, and apical changes. Photoperiodism-classification of plants and mechanism of flowering in photoperiodic-sensitive plants, Theories related to flowering. Endogenous substances and lowering. Gene expression and flowering. Control of flowering. Potoperiod and tuberization. Vernalization-mechanism and practical application of the process. Flower mechanism in relation to crop productivity.
Section 13: Crop Productivity and Modelling
Crop growth analysis, key growth parameters, canopy architecture, light interception, and concept of source-sink relationships. Allometric growth relationships, partitioning efficiency and harvest index. Plant growth analysis techniques, yield analysis, theoretical and actual yields. Physiology of major field crops. Plant ideotypes. Crop growth models—empirical models, model testing, and yield prediction.
Section 14: Statistics
Frequency distribution. Measures of central tendency- Standard deviation. Correlation and regression. Standard distributions. Tests of significance. Experimental design and analysis. Computer applications in Plant Physiology.
Section 1: Importance of Fruit Crops
Importance, area, production and productivity; nutritional value and importance in national economy of fruit and plantation crops. Origin, distribution and classification of fruits/plantation crops into temperate, tropical, sub-tropical, arid zone crops. Classification of edible parts. Regions of cultivation. Export potential of different fruits.
Section 2: Nursery Management and Propagation
Planning, layout and management of nurseries, soil mixtures, containers, soil sterization, raising of seedings, transplanting, interstocks. Packing and transport of nursery plants. Importance of rootstocks, inter crops, apromixis and polyembryony. Recent propagation techniques, method and time of propagation of different crops. Stionic incompatibility. Role of chemicals in seed germination, root induction and seedling growth. Propagation structures like mist chambers, not beds and cold frames. Advances in micropropagation, shoot tip grafting.
Section 3: Growth and Development
Definition of growth and development. Dormancy, rest period chilling requirements and heat units. Physiology of flowering and chemical induction of flowering. Fruit bud differential and fruit set, development, fruit drop and its control; pathenocarpy and seedlessness. Maturity and ripening. Biochemical changes associated in fruit ripening. Role of auxins, gibberellins, cytokiins, ethylene, morphactin and other growth retardants in fruit production.
Section 4: Fruit Breeding
Principles, problems and prospects of fruit breeding, Method of improvement e.g. introduction, clonal selection, hybridisation, mutation breeding, polyploidy and heterosis breeding. Breeding of stock and scion. Breeding objectives, problems and advances made in important crops like mango, citrus, banana, grape, papaya, guava, apple, aonla and pomegranate, etc.
Section 5: Plantation Crop Breeding
Principles, problems and prospects of breeding of plantation crops. Methods of improvement e.g. introduction, clonal selection, hybridisation, mutation breeding, polyploidy and heterosis breeding. Breeding objectives, problems and advances made in plantation crops e.g. coconut, arecanut, oilpalm cashew, tea, coffee, etc.
Section 6: Fruit Production
Modern production technology of fruit covering soil and clin propagation varieties; planting and population density; training and pruning; nutrition and irrigation; weed, disease and pest control including IPM and other orchard management practices of important fruit crops e.g. mango, citrus, banana, pineapple, papaya, guava, sapota, grape, litchi, pomegranate, ber, apple pear, stone fruits, etc.
Section 7: Plantation Crop Production
Modern production technology of plantation crops covering soils and climate; propagation, varieties; planting and planting density; training and pruning; nutrition and irrigation; weed, disease and pest control including IPM of important plantation crops, eg. coconut, arecanut, oilplam, cashew, cocoa, tea and coffee.
Section 8: Special Problems
Causes and recent advances in the control of alternate bearing, malformation, spongy tissue in mango; granulation and decline in citrus; bunchy top in banana; fruit drop and fruit cracking in citrus, mango, litchi and pomegranate; guava wilt; internal breakdown and bitter pit in apple, barrenness in grapes and coconut wilt.
Section 9: Post Harvest Technology
Importance of post harvest handling in fruit and plantation crops; Maturity indices for harvesting and ripening; pre-cooking, various types of storage and storage temperatures; grading, packing and transportation; Storage disorders and use of chemicals, skin coatings and growth regulators for control of spoilage during storage and transit.
Section 10: Statistics
Frequency distribution, mean, medium and mode; standard, normal and biomial distribution; correlation, partial and multiple regression and regression coefficient, path co-efficient analysis; tests of significance, t, f and chi-tests experimental designs, basic principles, 'Completely randomised block design (CRBD), Latin square, split plot tactorial and simple confounding designs.
Section 1: Importance of Flower, Aromatic and Medicine Plants
Importance, area, production and productivity. Importance in national economy of flower, aromatic and medicinal plants. Origin, distribution and classification of flowers e.g. cut, loose, dry flowers, pot plants and aromatic and medicinal plants and classification of ornamental plants e.g. annuals, biennials, edges, hedges, shrubs, climbers, trees bulbous plant, foliage plants, succulents, cactus and water loving plants. Regions of cultivation, import and export.
Section 2: Nursery Management and Propagation
Selection of site, layout, rooting media and its sterilization, recent propagation techniques stock and scion relationship (rose), Method and time of propagation, Raising or seedlings, Transplanting pruning, grading, packing and marketing. Role of chemicals in seed germination, root induction and seedling growth, Use of propagation of structures. e.g. hot bed, cold frame, mist propagation chamber, plastic tunnels and green houses. principles of seed production, development, environmental factors for seed set, pollination system, isolation, rogueing and certification, Hybrid seed production, seed harvesting, cleaning, storing, packing and marketing.
Section 3: Ornamental Plant Breeding
Principles, problems and prospects of ornamental plant breeding. Methods of improvement i.e. introduction, clonal selection, hybridization for specific purposes, mutation breeding, polyploidy and heterois breeding. Breeding for stock and scion (rose), Breeding objectives and advances made in important crops like rose, gladiolus, carnation, chrysanthemum, marigold, aster, orchids, lilies, tulip, lotus, begonia and bougainvillea.
Section 4: Aromatic and Medical Plant Breeding
Principles, problems and prospects of ornamental plant breeding. Methods of improvement i.e. introduction, clonal selection, hybridization for specific purposes, mutation breeding, polyploidy and heterosis breeding. Breeding objectives and advances made in important aromatic plants, like jasmine, mentha, basil, scented geranium, lavender, citronella, palmarosa, cymbopogan, rosemary and patchouli and medicinal plants like Dioscorea, Solanum, Papaver somniferum, Atropa belladona, catharanthus, digitalis, Plantago ovata, senna, dawana, vetiver, saffron and cinchona.
Section 5: Flower Production
Soil and climate varieties, population density (seed rate) and planting, nutrition, irrigation, training, pruning and staking, weed, disease and pest control of important flower e.g. rose, carnation, chrysanthemum, gladiolus, marigold, tuberose, gerebra, aster, orchids, iris, anthurium, lilies, tulip, lotus and begonia.
Section 6: Aromatic and Medicinal Plant Production
Soil and climate varieties, population density (seed rate) and planting, nutrition, irrigation training, pruning and staking, weed, disease and pest control of important aromatic plants, like jasmine, mentha, basil, scenied geranium, lavendar, citronela, palmarosa, cymbopogan, rosemary and patchouli and medicinal plant like Dioscorea, Solanum, Papaver somniferum, Atropa belladona, Catharanthus, digitalis, Plantago ovata, senna, dawana, vetiver, saffron and cinchona.
Section 7: Growth and Development
Definition of growth and development. Dormancy and rest period, physiology of flowering and biochemical changes during flower senescence, effect of preharvest factors on post harvest quality of cut flowers, stages of harvest of commercial flowers, decline in vase life, floral preservatives, pulsing and holding solutions, grading packing, storage and transportation of cut flowers.
Section 8: Post Harvest Technology of Flowers
Factors affecting bud development, flower development and senescence physiology and biochemical change during flower senescence, effect of preharvest factors on harvest qualify of cut flower, stages of harvest of commercial flowers, decline in vase life, floral preservaties, pulsing and holding solution, grading packing, storage and transportation of cut flower.
Section 9: Gardening
History of gardening in India, styles of gardening, their principles and practices with special reference to Mughal, Japanese, and English gardens. Visual aspects of plants arrangement view, vista and axis. Garden parts (features) their materials, and
methods of development including garden ornament. Classification and utilization of ornamental trees, shrubs, climbers, annuals, edges, hedges, bulbous, succulents and cactus, foliage and water loving plants. Preparation and management of shrubbery, herbaceous borders, lawn and bonsai. Planning of road side, home gardens, children, amusement and zoological parks.
Section 10: Statistics
Frequency distribution, mean, median, and mode. Standard, normal and binomial distribution; Correlation-partial and multiple, regression coefficient, multiple regression and path coefficient regression. Tests of significance-F, t and chi-square tests, Experimental designs, basic principles, completely randomised design, randomised block design, factorial randomised experiment, latin square, split plot and simple confounding designs.
Section 1: Importance of vegetables & Spices
Importance, area, production and productivity, nutritional value and importance of vegetable, tuber crops and spices. In national economy. Origin, distribution: classification of vegetables, types of vegetable growing, regions of cultivation and export and import of these commodities.
Section 2: Vegetable Crop Breeding
Principles, problems and prospects of vegetable improvement. Introduction, selection including clonal selection and hybridization, mutation breeding, polyploidy and heterosis breeding for specific purposes like productivity, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and processing. Recent advances in breeding including biotechnological approaches. Breeding objectives and advances made in important vegetables like tomato, brinjal, okra, onion, chillies, important cucurbits and cole crops.
Section 3: Tuber and Spice Crop Breeding
Principles problems and prospects of tuber and spice crops improvement. Introduction, selection including clonal selection and hybridization; mutation breeding, polyploidy and heterosis breeding for specific purposes like productivity, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and processing. Recent advances in breeding including biotechnological approaches. Breeding objectives and advances made in potato, sweet potato, cassava, ginger, turmeric, coriander, fenugreek, black pepper, cardamom etc.
Section 4: Vegetable Crop Production
Soil and climate; seed rate, important varieties, nutritional requirements, deficiency disorders and corrective measures, irrigation spacing. Off-season production of vegetables. Weed, insect nematode and disease control including IPM and organic farming of important vegetables e.g., cole crops, cucubitaceous, bulb and root, solanaceous, leguminous vegetables and okra, etc.
Section 5: Tuber Crops and Spices Production
Soil and climatic seed rate, important varieties, spacing, irrigation, nutritional requirement, deficiency disorders and corrective measures.' Pest and disease including IPM and organic farming of potato and other tuber crops and spices including hops and chicory.
Section 6: Seed Production of Vegetable and Spice Crops
Seed morphology, development, environmental factors responsible for belting and flowering, pollination systems, isolation, roguing and certification. Seed production in poly/green houses. Seed legislation. Stages in the production of certified seed, storage and viability in important crops like tomato, chilli, brinjal, okra, onion, cucurbits, cole crops, and seed spices like fenugreek, coriander, cumin, fennel, etc. Production of F1 hybrid seeds in solanaceous, cole and bulb crops, Nursery establishment, preparation of soil mixtures, soil sterilization, containers, watering and plant protection practices, Use of vegetative propagation, selection of shoots in pepper and nutmeg, selection of rhizomes in cardamom, turmeric and ginger Saffron cultivation Nursery management.
Section 7: Growth and Development
Definition of growth and development, dormancy and rest period, physiology of flowering, chemical induction of flowering, sex expression and alteration, fruit set and development, fruit drop, parthenocarpy, seedlessness and biochemical changes associated with fruit ripening. Role of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethlene and other growth regulators including retardants in vegetable, tuber and spices crop production.
Section 8: Hi-tech Production Technology
Use of plastics, structures including low cost polyhouses/green houses and other structures in vegetable, tuber and spice production. Drip and sprinkler irrigation, fertigation, shading, hydroponics and other production technologies for enhancing productivity and off-season production of high value vegetable crops like tomato, capsicum, cucumber, watermelon, asparagus, brocolli, brussels sprout, gherkin and other important vegetables.

Section 9: Post Harvest Technology
Harvesting with reference of maturity indices, grading, packing including consumer packaging, transport, Different methods of storage, storage temperatures disorders. Pre and post harvest treatments to control disorders, value addition and export of vegetables, tuber crops and spices.
Section 10: Statistics
Frequency distribution, mean, median and mode; standard, nomial and binomial distribution; simple, partial and multiple correlations, regression coefficients, path coefficient analysis; test of significance 't' and 'f' and chi square test; basic principles and analysis of randomised block design (RBD), completely randomised block design (CBRD), factorial experiments (FRBD),
Section 1
National Forest Policy. Role of forests in national economy—protective and productive, tribal and rural welfare. Forest types of India: distribution of forest cover types. Association of species, dominant, co-dominant, light demanders and shade bearing. Succession and concept of climatic and polyclimax.
Section 2
Concepts and definition of agro/social/community/farm forestry/Taungya plantations. Shifting cultivation. Silvi-pastoral management. Monoculture v/s mixed farming. Tree-crop interactions. Conservation and management of natural resources including wild life. Growth Strategies of trees for suitable use in agro-forestry. Study of genecology and adaptation in trees for use in agro-forestry.
Section 3
Biomass, species composition and functions on agroforestry. Productivity, nutrient cycling, and root and light competition in agroforestry systems. Selection of superior trees with multiple uses like fuel, fodder and fibre. Regeneration potential and coppicing ability with high calorific value, preferably nitrogen fixers.
Section 4
Extent and causes of land denudation. Effects of deforestation on soil erosion, land degradation, environment and rural economy. Utilization of denuded low fertility soils for agro-industrial use of woody biomass. Biomass production for fuel wood, small timber, raw material for plant based cottage industries, minor forest products such as gums, resins and tannins, drug plants, essential oils, hardy fruits, pasture and silvi-pastoral management.
Section 5
Forest mensuration, surveys, inventory preparation and photointerpretation. Forest economics. Integration of trees with agricultural operations.
Section 6
Definition and scope of silviculture. Forest environment. Climatic edaphic, physiographic and biotic factors affecting regeneration and growth of trees. Forest regeneration: natural and artificial. Silviculture. Practices such as thinning-ground thinning, silvicultural thinning, felling, felling cycle, improvement felling, regeneration felling, cleaning, pruning, girding etc. Silvicultural systems of forest management with special reference to species suitable for soil and water conservation.
Section 7
Afforestation techniques: Phenology of important tree species in agroforestry. Gregarious and sporadic flowering, fruiting, seed maturity and seed availability. Seed collection and nursery techniques: Criteria for site selection for nursery. Layout and design of beds. Types of containers. Sowing techniques. Soil mixture, sowing, plant per cent and grading, manuring and fertilization in nursery. Plant protection in nursery from environmental and biological agents. Seed testing. Seed viability, pretreatment and germination. Elite seed tree. Seed dormancy. Seed test weight, germinability, plant per cent, epigeal and hypogeal germination. Planning techniques. Site selection, evaluation, and protection. Soil working techniques for various edaphic and climatic conditions. Spacing, manuring and fertilizer application, irrigation/ moisture conservation techniques. Tending operations: weeding, hoeing and aftercare, thinning and crop hygiene. Integration of trees with agricultural operation. Tree-crop interactions including fruit trees, pathology, entomology and plantation farming of species used by rural community.
Section 8
Forest management. Management systems for agro-forestry plantations and monocultures. Lopping of top-feed species such as frequency and intensity of lopping. Coppice management and energy plantations.
Section 9
Techniques for free crop improvement and mass propagation: Tree breeding, selection and other improvement techniques. Techniques for tissue culture, mist chamber etc. for propagation of difficult species. germplasm and agroforestry system evaluation: Collection, maintenance and evaluation of germplasm. Field plot techniques for the evaluation of agroforestry systems. Diagnosis and design of agroforestry systems.
Frequency distribution. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation. Normal, binomial and Poisson distribution. Correlations-partial and multiple. Regression coefficients and multiple regression. Tests of significance—F and chi-square tests. Experimental designs—basic principles. Completely randomised, randomised block, Latin square and split-plot designs.

E1. AGRICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Section 1: Systematics
History and development of entomology. Position of insects in the phylum Arthropoda, relationship with other arthropods. Classification of insects up to order level. Habit, habitat and distinguishing characters of different orders. Distinguishing characters of families of economic importance. International code of zoological nomenclature. Body wall: structure, cuticular outgrowths, colouration and special integumentary structures. Body regions: sclerites and segmentation. Head: structure, types of mouth parts and antennae. Thorax sclerites and pterothorax. Wings, structure, venation, wing coupling and mechanism of flight. Legs: segmentation and types. Abdomen: segmentation and appendages. Genitalia and their modifications. Embryonic and post-embryonic development. Types of metamorphosis.
Section 2: Internal Anatomy and Physiology of Insects
Structure, modification and physiology of different systems, digestive, circulatory, respiratory, excretory, nervous, reproductive, musculature and insect sense organs (mechano-, photo-and chemo-receptors). Physiology of moulting. Role of enzymes in growth and metamorphosis. Nutrition of insects, role of vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and minerals. Extra and intra-cellular microorganisms.
Section 3: Ecology
Principles of ecology. Environment and its components. Effect of biotic and abiotic factors on bionomics, distribution, abundance and natural balance. Inter-and intra-specific relationships. Dispersal and migration. Life table studies. Population models. Surveillance and forecasting. Causes of insect outbreaks.
Section 4: Biological Control
Principles and scope of biological control. Use of parasitoids, predators and pathogens. Introduction of exotic natural enemies. Conservation and augmentation. Mass production techniques and economics. Field release and evaluation. Host-parasitoid relationships. Role of bacteria, fungi, protozoans and viruses; mode of action, mass production, formulation and field application.
Section 5: Insect-Host Plant Relationships
Chemical ecology. Tritrophic relation. Role of mechano- and chemoreceptors. Volatiles and secondary plant substances. Development of biotypes and measures to combat them. Breeding for insect-resistance in crop plants. Exploitation of wild species. Gene transfer. Case histories.
Section 6: Toxicology
Principles of toxicology. Classification of pesticides based on chemical structure, mode of entry, and mode of action. Toxicity and structure activity relationships. Mode of action and therapeutic methods for control of poisoning of arsenicals, fluoro compounds, dinitrophenol, plant products (rotenoids, nicotinoids, neem), chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates, natural and synthetic pyrethroids, cartap, avermectcin, chloridimeform etc. Systemic insecticides. Phytoxicity. Compatability, antagonism and synergism. Factors affecting toxicity of insecticides. Insecticide resistance and resurgence. Insecticides Act 1968. Registration and quality control of insecticides. Bioassay methods. Plant protection appliances. Pesticide formulations. Hazards of pesticides to humans, domestic animals and wild life.
Section 7: Insect Vectors of Plant Diseases
Role of insect vectors: aphids, leaf-hoppers, plant-hoppers, whiteflies, thrips, grass-hoppers and mites. Bacterial, viral, fungal and mycoplasma diseases and their transmission. Toxicogenic insects and phytotoxemia. Management of vectors.
Section 8: Pests of Crops and Stored Products and their Control
Biology, nature, extent of damage and control of pests of paddy, sorghum, maize, millets, wheat, barley, pulses, fruits, vegetables, cotton and other fibre crops, tobacco, oilseeds, sugarcane, ornamental plants, plantation crops such as tea, coffee, coconut, arecanut, cashew, cocoa, spices and condiments like pepper, cardamom, clove, nutmeg and chillies.
Stored products pests. Detection and estimation of infestation. Management of stored product pests. Evaluation and efficacy of storage structures. Polyphagous pests-locusts, termites, white grubs and hairy caterpillars and non-insect pests (mites, snails, birds and rats).
Principles and components of integrated pest management. Economic thresholds. Economic injury levels. Action thresholds. Gain thresholds. IPM for important field and horticultural crops. Systems approach. Computer modelling. Case histories in IPM.
Section 9: Useful Insects
Honey bees, lac insect and silk worms.

Section 10: Statistics
Frequency distribution, means, median and mode, Standard, normal, binomial and Poisson's distribution, correlation, partial and multiple regression. Tests of significance: t, F and chi-square test. Design of experiments. Basic principles of completely reandomised, randomized block, latin square and split-plot designs, Probit analysis.
E2. NEMATOLOGY (Agriculture)
Section l: History and Morphology of Nematodes
History and economic importance of nematology. Characters of phylum Nematoda, their taxonomic position and relationship with other organisms. General morphology. Anatomy-musculature, cuticle (finer) structures. Various systems—digestive, excretory, nervous system, etc. Reproduction and development of nematodes.
Section 2: Nematode Taxonomy
Principle and basis of taxonomy. Rules of nomenclature. Phylogeny. Nematode systematics. Classification of soil and plant-parasitic nematodes and their relationship. Detailed classification of plants-parasitics nematodes up to generic level with emphasis on economic importance.
Section 3: Nematological Techniques
Survey and sampling of nematodes. Methods of extraction of nematodes from soil and plant material. Microscopy, its principles and types. Methods of killing, fixing, preserving, staining and mounting of nematodes including TEM and SEM. Techniques for histopathology, histochemistry and culturing of nematodes including axenic methods. Experimental techniques for proving pathogenicity. Estimation of crop losses. Nematicide screening—residual analysis in plants and soil. Groundwater pollution. Screening of crop germplasm/genotypes for resistance.
Section 4: Plant Diseases Caused by Nematodes
Diseases caused by plant-parasitic nematodes-symptomatology, biology, distribution, economics and control of plant parasitic nematodes of economic importance (Pratylenchus, Radopholus, Hirschmanniella, Meloidogyne, Nacobbus, Heterodera, Globodera and other cyst forming nematodes, Rotylenchulus, Tylenchulus, Ditylenchus, Anguina, Aphelenchoides, Bursaphelenchus, Rhadinaphelenchus, Tylenchorhynchus, Xiphinema, Longidorus, Trichodorous, Paratrichodorus, Rotylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Hoplolaimus, Scutellonema, Criconematids etc.).
Section 5: Nematode Ecology
Ecological classification and dispersal of nematodes. Adaptations to parasitic mode of life. Soil as environment for nematodes. Effect of soil factors like temperature, moisture, porosity, soil type, organic matter, soil chemicals and pH on nematode survival, activity and multiplication. Effect of host on population of nematodes. Community analysis.
Section 6: Plant Nematode Relationships
Host-parasite relationships. Origin of parasitism among nematodes and types of parasitism. Injury caused by various groups of plant parasitic nematodes, mechanisms involved, and histopathology of nematode infected tissues. Physiological specialization and host specificity. Mechanisms of resistance in plants. Changes in physiology and biochemistry of plants due to nematodes.
Section 7: Nematode Physiology
Principles of nematode physiology—Nutrition, digestion and assimilation. Pseudocoelom and function of transport. Physiology of respiration, metabolism and excretion. Physiology of muscles, nervous and sensory responses and behaviour. Physiology of growth, reproduction and development. Role of pheromones in communication.
Section 8: Nematode Management
Principles and methods of nematode management-physical, cultural, biological, legislative and chemical methods. Nematicides—their formulations, applications and mode of action. Concept of host resistance for nematode control including their mechanisms. Integrated nematode management.
Section 9: Disease Complexes Caused by nematodes and Other Pathogens
Interaction of nematodes with other nematodes (predatory and parasitic). Interaction with other disease causing agents like bacteria, fungi, viruses and mycorrhiza. Nematodes as biological indicators of toxic environmental contaminants.
Section 10: Statistics
Frequency distribution. Measures of central tendency and dispersion-mean, median, mode, standard deviation etc. Population distributions-normal, binomial and poisson. Correlations-partial and multiple. Regression—simple and multiple. Test of significance, t, F and Chi-square tests. Experimental designs—basic principles of randomized block, Latin square and split plot designs.
Section 1: History and Principles of Plant Pathology
Milestones in phytopathology with special reference to mycology, bacteriology, virology and mycoplasmatology. History of development of epidemilogical, physiological and molecular plant pathology. Development of chemical, legislative and biological
protection measures including breeding for disease resistance. Nature and classification of plant diseases; Koch's postulates. Inter-relationships between various plant pathogens and their hosts, Growth, reproduction and dispersal of plant pathogens. Factors influencing infection. Entry of pathogens into plant. Colonization of infected plant, result of infection, and symptomatology.
Section 2: Laboratory and Analytical Techniques
Preparation and sterilization of common, media. Methods of isolation of plant pathogens. Purification using single spore, single hyphal tip isolation, and dilution/streak planting. Purification of viruses. Maintenance and preservation of micro-organisms in pure culture, methods of inoculation. Laboratory equipments and their use: autoclave, hot air oven, laminar flow, pH meter, conductivity bridge, spectrophotometer, electrophoretic apparatus, light and electron microscopy Stains and staining. Selective media.
Section 3: Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology
Altered metabolism of plants under biotic and abiotic stresses. Molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, recognition phenomenon, penetration. invasion, primary disease determinant. Enzymes and toxins in relation to plant diseases. Mechanism of resistance, phytoalexins. Molecular detection of pathogens. High and low sugar pathogens. Tissue culture, somaclonal variation, somatic hybridization. Elementary genetic engineering.
Section 4: Mycology and Fungal Physiology
Economic mycology, edible fungi, and entomogenous fungi. Mycorrhizal associations. Fungal cell and its structure. Cell organelles, their morphology, functions and chemical composition, genetics and variation. Classification of fungi. Life cycles of fungi. Factors affecting spore formation, germination, metabolism, maturation and dormancy. Fungal nutrition and metabolism, role of macro/micro-elements and vitamins, antibiotics, fungal toxins and enzymes.
Section 5: Bacteriology and Virology
Morphology and structure of prokaryotic cell in relation to function. Origin, identification and classification of bacteria. Infrastructure and chemical composition; metachromatical detection, growth curve and nutrition. Bacterial genetics and variability, plasmid biology, transformation, conjugation, transduction, and transposon. Bacteriophages, ilytic and lysogenic cycles. Prokaryotic inhibitors and their mode of action. Economic uses of bacteria. Bdellovibrio, MLOs and other fastidious prokaryotes. Nature, composition and architecture of viruses and viroids. Properties of viruses. Inclusion bodies, and assay of plant viruses including biological, physical, chemical, serological and molecular methods. Techniques used in diagnosis. Behaviour of viruses in plants including infection, replication, movement and accumulation. Histopathological changes induced by viruses in plants. Transmission of viruses. Virus-vector relationships. Nomenclature and classification of viruses. Variability in viruses and viroids.
Section 6: Plant Disease Epidemiology
Concepts in epidemiology. Development of disease in plant population. Role of environment and meteorological factors in the development of plant disease epidemics. Survey, surveillance and forecasting of diseases and assessment of losses. Epidemics analysis and prediction.
Section 7: Phanerogamic Diseases and Abiotic Stress
Diseases caused by phanerogamic parasites and their management. Abiotic stresses. Diseases due to unfavourable soil environment, atmospheric pollution and nutritional deficiencies.
Section 8: Fungal Diseases of Crops
Fungal diseases of cereals, millets, oilseeds and pulses, fruits and vegetables, and plantation, fibre, spices and ornamental crops with special reference to the etiology, disease cycle, perennation, epidemiology and management. Post-harvest diseases in transit and storage, and their management.
Section 9: Bacterial and Vival Diseases of Crop Plants
Crop diseases of cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits, plantation and fibre crops caused by bacteria, fastidious prokaryotes, viruses and viroids. Mode of transmission, virus-vector relationships, epidemiology and management.
Section 10: Management of Plant-Diseases
Chemical, Biological and Legislative General principles of plant quarantine: domestic and International quarantine. Exotic pathogens and pathogens introduced into India. Disease resistance; genetic basis of diseases resistance, genetic basis of pathogenicity, gene and gene hypothesis, breeding for disease resistance, methods for screening for resistance in a segregating population. Tissue culture: production of disease-free plants, in vitro selection for disease resistance. Seed certification. Commercial production of disease-free seeds. Groups of fungicides and antibiotics. Mode of action of fungicides and antibiotics. Bioassay of fungicides. Compatibility of fungicides with other agricultural chemicals. Spraying and dusting of fungicides. Spraying and dusting equipments, their care and maintenance. Resistance and tolerance to fungicides. Influence of fungicides on environment. Integrated management. Micro-organisms antagonistic to plant pathogens in soil, rhizosphere and phyllosphere, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), deleterious rhizobacteria (DRB), hypovirulence, and cross protection. Use of microorganisms in the control of plant diseases.

Section 11: Statistics Frequency distribution, mean, median and mode. Standard deviation. Normal, binomial and Poisson distributions. Probit analysis. Correlations, regression coefficients, and multiple regression. Tests of significance, t, F and Chi-square tests. Experimental designs—basic principles, completely randomized, randomized block, Latin square and split-plot designs and their analysis.

Section 1: Overview of Genetics
History and development of genetics. Classic researchers and pioneer scientists in genetics. Mendelism and its deviations. Chromosomes in heredity. Sex in relation to chromosome and gene. Linkage and crossing over. Linear arrangement of genes. Artificial transmutation of genes. Penetrance and expressivity. Multiple factor inheritance. Gene modifiers. Non-chromosomal genes and their inheritance. Variation in natural populations.
Section 2: Advanced Genetics
Fine structure of chromosomes and chromosomal banding. Gene and mechanism of gene action. DNA replication, central dogma, protein synthesis, genetic code and DNA cloning. Recombinant DNA technology. Gene bank concept. Split gene. Translocation. Genetic control of hormone coordination, metabolism and metabolic disease. Genetic engineering and its applications. Cryogenic preservation of animal germplasm. Transgenics. Application of immunogenetics, biochemical polymorphism, chromosomal studies in livestock improvement programmes. Blood groups and their significance.
Section 3: Overview of Breeding
Brief history of domestication of farm livestock. Scientific animal husbandry for more milk, meat, egg, wool, power, pashmina and mohair. Evolution of genetic systems. Isolating mechanisms and origin of species and sup-species—their adaptation, hybridization and evolution.
Section 4: Genetic Properties of Population
Population versus individual. Inheritance and continuity of population. Effective population size. Description of animal populations. Estimation of variances and covariances, and their partitioning. Resemblances between relatives. Heritability, repeatability, genetic, phenotypic and environmental correlations-methods of their estimation, uses, possible biases and precision.
Section 5: Population Genetics
Gene and genotype frequencies and factors affecting them. Hardy Weinberg Law. Selection: response to selection and its prediction. Bases of selection. Index selection. Different methods of sire evaluation. Threshold characters. Indirect selection and correlated response. Metric characters under natural selection. Combining ability.
Section 6: Breeding Systems
Various mating systems used in different species of livestock and poultry. Inbreeding. Genetic and phenotypic consequences of inbreeding. Measurement of degree of inbreeding and relationship. Outbreeding-grading, rotational crossing, cross-breeding. Genetic and phenotypic consequences of outbreeding. Heterosis, its uses and measurement. Diallel and Plyallele crossing. Reciprocal and reciprocal recurrent selection. Role of artificial insemination with liquid and frozen semen. Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer technology in livestock improvement programmes. Open nucleus breeding systems in livestock improvement with special reference to tropical countries. Biotechnology and its role in improving animal and poultry production.
Section 7: Selection Experiments
Long-and short-term objectives. Measurement of improvement, Selection differential and intensity of selection. Prediction of response. Improvement of response. Effect of selection on variance. Realized heritability. Selection experiments in livestock and poultry. Selection for disease resistance for developing resistant strains/breeds. Purpose-based selection and breeding of domestic animals and avians. Estimation of genetic divergence and its implication in livestock improvement.
Section 8: Genetic Laboratory Techniques
Culturing Drosophila stock. Study of Drosophila with markers. Gene sequencing- Blood group typing. Chromosomal mapping. Basic concepts of genetic engineering, i.e., recombinant DNA technology, nucleic acid hybridization etc.
Section 9: Techniques for Research in Quantitative Animal Genetics
Biometrical. Estimation of variances and covariances. Outlines of analysis of experimental observations assuming a linear model and normally distributed varieties. Measurement of inbreeding and relationship. Estimation of heritability. Estimation of genetic and environmental correlations and their interpretations. Devising efficient selection programmes, and procedures. Designing efficient breeding experiments for testing effectiveness of reciprocal recurrent selection, diallel and polyallele crossing and inbreeding programmes. Efficiency of different methods of sire evaluation: Designing efficient field progeny-testing programmes.

Section 1: Development and Functional Anatomy of Reproductive organs
Pre-natal and post-natal development of reproductive organs. Functional anatomy and histology of reproductive organs, endocrine control of reproduction-origin, structure, functions and mechanism of action of hypophyseal, gonadal and placental hormones, hypothalamus and hypothalamic hormones. Prostaglandins and synthetic hormones. Role of thyroid, adrenal and pineal glands in reproduction. Neuro-endocrine control of oestrus and oestrus cycle. Endocrine control of puberty. Oestrous cycle. Pregnancy and parturition. Methods of hormone assay. Pheromones. Gross and histological features of hypothalamus, hypophysis, adrenal thyroid and pineal glands.
Section 2: Reproductive Cycle
Puberty and sexual maturity. Oestrous and oestrous cycle. Oogenesis, folliculo-genesis and ovulation. Genetic transport in female genital tract. Fertilization, cleavage and implantation. Transuterine migration of ova. Maternal recognition of pregnancy. Methods of pregnancy diagnosis. Gestation and parturition., Adaptation, care and management of newly born young one. Reproductive behaviour and courtship.
Section 3: Infertility and Sterility in Female Animals
Congenital and hereditary defects affecting fertility. Ovarian hypolasia. Free martinism. White heifer's disease. intersexualiry. Cystic ovaries Nymphomania. Silent oestrus. Anoestrus ovarian tumours. Early embryonic death. Infectious and pathological causes of infertility. Nutritional infertility. Repeat breeder. Reproductive health management of herds. Clinical assessment. Differential diagnosis. Treatment and prevention of common reproductive disorders affecting individual animal and herds. Use of modern diagnostic aids such as laparoscopy, ultrasound, hormone assay and tubal patency test.
Section 4: Techniques for improving efficiency
Oestrus detection aid, Enhancement of puberty. Induction and synchronization of oestrus, ovulation. Early post-partum breeding. Clinical application of hormones. Rationale of hormonal therapy in endocrine disorder. Intra-uterine therapy. Superovulation and embryo transfer. Amniocentesis. Sex determination, in vitro fertilization. Cryopreservation and micro manipulation of embryos.
Section 5: Obstetrics
Obstetrical anatomy of pelvis. Pelvimetry. Signs and stages of parturition. Uterine involution. Diseases and care of the new born. Care of the dam after parturition. Induction of parturition. Superfetation, super-fecundation, pseudopregnancy teratology, monstrosities, hydrops of foetal membranes, foetal maceration, mummification, hydrometra pyometra, ante-partium, prolapse of vagina, uterine hernia, parapragia ante-partium, prolapse of vagina, uterine hernia, paraplagia ante-partium, aboration, and pregnancy toxaemia. MMA syndrome. Termination of pathological gestation. Dystocia. Types and causes of dystocia. Approach and procedure for handling old dystocia. Fetotomy and caesarian section. Obsterocal equipments. Anaesthesia and analgesia. Obsretrical operations for relieving dystoica. Uterine inertia. Torsio-uteri. Insufficient dilation of cervix. Rupture of uterus. Pureperal diseases and genital injuries, lacerations and contusions of birth canal. Post-partum aversion of uterus, vagina and bladder. Post-partum haemorrhage. Retention of foetal membranes. Post-partum infections of genital tract. Puerperalmetritis. Downer's cow syndrome.
Section 6: Reproductive Pattern in Males
Comparative structure, functional anatomy and histology of male reproductive organs in different species. Regulatory mechanism. Sexual maturity, puberty and libido. Secondary sex characteristics. Spermatogenesis. Seminiferous epithelial cycle. Endocrine control of testicular function. Sperm transport, maturation and storage. Functions of epididymis and accessory sex glands. Semenology: Light and electron microscopic structure of sperm. Physical and biochemical characteristics of semen in different species. Metabolism of spermatozoa. Fate of unejaculated spermatozoa. Dimorphism of sperm. Sperm capacitation. Passage of sperm through excurrent ducts. Function of epididymis. Semen and its components. Metabolism of semen. Sexual behaviour. Endocrine and neural mechanism of sexual behaviour. Contribution of gonads and accessory sex glands to semen ejaculate. Survival of sperm in vivo, in vitro, and in the female reproductive tract. Fertilizable life of sperm.
Section 7: Artificial Insemination
Advantages and limitations. Sterilization of artificial insemination equipments. Methods of collection of semen. Evaluation of semen. Principles of sperm preservation. Extension of unfrozen semen and use of extenders. Principles and techniques of freezing of spermatozoa. Storage and transportation of semen. Insemination techniques. Dose, time and site of insemination. Conception rates.
Measures of reproductive efficiency. Management and training of males for use in artificial insemination.
Section 8: Infertility and Sterility in Males
Methods to evaluate reproductive soundness of males-testicular hypoplasia, testicular degeneration, pathology of testis and accessory sex glands and its effect on semen and fertility. Testicular neoplasms. Factors affecting fertilizing capacity of sperms. Infections of male reproductive organs. Bacteriological aspects of semen quality and diseases transmissible through semens. Nutritional and other managemental factors causing infertility. Vices in male animals. Sexual health diagnosis and control. Treatment and prevention of different types of infertility.

Section 1. General
Review of animal production systems in different parts of country. Present status and future prospects of livestock and poultry development in India. Livestock and poultry development programmes currently in operation in the county. Cattle and buffalo production trends in the last two decades and factors affecting them. Important breeds of cattle and buffalo, trails of economic importance and their inter-relationships. Production trends of sheep and goat including important breeds and their economic importance. Trends in swine production and population and factors affecting them.
Section 2: Breeding Management
Basic principles of inheritance, . Concept of heritability, repeatability and selection. Importance methods of selection and systems of breeding in farm animals and birds. Maintaining breeding records and their scientific interpretation. Principles of biotechnology in animal improvement. Scope of reproductive biotechnology in augmenting animal productivity.
Section 3: Feeding Management
Nutritional requirements and feeding management of different categories of livestock and poultry. Antibiotic and probiotic feeding in farm animals and birds. Computation and formulation of ration for various categories of livestock and poultry. Linear programming and least-cost ration formulation for maximum profits in farm animals. Feeding principles in birds and their differences from ruminant feeding. Systems of feeding livestock and birds. NRC, ICAR and BSI standards of feeding livestock and poultry. Feeding of draft and meat animals. Importance of applied feed biotechnology in relation to animal productivity. Processing and storage of conventional and nonconventional feed ingredients. lndustrial uses of animal and poultry by products.
Section 4: Reproduction Management
Effect of climate and nutrition on male and female reproduction. Effect of seasons at carving on various reproductive traits (postpartum, service period etc.). Importance of early pregnancy diagnosis. Methods of heat detection. Artificial insemination. Oestrous prediction and synchronization. Causes of disturbed fertility and its prevention in farm animals. Management factors affecting reproductive efficiency. Role of management in fertility of dairy animals. Male and female reproductive organs of birds. Egg formation. Structure and composition of egg. Prenatal and post-natal care and management of cow and buffalo. Care of neonate. Rearing of calves. Management strategies for attaining early maturity in heifers. Care and management of dry cows and breeding bulls. Summer and winter management problems and their solutions.
Section 5: Shelter Management Including Hygiene and Sanitation
Housing systems, selection of site and arrangement of animal and poultry houses. Space requirement for livestock and poultry. Housing designs based on different agro-climatic regions. BlS standards for livestock and poultry housing. Lay-out plans of buildings for different species and categories. Microclimatic changes and modifications in animal houses. Engineering aspects and sub-tropics. Improving the existing farm structures. Common disinfectants and santizers used on animal farms. Disposal of animal wastes under urban and rural conditions. Disposal of carcasses.
Section 6: Health Management
General approach to livestock health programmes. Symptoms of ill health. Important infectious diseases of livestock and poultry and their control. Vaccination schedules in animals and poultry. Internal and external parasites and their control. Important ailments associated with reproduction. Nutritional and metabolic disease of livestock and birds. Accidental health disorders and their control. Role of management in calf mortality. Segregation and quarantine management for large animals and birds. Concepts of first aid at farms.
Section 7: Production and Management of other Animals
Draft animals: Population dynamics of various categories of draft and work animals in India. Characteristics of draft animals. Estimating draft capacity of different species. Feeding, care and management of draft animals. Management of camel with special reference to rearing, feeding and watering. Behavioural studies of various draft animals. Economics of draft animals visa-vis machine power. Sheep and goat: Selection of breeds and breeding systems for improving wool, mohair, meat and milk. Feeding practices for economic rearing or sheep and goat. Scope of intensive milk and meat production from goat. Mutton and wool production from sheep. Low-cost shelter management for sheep and goat. Sheep and goat reproduction. Health management packages for optimizing sheep and goat production. Poultry: Management of chicks, growing, laying and breeding flocks. Production and management of replacement pullets. Culling of laying flocks. Light management, hatchery management. Chick sexing. Maintenance of farm records. Health and sanitation problems and their control. Poultry shows and poultry judging. Swine: Importance of pig as meat animal. Selection of breeds and breeding systems for improving pig production. Feeding strategies for pigs. Care and management of pregnant sows and unweaned piglets. Reproduction programmes in lndia with special reference to weaker sections of society. Rabbit: Economic importance. Important fur and meat type breeds. Housing, handling, feeding, watering, breeding management, sanitation and health care of rabbits.
Section 8: Wild Life Management: Status of Wild Life in lndia and its Conservation
Biological and ecological basis of management of wild life. Breeding and feeding of wild life in captivity. Wild life health control. Animal behaviour vis-a-vis adaptation and production: Principles of domestication and behavioral factors favouring domestication. Milking, feeding and grazing. Mating behaviour in various species of livestock and poultry. Agnostic behaviour,

causes and control. Social order in farm animals. Adaptation of livestock and poultry in tropics, deserts cold and high altitudes, and in stress.
Section 9: Forage Production and Conservation
Feed and fodder resources used for feeding of livestock and poultry. Nutritive value of feeds and fodders. Conservation and preservation of feeds and fodders. Annual and perennial fodder crops. Strategies for round-the-year fodder production. Pasture development and management. Enrichment of poor-quality roughages. Farming systems: Mixed farming, arable farming, integrated and specialized farming systems.
Section 10: Economics and Marketing of Livestock and Poultry and their Products
Economic principles as applied to livestock production. Production functions. Farm size, resources and product combinations. Cost concepts. Efficient criteria in use of resources in livestock production. Maintenance and evaluation of different production records. Insurance and financing of livestock enterprises. Project formulation for setting up livestock farms. Different approaches to marketing of livestock and its products. Present status of cattle fairs and methods of selling livestock. Market news and information. Determination of prices of livestock products. Vertical integration in livestock products industries. Price spread in marketing of livestock and its products.
Section 11: Research Methodology in Livestock Production and Management
Basic, applied, operational and adaptive research related to livestock production and management. Designing experimental programmes and application of experimental techniques in animal production. Feed analysis techniques. Methods of determination of egg, meat and milk quality. Techniques of measurement and evaluation of animal behaviour. Judging of animals for breeding, milk and draft purposes.
Section 1: Basic and General Aspects of Livestock Products
Present status and future prospects. Structure, composition, physical, biochemical and nutritive aspects, and functional properties of different kinds of meat, fish and eggs. Sensory evaluation and organoleptic properties of livestock products. Postmortem aspects of muscle as meat. Ageing of meat and chemical changes. Meat in human health. Bacterial, yeasts and moulds important in food microbiology. General principles of spoilage. Chemical and deteriorative changes caused by micro¬organisms. Contamination and spoilage of meat, fish, poultry and eggs. Food poisoning and food-borne infections. Assessment of microbial condition and wholesomeness of different livestock products. National and International microbial standards.
Section 2: Abattoir and Poultry Processing Plants
Origin and source of animal foods. Lay out, construction, design, organization, operation and maintenance of abattoirs and poultry processing plants, pre-slaughter care and slaughtering techniques for different animals and birds. Antemortem and Postmortem inspection. Judging and grading of animals and birds of foot and on rail. Condemnation and disposal of unfit material. Disposal of slaughter house effluents. Sanitation, plant operation and maintenance. Sanitary standards for meat packing plants. Fabrication of meat. Adulteration and misrepresentation of meat. State, Municipal and other regulations pertaining to meat trade. Meat Food Products Order. Processing and utilisation of various animal and poultry by-products, slaughter house and poultry plant offals. Methods of utilization of blood, fat, hides and skin, horns, hooves, wool, hair, feathers, glands and other byproducts. Importance and utilization of by-products in industry.
Section 3: Processing and Preservation
Principles of preservation of livestock products. Equipment and technology for processing and preservation. Industrial food preservation: chilling, freezing, freeze drying, dehydration, canning, irradiation, pasteurisation, curing, smoking, use of chemical additives and antibiotics. Cooking methods including micro-wave cooking. Tenderization and use of enzymes for processed foods. New product development. Intermediate moisture foods, fermented foods, restructured meat, and convenient food products of livestock origin. Application of biotechnology in meat, poultry and fish product development and preservation. Sanitation, regulation and inspection of processed meat foods. Effects of processing on nutritional, chemical, microbiological and organoleptic qualities of livestock products. Economics of processing and product development.
Section 4: Fish Products
Fishery resources. Marine and freshwater fish. Production, transportation, processing, preservation, grading, standards, quality control, packaging, labelling and marketing of fish and fish products. Utilization of fish processing waste.
Section 5: Wool, Mohair and Fur
Basic aspects of wool science. Shearing, physical and chemical characteristics, processing, grading, standardization and marketing of wool mohair and fur.
Section 6: Packaging
Principles of packaging. Types of packaging materials. Characterization, methods and systems of packaging. Standardization and quality control of packaging material.

Section 7: Quality Control
Grades and grading of livestock products. Regulatory and inspection methods—Municipal and State laws. Bureau of Indian Standards and lnternational Standards for fresh meat and poultry including their products and by-products. Detection of antibiotics, chemical residues, heavy metals and toxins in meat.
Section 8: Marketing
Livestock production and supply characteristics. Meat consumption and related demands. Types of market and trends in marketing livestock products and by-products: wholesale, retail and future trends. Consumer aptitude, education and awareness, and popularization of new products. Corporate bodies in regulating markets, marketing boards, co-operative agencies, internal trade and development of international market for livestock products. Organization, operation and sanitation of meat, poultry, fish and egg retailing units. Fast food chains and super markets.
Section 1: Poultry Genetics and Breeding
Phylogeny of poultry species, class, breed, variety and strain of chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys and other species of poultry. Mendelian traits in poultry. Inheritance of qualitative traits in poultry and their usefulness. Inheritance of comb, plumage and other qualitative traits. Sex linked and sex influenced traits, their inheritance and usefulness. Economically important traits and their mode of inheritance. Gene action influencing the traits. Lethal and semi-lethal traits in poultry and their mode of inheritance. Quantitative traits. Inheritance of egg number, egg weight, growth rate, livability, fertility, hatchability, egg quality and other economic traits. Heritability and their estimates. Genetic correlations, their computation and application. Different methods of selection for genetic improvement natural, artificial, directional, disruptive and stabilizing. Individual selection and family selection. Mass selection, combined selection and indirect selection. Construction of selection indices. Exploitation of additive and non-additive gene effects. Selection for specific characters. Recurrent and reciprocal recurrent selection. Part record versus complete records selection. Gene-type and environment interaction. Relative merits and demerits of different methods of selection. Different mating systems Diallel mating, pair mating, pen mating and block mating. Artificial insemination collection and insemination techniques, dilution, diluents and cryopreservation of semen. Inbreeding and out breeding. Pureline breeding. Cross-breeding. Hybridization and hybrid vigour. In crossbreeding. Utilization of hybrid vigour in improving economic traits, 3-way and 4-way crossing and development of hybrids. Modern trends in commercial poultry breeding. Dwarf gene and its usefulness in broiler breeding. Practical breeding programmes for developing broilers and layers. Selection for disease resistance. Immunogenetics. Blood group systems. Biochemical polymorphism and its usefulness in poultry breeding. Development of transgenic chicken. Genetic engineering and its usefulness in future breeding programmes.
Section 2: Poultry Nutrition
Various nutrients and their role in poultry. Nutrient requirements of different species of poultry as per Bureau of Indian Standards and National Research Council of the USA. Partition of energy. Estimation of M.E and T.M.E. Essential and critical amino acids and their interrelationships. Evaluation of protein quality Essential fatty acids. Essential vitamins and minerals and their functions. Nutrients deficiency, toxicity, synergism and antagonism. Naturally occurring toxicants, their adverse effect on poultry production and methods to overcome them. Fungal exotoxins of feed origin, their adverse effects on poultry, and methods to overcome them. Different systems of feeding, wet mash, dry mash, crumble and pellet feeding. Restricted feeding programme. Male separate feeding. Factors influencing the feed intake. Feed ingredients and sources of various nutrients. Quality control and B.I.S. specifications for feed ingredients. Unconventional feed stuffs and their utilization for economic feed formulation. Feed formulation for different age groups and species. Least cost formulation and linear programming. Non-nutrient feed additives. Antibiotics—direct feed microbials, antimicrobials, anticoccidials, performance-promoters, antioxidants, flavouring agents, colouring agents and other non-nutrient feed additives.
Section 3: Avian Physiology
Digestion and metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals. Physiology of growth and reproduction. Endocrine control of reproduction. Female reproduction. Egg formation and factors influencing egg formation and production. Male reproduction. Spermatogenesis. Morphology of semen. Factors influencing fertility. Respiration. Thermoregulator mechanism in poultry. Climatic factors and their influence on birds. Physiological changes during stress. Broodiness. Clutch, laying cycle and oviposition.
Section 4: Poultry Products Technology
Structure, chemical composition and nutritive value of egg. Various measures of egg qualilty. Sheel, albumen and yolk quality assessment. Factors influencing egg quality and quality deterioration. Changes taking place during egg quality deterioration. Weight and quality grades of egg as per B.I.S., Agmark and USDA standards. Egg processing and storage. Different methods of preservation of table eggs and their relative merits and demerits. Preparation of various egg products and their uses. Processing, packing, preservation and grading of poultry. Cut-up parts. Further processing and fast food preparation. Physical, chemical, microbial and organoleptic evaluation of meat quality. Processing and utilization of egg and poultry waste products.
Section 5: Poultry Management
Poultry industry in India, its growth and future prospects. Major constraints facing the poultry industry. Principles of incubation. Development of chicks, extraembryonic membranes, and embryonic mortality. Selection of hatching eggs. Care and storage of hatching eggs. Methods of incubation. Concept of modern hatcheries. Factors essential for incubation of eggs. Testing of eggs. High altitudes and hatchability of eggs. Embryonic communication. Photo acceleration and embryonic growth. Factors influencing hatchability and production of quality chicks. Analyzing hatchability problems. Hatchery hygiene. Fumigation procedure. Prevention of hatchery borne diseases. Utilization and disposal of hatchery waste. Prerequisite of good hatchery. Lay out of a modern hatchery. Equipments required in a modern hatchery. Single and multi-stage incubators. Hatchery business. Sexing and chicks. Packaging and handling of chicks. Principles and methods of breeding. Space requirement for brooding, rearing, feeding and watering. Preparation of brooder house to receive young chicks. Prevention of starving of turkey poults. Brooding of quails and ducklings. Management during growing period. Overcrowding. Culling. Management of replacement pullets for egg production and breeding stock. Management of layers. Light management. Debeaking, dubbing and other farm routines. Litter management. Broodiness and forced moulding in layers. Management of turkey, ducks, quails, guinea fowl and pigeon. Summer and winter management.
Farm location and site selection. Ideal layout of poultry houses for different systems of rearing. Design of poultry houses like brooder, grower, broiler, layer and cage houses. Poultry processing unit, feed mill, etc. Environmentally controlled and open poultry houses. Types of construction materials used. Cross-ventilation and ridge ventilation. Effect of pollution on production performance of birds. Ammonia control-type of brooders, feeders, waters, laying nests, cages etc. Automation in poultry production.
Section 6: Economics and Marketing
Economic principles as applied to poultry production. Production function. Farm size resources and product combinations, efficient criteria in use of resources in poultry production. Cost concept. Maintenance and evaluation of different production records. Insurance and financing of poultry enterprises. Project formulation for setting up of poultry farms and hatcheries. Production and requirement of poultry products in India and for exports. Various marketing channels. Transportation of eggs and chicken. Marketing approaches. Horizontal and vertical integration in poultry industry and their importance, Price spread in marketing of poultry and poultry products.
Section 7: Poultry Health Management
Common viral diseases of poultry and their control. Common bacterial, fungal, protozoan, parasitic and other emerging diseases of poultry, their prevention, control and treatment. Metabolic diseases and disorders. Vaccination programme. Deworming programme. Control of coccidiosis. worms, ectoparasites and flies. Medication procedures. Cleaning and disinfection of poultry houses. Drinking water sanitation. General farm sanitation and hygiene. Safe disposal of dead birds and farm waste. Stress control. Heat stroke. Cold shock. Vices of poultry and their control.
Section 1: Fundamentals of Extension Education
Extension Education in India and abroad as a discipline. Concept, definition, philosophy, principles and scope of extension education in livestock development. History of Veterinary Extension programme developed and implemented by HAU, IVRI, NDRI and other institutions and organisations. Importance of study of Veterinary extension by veterianarians, animal husbandry and dairying students. Specific aims, objectives and philosophy of veterinary extension. Agricultural extension Vs. Veterinary Extension. Role of veterinarians as a social scientist. Role of extension education in development and socioeconomic upliftment of vulnerable sections of the society. Special animal husbandry promotion programmes i.e. Operational Flood in its historical perspective, -ICDP, key village scheme, Gaushala scheme and T&V system and TOT projects of ICAR. Approaches and models of extension education. Extension systems in State Agricultural Universities, State Departments with special reference to animal husbandry and veterinary services. Development of efficient linkages between research and extension, challenges and problems in promotion of Veterinary extension in rural areas.
Section 2: Communication, Diffusion and Adoption of Innovations
Definition, concept, nature and scope of communication for animal husbandry and dairy development. Models of communication with special and efficient feedback. Types of communication media and their utilization for specific jobs related to veterinary extension activities. Utilization of internet for promoting advanced veterinary and animal husbandry practices, communication with rural, semi-urban and urban livestock owners. Acquiring communication skills for development of local leaders and key communicators for livestock development. Rapport building with clientele. History taking and follow-up appraisal on prognosis and treatment on scientific lines. Problems and barriers in communication.
Diffusion process, adoption process, models of diffusion and adoption, adopter categories and their characteristics. Factors influencing adoption, attributes of innovation. Diffusion of Veterinary innovations. Important researches in veterinary extension.
Section 3: Research Methodology
Scope and nature of social research, research process, hypothesis, forms and importance, formulation of null hypothesis and its testing. Drawing of scientific inferences. Nature and types of variables. Sampling versus complete enumeration, Sampling from a finite and infinite population, estimation of samples size, simple random, stratified random, systematic, purposive, two stage, multi stage and cluster sampling. Sampling with probability proportional to size, sources of errors. Methods of data collection. Steps involved in the conducting of survey. Techniques for preparation of schedule, questionnaire, observations, and case studies. Surveys in the field of animal husbandry and dairying, socio-economic surveys and review of studies conducted in social research. Social research designs ex post facto and experimental, reliability and validity.
Section 4: Social Statistics
Types of hypothesis, Mean, Mode and Median Normal distribution. Chi-square test, correlation, simple, partial and multi-regression, ANOVA, Path analysis, and sampling techniques.
Section 5: Veterinary Extension Management
Definition of Management, theories of Management, Models of management, need hierarchy, work motivation, organizational communication, Decision making. Nature-and types of leadership; conflicts in organizations. Individual and group behaviour. Organizational climate and organizational renewal, Organizational development, Personnel management in animal husbandry organizations.
Section 6: Rural Sociology
Definition, concept, scope and its relation with other social sciences including Veterinary extension. Concept of social systems and their major elemental and master social processes. Rural social systems as differentiated from urban social systems. Social structure: groups, primary, secondary and references groups. Social stratification, basic rural social institutions-family kinship, marriage, rural educational institution, panchayat, co-operatives etc. Socialization and social control. Social change Vs animal development. Factors affecting social changes in rural areas—indicators and types of social change.
Section 7: programme Planning for Livestock Development
Steps in programme planning for livestock development, organizing campaigns, mass vaccination programmes and variety of extension activities, evaluation of veterinary extension programmes, compilation and report writing, impact studies on animal husbandry development programmes and schemes.
Concept of training and education and their interrelationship. Historical background and present status of training programmes in various institutions and organizations in India. Scope and importance of training.
Section 8: Extension Methods and A.V. Aids
Understanding teaching-learning process. Cone of experience. Extension teaching methods: Individual, group and mass approach. Selection, planning and use of different extension teaching methods like demonstration, exhibition, farmers' fairs, field days, tours etc., Preparation and presentation of different projected and non-projected audio-visual aids. Planning, production and use of audio/video cassettes. Preparation of radio/ video script. Selection of effective extension teaching methods individually and in combination. Handling and operation of different audio-visual aids and equipments. Principles of photography and its use in extension.

Section 1: Energy and Proteins
Mono-and hetero-polysaccharides of nutritional significance. Cell wall constituents. Glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Available energy from carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Dietary lipids, their digestion, absorption and metabolism. Essential fatty acids. Dietary fat and milk composition. Partitioning of feed energy. Basal metabolic rate. Energy retention. Respiratory exchange and carbon-nitrogen balance techniques. Factors affecting energy utilization. Proteins—their evaluation and utilization. Metabolic faecal-N and endogenous urinary-N. Essential amino acids. Significance of undergradable proteins. Protein-energy inter-relationships. Efficiency of energy and protein utilization for growth, milk, wool and egg production.
Section 2: Minerals, Vitamins and Feed Additives
Minerals: Sources, physiological functions and deficiency symptoms. Inter-relationships-synergism and antagonism. Inter¬relationships among minerals and vitamins. Mineral toxicity and its effects. Vitamins: Sources, physiological functions and deficiency symptoms, hyper-vitaminosis. Antibiotics: Probiotics, hormones and other growth-promoting factors,
Section 3: Rumen Eco-system and Function
Rumen environment. Rumen movements. Rumen development. Rumen micro-organisms, their role and significance. Rumen protozoa and their role. Defaunation and its effect on feed utilization and animal productivity. Manipulation of microbial composition for optimum rumen fermentation. Utilization of fibre, starch, soluble carbohydrates, VFA production, interconversion and utilization. Non-Protein Nitrogen (NPN) and protein degradation in rumen. Nitrogen cycle. Deamination and microbial protein synthesis. Ruminal biohydrogenation and utilization of plant lipids. Methanogenesis and its control. Rumen dysfunctions. Protection of lipids and proteins for their efficient utilization.
Section 4: Non-ruminant Nutrition
Comparative gastro-intestinal physiology and metabolism of carbohydrates, protein, fat, minerals and vitamins in poultry and swine. Nutritive requirements. Feeding systems. Feed additives. Nutritional factors affecting quality of the products.
Section 5: Nutrient Requirements
Energy and protein requirements for maintenance, growth, reproduction, milk, work and woo! production by different ruminant species. Mineral, vitamin and water requirements. Factors affecting energy and protein requirements. Factors affecting

feed intake. Feeding standards—Morrison. ARC, NRC and Indian. Nutritional inter-relationships. Genetic-nutrient and parasitic-nutrient interactions. Environmental effect on nutrient requirements.
Section 6: Forage Conservation and Evaluation
Common forages and their composition. Significance of forage conservation. Methods of making silage and hay making. Factors affecting quality of silage and hay. Chemical treatment of crop residues for improving their feeding value. Feeding livestock under scarcity conditions. Different methods of feed evaluation.
Section 7: Feed Processing and Technology
Feed processing techniques. Feed formulation based upon least cost. Feed grinding, mixing and pelleting. Chemical and physical changes in feed and by-products during processing and their effects on feed utilization. Quality control of feed ingredients and finished products. Significance of BIS standards. Handling and storage of raw materials and finished products, Chemical, physical and biological treatment of feeds and crop residues for improving their quality. Use of feed binders. Use of agro-industrial by products for economic feed formulation.
Section 8: Antimetabolites and Toxic Principles
Natural occurrence and metabolism of herbage toxins like alkaloids, glycosides, glycoproteins and phenolic compounds. Aflatoxins and Salmonella poisoning. Insecticide and pesticide residues in feeds, Detoxification of various antimetabolites/toxic principles.
Section 9: Elements of Research Methodology
Principles of experimentation. Statistical designs for conducting feeding trials. Methodology of partitioning of carbohydrates-Weende's and detergent methods. Metabolic evaluation of feeds, nylon bag and in vitro degradability of feeds. Use of biotechnological and radiotracer techniques in animal nutrition.
Section 1: Biophysical and Biochemical Principles Related to Physiology
Animal cell-ultra structure, composition and functions. Physio-chemical laws and membrane phenomena. Body fluid and its dynamics.
Section 2: Blood and Circulation
Blood coagulation. Haemoglobin and its polymorphism. Anaemias. Reticulo-endothelial system. Body defense mechanism and immunogenesis. Electrophysiology of heart. Electro-cardiography-principles and interpretation. Hemodynamics and concerned biophysical principles. Capillary fluid exchange and lymphatic circulation. Neural and humoral control of heart and blood vessels. Cardiac output and vascular reflexes. Autoregulation mechanisms in the heart. Regional circulation —coronary, pulmonary, cerebral, muscle, kidney and skin. Blood Brain barrier. Circulatory shock and hypertension.
Section 3: Respiration
Mechanics of respiration. Neural and chemical control of respiration. Gaseous transport and exchange. Hypoxia. Physiology of hypo-barrism and high altitude. Work and exercise physiology.
Section 4: Excretion
Modern concepts of urine formation. Control of renal circulation. Secretion and absorption in renal tubules. Regulation of acid-base balance by blood buffers, lungs and kidneys. Hormonal and renal regulation of body fluids and electrolyte balance. Physiology of micturition. Uremia and other renal disorders. Renal function in birds.
Section 5: Digestion
Control of motility and secretion of alimentary canal. Gastric hormones and reflexes in the control of digestive functions. Control of rumen motility. Digestion in ruminant and monogastric animals. Absorption from rumen and the digestive tract. Manipulation of rumen microflora to enhance fibre digestion and microbial protein synthesis. Nitrogen recycling and rumen bypass mechanism. Post-ruminal digestion. Physiology of rumen disorders. Avian digestion (different features).
Section 6: Muscle Physiology
Muscle types and their intra-cellular contractile mechanisms. Electrophysiology of muscles. Neuromuscular junction. Excitation contraction coupling, its biochemical and ionic mechanisms. Molecular basis of muscle contraction. Myopathies.
Section 7: Nervous System
General organization of nervous system. Neuron structure and function. Excitability and transmission of impulse. Junctional transmission. Neurotransmitters. Reflex action. Initiation of impulses from sense organ/receptors. Functions of spinal cord, brain stem and cerebellum. Limbic system and cerebral cortex. Reticular activating system—sleep and wakefulness. EEC. Autonomic nervous system. Hypothalamus and its autonomic functions in endocrine and visceral regulation. Ascending and descending tracts. Cerebral cortex, its role in motor and sensory functions. Physiology of learning and memory. Physiology of pain. Special senses.

Section 8: Endocrinology
Hormones. Hormone receptors. Mechanism of hormone action at cellular and sub-cellular levels. Feedback control of hormone secretion. Releasing and inhibiting factors. Pineal gland and its hormones. Hormones of hypophysis and all other endocrine glands. Mechanisms of different hormone actions. Endocrine disorders.
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Section 9: Reproduction
Hormonal control gametogenesis. Gonadal hormonal output and their functions in males and females. Neuro-endocrine-gondal axis and feedback mechanisms. Male spermatogenesis: Androgens. Accessory sex glands. Control of fertility. Sexual behaviour-erection, ejaculation etc. Factors affecting semen production and evaluation. Artificial insemination-collection, preservation and transport of semen dilutors. Freezing of semen. Oogenesis ovulation: Corpus luteum. Oestrus cycle and pregnancy. Ovarian hormones-estrogen-progesterone, relaxin and prosterglandins. Oestrous synchronization. Super-ovulation. Sperm capacitation and acrosomal reaction. Sperm and ovum transport in female genital tract- Fertilization. Implantation. Maintenance of pregnancy. Physiology of placenta. Zygote as an endocrine and immunogenic structure. Physiology of parturition. Role of adrenal corticoids, PGs, oxytocin and gonadal hormones. Embryo transfer-collection, preservation, transport and transplantation of embryos. Oocyte culture. In vitro fertilization. Hormonal control of mammary gland growth before puberty, during pregnancy and after parturition. Hormonal control of milk secretion. Milk let-down. Control of initiation, maintenance and cessation of lactation. Role of hormones and nutrients in milk production. Mammary gland involution. Milk precursors and synthesis of milk constituents.
Section 10: Physiology of Growth
Concept and definition. Growth regulation and factors of affecting prenatal and post-natal growth. Role of growth in production.
Section 11: Climatology
Physiology of climatic stress. Effects of stress on production and reproduction. Neural and hormonal regulation of body temperature in homeotherms. Mechanism of adaptation. Photoperiodicity and biological rhythms.
G3. BIOCHEMISTRY (Animal Science)
Section 1
Fundamental principles governing structure of biomolecules. Structure, properties and functions of monosachharides. Storage and structural polysachharides, glycoproteins, amino acids, globulin and fibrous proteins, immunoglobulins, lipids, lipoproteins, biomembranes, prostaglandins, nucleotides and nucleic acids. Structure determination of proteins and nucleic acids and protein evolution. Myoglobulin and haemoglobulin.
Section 2
Enzymes-general properties, kinetics, and mechanism of action. Regulation of enzyme activities. Enzyme inhibition. Regulatory enzymes.
Section 3
Bioenergetics and metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. Role of ATP Biological oxidation. Respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Carbohydrates of physiological significance. Lipids of physiological significance. Overview of intermediary metabolism. Citric acid cycle, catabolism of acetyl CoA. Glyconeogenesis and control of blood sugar. Pentose phosphate pathway and other pathways of hexose metabolism. Biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids. Ketogenesis. Metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids. Metabolism of glycerides and sphingolipids. Lipid transport and storage. Cholesterol synthesis, transport and excretion. Integration of metabolism and provision of tissue fuels.
Section 4
Metabolism of proteins and amino acids. Biosynthesis of nutritionally nonessential amino acids. Catabolism of proteins and amino acid nitrogen. Catabolism of carbon skeletons of amino acids. Conversion of amino acids into specialized products. Synthesis and breakdown of haemoglobin, porphyrins and bile pigments.
Section 5
Structure, function and replication of informational macromolecules. Nucleotides. Metabolism of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. Nucleic acid Structure and function. DNA organization and replication. RNA synthesis, processing and metabolism. Protein synthesis and genetic code. Regulation of gene expression. Recombinant DNA technology.
Section 6
Biochemistry of extra-cellular and intra-cellular communication. Membrane structure, assembly and function. Hormone action. Pituitary and hypothalamic hormones. Thyroid hormones. Hormones that regulate catabolism. Hormones of adrenal cortex and medulla. Hormones of pancreas and gastro-intestinal tract. Prostaglandins. Pheromones.
Section 7
Structure and functions of water-soluble vitamins. Structure and functions of lipid-soluble vitamins, their digestion and absorption. Glycoproteins. Metabolism of xenobiotics, cancer, oncogenes and growth hormones. Liver function tests.

Biochemical techniques of food, blood and urine analysis. Paper column and thin layer chromatography. Use of GLC and HPLC. Electrophoresis of proteins and nucleic acids. Use of radio-isotopes in metabolic studies. Enzymatic methods for estimation of metabolites. Isolation, purification and quantification of native DNA and RNA.
Section 9
Biochemistry of body fluids, water, electrolytes and acid-base balance, function and mechanism of action of major trade elements.
Section 10
Classes of environmental pollutants, their sources and impact on animals. Effect of various pollutants on animal. Effect of various pollutants on animal, plant and microbial metabolism. Biochemistry of detoxication. Biochemical bases of pollutant tolerance. Biotechnology in pollution control.

G4. BIO TECHNOLOGY (Animal Science)
Section 1: Cell Biology
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell architecture. Molecular organization cell membrane and transport across membranes. Organization of the cytoplasm, cell organelles endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, mitochondria, lysosomes, nucleolus and sub-nuclear structures. Cell division. Control of proliferation. Cell growth and differentiation in unicellular and multicellular organisms.
Section 2: Molecular Biology
Recombination in bacteria and fungi. Transformation, conjugation and transduction. Molecular mechanism of genetic recombination. Molecular mechanism of spontaneous and induced mutations. Site-directed mutagenesis. Mechanisms of suppression. Molecular mechanisms of DNA repair. Genetics of mitochondria. Plasmids. Structure, organization and functioning of Is and Tn elements.
Section 3: Gene Structure and Expression
Gene structure. Organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome. Nucleases. DNA replication. DNA repair and recombination. RNA biosynthesis. Genetic code, ribosomes, tRNA, and amino acid activation. Regulation of transcription. Protein biosynthesis. Translational control mechanisms and post-translation modifications.
Section 4: Recombinant DNA Technology and Genetic Engineering
Generation of DNA fragments. Chemical synthesis of DNA (oligonucleotide synthesis). DNA splicing. In vitro mutagenesis. Cloning vectors. Use of animal viruses like vaccinia, capripox and herpes, retroviruses, adenoviruses as cloning vectors. Transformation of bacterial and animal cells. Characterization of DNA clones. Recombinant DNA applications in animal health and industry. Safety aspects of genetic engineering.
Section 5: Animal Tissue Culture
Development of tissue culture techniques. Behaviour of cells in terms of growth, differentiation and metabolism. Media for culturing cells and tissues, natural and defined media, and growth supplements. Culture of different tissues and organs, and its applications. Somatic cell hybrids and their applications in monoclonal antibody production and gene mapping. Characterization and maintenance of cell lines. Cryopreservation of cells. Nutritional needs of mammalian cells in tissue culture. Short-term lymphocyte culture. Fibroblast culture. Image analyser and its applications. In situ hybridization in cells and micromanipulation.
Section 6: Technique of Biotechnology
Isolation and purification of DNA from prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Quantitation of nucleic acids. Restriction endonucleous digestion of DNA and restriction regiment analysis of DNA by gel electrophoresis.

Section 1: General Bacteriology
Classification and nomenclature of bacteria. Structure, function and chemistry of bacterial nuclear apparatus. Cytoplasm. Intracellular granules. Cell wall. Cytoplasmic membrane. Spheroplasts. L-forms. Involution forms. Bacterial stains, staining and microscopy. Growth and nutritional requirements of bacteria. Bacterial enzymes. Respiration in bacteria. Carbohydrate, protein fat and nucleic acid metabolism in bacteria. Reproduction and growth phases of bacteria. Effect of chemical and physical agents and antibiotics. Bacterial variations including transduction, transformation and conjugation. Bacterial vaccines and toxins.
Section 2: Systematic Bacteriology
Systematic study of bacteria belonging to genera Borrelia, Leptospira, Campylobacter, Pseudomonas, Brucella, Bordetella, Escherichia, Citrobacter, Salmonella, Shigell, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus. Vibrio, Haemophilus, Pasteurella, Yerinia, Actenobacillus, Actinomycetes, Pusobacterium, Moraxella. Staphylococus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Clostridiu, Listeria, Erysipelothrix, Corynebacterium. Nocardia, Rickettsia, Chalmydia, Mycoplasm, Acholeplasma, Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium and Neisseria.

Section 3: General Virology
Historical development of virology. Evolution, classification and nomenclature of viruses. Biophysical and biochemical characteristics of viruses. Cultivation of viruses and their growth pattern in cell culture, embryonated eggs and experimental animals. Purification and concentration of viruses. Qualitative and quantitative assay of viruses. Viral replications. Virus-host cell relationships. Latent, persistent and chronic viral infections. General principles of laboratory diagnosis of viral diseases. Epidemiology and methods of spread of viral infection. Oncogenic role of viruses. pathogenesis and pathology of viral infections. Immune mechanism in viral diseases. interference and interferon. Viral vaccines. Chemotherapy of viral infections.
Section 4: Systematic Virology
Systematic study of RNA and DNA viruses in livestock and poultry. RNA viruses: Reviruses. Arboviruses. Rotaviruses, Birnaviruses, Coronaviruses, Togaviruses, Paramyxoviruses, Orthomyxoviruses, Rhabdoviruses, Retroviruses, Picornaviruses, Bunyaviruses, Arenaviruses, Arterioviruses, Calciviruses, Filoviruses, DNA viruses: Poxviruses, Herpesviruses, Iridoviruses, Adenaviruses, Papovaviruses, Parvoviruses, Hepadnaviruses, Circoviruses, Unclassified viruses, Slow viruses Scrapiev, Maedie.
Section 5: Mycology
General characteristics of fungi. Classification and study of pathogenic fungi-Epidermophyton, Microsporum, Trichophyton, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus. Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Candida, Rhinosporidiu, Contaminating fungi, Rhizopus, Mucor and Penicillium.
Section 6: Immunology
Historical perspective's. Host-parasite relationships. Antigens. Types of antigens. Properties and specificity of antigens. Factors determining antigenicity. Haptens and carriers. Heterophile antigens. Adjuvants. Mechanisms of action, classification, and their uses. Immunoglobulins-their classes and sub classes, structure and function. Allotypes. Idiotypes. Synthesis. Genes coding for Igs. Generation of diversity. Monoclonal antibodies. Purification of antibodies. Theories of antibody formation. Lymphoid organs: primary, secondary and circulation of lymphocytes. Cells involved in the immune response-B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, subsets and nature of receptor. Macrophages. Dendritic reticular cells. Langerhans cells. Cellular interactions. Cell mediated immune response. Mechanism of interaction of antigen and antibody. The complement system. classical and alternate pathways. Serological reactions: agglutination, precipitaion. CFTT, FAT, ELISA, CIEE, RIA etc. Major: Histocompatibility complex: organization, nature of antigens and MHC restriction. Hypersensitivity-immediate and delayed types, and mechanism of hypersensitivity. Mechanism of immunity, auto-immunity and immunological tolerance.
Section 7: Molecular Cell Biology
Probes—preparation of cDNA. Use of DNA probe in animal diseases diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies. Application of monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis of animal diseases. Preparation of monoclonal antibodies. Nucleic acid hybridization. Recombinant DNA vaccines and their uses in animal diseases.
Section 1: Introduction, History and Etiology
Introduction, history and scope of pathology and its relation with other disciplines. Definitions. Etiology of diseases and concept of multiple-factor etiology. Predisposing factors of disease. Intrinsic factors of species age, sex, colour, heredity. Extrinsic or environmental factors in relation to disease. Physical agents. Mechanical injuries. Heat, cold and decreased atmospheric pressure. Injuries due to light. Photosensitization. lnjuries due to electricity. Chemical agents as causes of disease. Poisoning caused by exogenic and endogenous poisons.
Section 2: Hemodynamic Derangements, Degenerations and Necrosis
Disturbances of circulation/hemodynamic derangements-hyperemia, ischemia, haemorrhage, sludges blood, thrombosis, embolism, infraction, edema and shock. Disturbances of cell metabolism- cell swelling, mucinous and mucoid degeneration, amyloid infiltration, hyaline degeneration, glycogen, infiltration, fatty changes, gout, calcification, ossification disturbances of pigment metabolism, Icterus, necrosis and gangrene.
Section 3: Inflammation, Healing and Fever
Inflammation: Introduction, definition, etiology and cardinal signs, chemical mediators, circulatory and cellular changes, exudate, phagocytosis and body defences. Classification of inflammation: serous, mucous, fibrinous, haemorrhagic, purulent, lymphocytic, granulomatous and allergic. Peracute, acute, sub-acute and chronic inflammations. Healing and fever.
Section 4: Immunopathology
Immunopathology. Hypersensitivity reactions - anaphylaxis, cytotoxic antibody reaction, and immune-complex. Arthus type reaction. Delayed hypersensitivity. Hypersensitivity to chemicals. Auto-immune type hypersensitivity reactions. Immunodeficiencies, surveillance and elimination of foreign and abnormal cells.
Section 5: Oncology and Malformations
Disturbances and cellular adaptations of growth—aplasia, hypoplasia, atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia, anomalies and monsters. Neoplasm-growth. Etiology, classification, morphology and behaviour of neoplasms. Various benign and malignant neoplastic conditions in domestic animals, their pathological features and diagnosis.

Section 6: Postmortem and Histopathologic Techniques
Principles and techniques of necropsy of morbid materials. Techniques of preservation. Despatch and section cutting. Staining and identification of sections prepared from pathological lesions.
Section 7: Clinical Pathology
Haematology, blood chemistry, urine and faecal examination in important diseases of livestock and poultry.
Section 8: Systemic Pathology
Pathology of cardiovascular, haemopoietic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, genital, nervous and musculoskeletal systems, endocrine glands, eye, ear, skin, hoof and nails.
Section 9: Infectious Pathology
Pathology of bacterial diseases, mycotic infections, viral disease, PPLO and rickettsial infections and parasitic diseases.
Section 10: Avian Pathology
General introduction. Avian inflammation. Pathology of nutritional diseases, Respiratory diseases—Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, infectious laryngio tracheitis, influenza, fowl pox, coryza, avian encephalomyelitis, viral arthritis, infectious bursal disease, and egg drop syndrome. Neoplastic diseases—Marek's disease and Avian leucosis complex. Salmonellosis. Pullorum disease. Typhoid and paratyphoid. Pasteurellosis. Fowl cholera. Avian pseudotuberculosis. Avian mycoplasmosis. Chlamydiosis. Colibacillosis. Spirochetosis. Fungal infections. Aspergillosis. Parasitic infections-nematode, cestode and protozoan parasites. Vices and miscellaneous diseases.
Section 11: Nutritional and Production Pathology
Pathology of nutritional diseases, protein, carbohydrate, mineral and vitamin deficiencies. Pathology of production diseases—milk fever, magnesium tetany, ketosis etc.
Section 12: Toxic Pathology
Pathology of toxicity of heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, toxic plants and drugs.

Section 1: Diagnostic Approaches to Animal Diseases
Anammesis. Clinical examination of patients. Special examination procedures-laryngoscopy, endoscopy, exploratory puncture, biopsy techniques, mental detection, electrocardiography, echocardiography, catheterization, phonocardiography, electroencephalography, opthalmoscopy and radiological examination. Radioimmunoassay. Scanning. Ultrasonography. Laboratory examination of blood, urine, faeces, milk, CSF, sputum and skin scrapings. Allergic and serological tests including ELISA. Blood chemistry. Examination of specimens for causative organisms. Drug sensitivity tests.
Section 2: General Medicine
Definitions of infectious, contagious, sporadic, epizootic, enzootic, panzootic, exotic, zoonosis, epidermiology, segregation, isolation and quarantine. General systemic states-septicaemia, bacteraemia, pyaemia, toxaemia. Errors of heat regulation, allergy, anaphylaxis and hydration. Disease transmission. Immunity and immune mechanism. General principles of control of infectious diseases. Disposal of carcasses. Disinfection and fumigation. Recombinant DNA strategy. Antimicrobial therapy.
Section 3: Gastroenterology
Indigestion. Bloat. Colic. Trumatic reticulo-peritinitis. Abomasal displacement. Hepatitis. Ascites. Jaundice. Pancreatitis. Gastritis. Enteritis.
Section 4: Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Disorders
Heart failure. Circulatory failure. Arrhythmias. Myocardial astheria. Valvular diseses, Pericarditis. Shock. Owdema. Anaemias. Epistaxis. Pulmonary congestion and oedema. Pulmonary emphysema. Pneumonia. Pleurisy. Laryngits and bronchitis.
Section 5: Urogenital Disorders
Nephritis. Cystitis. Urolithiasis. Uraemia. Metritis.
Section 6: Musculo-skeletal and Nerbour Disorders
Myopathies. Myositis. Osteodystrophy. Arthritis. Osteo-myelitis. Meningitis. Encephalitis. Encephalomalcia. Hydrocephalus. Brain abscess. Tumours and cysts. Neuritis and paralysis.
Section 7: Dermatology
Dermatitis. Photosensitization. Eczema. Urticaria, Impetigo. Acne. Alopecia.
Section 8: Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders
Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis. Milk fever. Downer's cow syndrome. Ketosis. Hypomagnesemia. Tetany. Post-partuient haemoglobinurea, Azoturia. Fat cow syndrome. Rickets and osteomalacia. Deficiencies due to trace minerals and vitamins.
Section 9: Diagnostic and therapeutic Approaches to Common Toxic Conditions of Livestock
Lead, arsenic, fluorine, mercury, HCN, nitrate and nitrite, chlorinated hydrocarbon, organophorous compounds and urea poisoning. Diseases caused by physical agents and environmental pollutants. Combating radiation hazards.
Section 10: Infectious Diseases of Livestock and Poultry
Bacterial Diseases: Actinormycosis. Actinobacillosis. Necrobacillosis. Brucellosis. Anthrax. Clostridial infections. Coliform diseases. Pleuropneumonia group of disease. glanders. TB, JD, Mastitis. Swine erysepals. Leptospirosis. Listeriosis. Infectious coryza. Chronic respiratory diseases. Spirochaetosis. Viral and Ricketsial Diseases: Rinderpest PPR. Foot-and-Mouth diseases. Blue tongue. Malignant catarrhal fever. Bovine virus diarrhoea. Mucosal disease complex. Ephemeral fever. equine influenza. African horse sickness. Equine infections. Anaemia. Equine viral arteritis. Rabies ailments. Infectious canine hepatitis. Parvo virus infection. Scrapie. Louping ill. Contagious ecthyma. pox. Ranikhet disease. Fowl plague. Marek's disease. IBD, IB, IIT. Swine fever. TGE. Viral encephalitis. Anaplasmosis. Contagious ophthalmia. Heat water disease. Tick born fever. Parasitic Diseases: Mange. Warblem. Myiasis. Pediculosis. Ascariasis. Facioliasis. Schistosomiasis. Palamphistomiasis. Taeniasis in birds and mammals. Gid. Hydatidosis, parasitic gastro-enteritis. Parasitic pneumonia. filariasis. Hesbronemiasis. Kumari (cerebrospinal nematodiasis). Amoebiasis. Coccidiosis. Sarcospridios. Piroplasmosis. theileriasis. Toxoplasmosis. Leishmaniasis. trypanosomiasis. Mycotic Disease Ringworm. Condidiasis. aspergillosis. Aspesrgillosis. Histoplasmosis. Blastomycosis. Rhinosporidiosis Coccidiomycosis. Aflatoxicosis. veterinary Paediatrics. Neo-natal and prenatal diseases.
Section 11: Jurisprudence and Ethics
Common law. Duties of veterinarian. Service conditions and professional conduct. Examination of vetero-legal cases. Collection and despatch of material of chemical analysis. Common offences against animals. Prevention of cruelty to animals. Legal enactments in IPC related to animals. lndian Veterinary Council Act. Common frauds in sale of livestock and livestock products. Cow Slaughter Act.
Section 12: Special Therapeutic Techniques in Veterinary Practice
Physiotherapy. Fluid and electrolyte therapy. Blood transfusion techniques. Rumen fluid transplantation.
Section 1
Classification, structure, physiology, life cycle, mode of transmission, occurrence and distribution of the parasites of Veterinary importance belonging to the following:
A. Helminthology
(a) Platyhelminthes-Trematoda: Bicrocoelidate, Heterphylidae. prosthogenimidae, Plagierchidae. Opisthorchlidae. Fasciolidae, echinostomatidae. Notocotylidae. Paragonimidae. Paramphistomataidae, and Schistosomatidae.
(b) Platyhelminthes-Cestoda
(c) Nemathelminthes-Nematoda
Ascardidae, Anisakidae, oxyuridae, heterakidae, Subuluridae, Rhabditidae, Strongyloididae, Stongylidae, Trichonematidae, Amidostomiae, Stephanuridae, Syngamidae, Ancylostomatidae, Trichostronglidae, Dictyocaulidae, Metastrongylidae, Protostrongy-lidae, Filaroididae, Spiruridae, Thelazides, Acuaridae, Tetrameridae, Physalopteridae, Gnathostomatidae, Filaridae, Setariidae, Onchocercidae, Dracunculidae, Trichinellidae, Trichuridae Capillariidae, and Dictophymatidae.
(d) Acanthocephata-Polymorphidae, Oligacanthorhychidae.
B. Protozoa
Tryanesomatidae, Trichomonadidaiae, Monocercomondadidae, Hexamitidae, Endomoebidae, Cryptosporidiidae, Eimeriidae, Sarcocystidae, Haemogregarinidae, Plasmodidae, Babesiidae, Theileriidae and Balantiidae.
C. Arthropoda
(a) Insecta: Amblycera, Ischnocera, Haematopinidae, Linognathidae, Culicidae, ceratopogonidae, Simuliidae, Psychodiadae, Tabanidae, Oestridae and Hippoboscidae.
(b) Arachidna: Dermanyssidae, Argasidae, Ixodidae, Trombiculidae, Pediculoididae, Demodicidae, Sarcoptidae and Psoroptidae.
(c) Pentastomida: Linguatulidae.
Section 2: Parasitic Pathology
It includes pathogenesis, pathology clinical symptoms, lesions, and hematological and biochemical changes of important groups of parasites of great economic importance with particular reference to those widely prevalent in domestic mammals and bird in India.
Section 3: Parasitic Zoonoses
Consideration of these parasites that are of great public health importance globally and for India. Each zoonotic disease thus identified should be analyzed in terms of its different components to establish its chain of transmission cycle from animals to man and vice-versa.

Section 4: Parasitic Techniques
Laboratory techniques used for diagnosis of parasitic diseases; collection of biological materials, coprological examination, preparation and training of blood and organ smears, section cutting and staining of tissue sections. Identification of cysts, eggs, larval and immature stages and adult parasites, use of laboratory animals: for diagnosis; methods of laboratory culture of preparasitics stages.
Section 5: Treatment and Control of Parasites
(a) Information regarding different anthelmintics, antiprotozoan compounds, and insecticides including acaricides; mode of their administration and their therapeutic and prophylactic doses with due precautions wherever applicable; and problems of drug resistance.
(b) Various practical measures recommended for controlling common and economically important parasites of domestic mammals and birds, and their rationale; mass drenching schedules and methods of their formation for organized livestock and poultry farms.
Section 6
(a) Immunity to Parasites
Nature and mechanism of immunity to parasites/especially helminths, protozoa, and ixodid ticks. How it differs from immunity to bacterial and viral infections? Humoral and cellular factors in immunity. Information on auto-immune reactions and other immunopathological conditions in parasitic diseases. Information on premunition, self-care and types of antibodies produced against parasites. How parasites circumvent the immune-surveillance of the host?
(b) Immunoprophylaxis
Use of vaccines against some important parasites available so far, and their rationale. Information on different immune-diagnostic tests and their techniques used against different parasites, their relative specificity and sensitivity; methods for preparation of antigens and their fractionation; methods of preparation of antisera/hyper-immune sera.
Section 1: General Pharmacology
Development and scope of pharmacology. Sources and nature of drugs. Pharmacopoeia and drug compendia. Pharmacokinetics and its application for rational dosage regimen. Factors modifying drug action. Drug-receptor interaction. Types and sites of drug action. Pharmacometrics: organization and screening programme and drug development, multi¬dimensional screening methods, bioassays, determination of LD50, ED50 and dose-response relationships.
Section 2: Drugs Acting on Central Nervous System
Sedatives. Hypnotics. General anaesthetics. Anticonvulsants. Tranquillizers. Analgesics and antipyretics. Drugs affecting behaviour. CNS stimulants. Muscle relaxants. Local anaesthetics.
Section 3: Drugs Acting on Humoral and Autonomic Nervous Systems
General considerations of autonomic nervous system. Neuro-humoral transmission. Adrenergic and antiadrenergic drugs including adrenergic neuron blockers. Cholinergic and anticholienergic drugs. Dopaminergic and antidopaminergic agents. Ganglion stimulants and ganglion blockers.
Section 4: Drugs Acting on Cardio-vascular and Respiratory Systems
Drugs acting on heart and blood vessels. Antihypertensive agents. Blood coagulants and anticoagulants. Haematinics. Haemorrhagic shock and its treatment. Expectorants. Cough sedatives. Bronchodilators. Analeptics.
Section 5: Drugs Acting on Digestive System
Stomachics. Antacids. Carminatives. Antizymotics. Emetics and antiemetics. Cathartics. Antidiarrhoeal agents. Antispasmodics. Pharmacology of rumen and rumenotoric drugs. Drugs acting on hepatobiliary system.
Section 6: Drugs Affecting Uro-genital System
Drugs altering fluid balance. Diuretics and antidiuretics. General principles of electrolyte and fluid therapy. Drugs acting on uterus (oxytocics and tocolytics). Drugs used for improving fertility and conception. Drugs used in synchronization of estrus.
Section 7: Autacoids
Histamine and antihistamines. Serotonin and antiserotonins. Peptides. Prostaglandins and leukotreins. Mediators of inflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs.
Section 8: Antiseptics and Disinfectants
Sulphonamides (gut acting and systemic), trimethoprim and nitrofurans. Antibiotics (natural and semisynthetic) including aminoglycoside, microclide and surface-acting antibiotics. Antifungal antibiotics and other emerging antibiotics. Antitubercular, antiviral and antineoplastic drugs. Antiprotozoan and anthelmintic drugs.

Section 9: Toxicology
Principles of selective toxicity. Toxicodynamics. Metabolism of poisons. Principles of diagnosis and therapy (antidotal and non-antidotal) teratogenicity. Toxicology of important inorganic compounds and their treatment. Toxicology of agrochemicals (insecticides, fungicides, weedicides and rodenticides). Toxicology of poisonous plants-cyanogenic plants, and plants producing nitrates, nitrites and oxalate toxicity. Plants producing photosensitization. Mycotoxins and other important toxic plants. Toxicology of industrial contaminants/pollutants, and radioactive substances.
Section 10: Miscellaneous Topics
Hormones including pituitary hormones, thyroid and antithyroid drugs, insulin and antidiabetic agents, adrenocorticoids, and sex hormones. Drugs affecting calcification - parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, vitamin D and other compounds. Production pharmacology. Feed additives. lonophore compounds. Agents used in restraining of wild animals and doping. Drug control and regulation.
Section l: Veterinary Public Health
Definition. International and national organization and administration of veterinary public health education—methods and channels.
Section 2: Milk Hygiene
Definition. Various types of milk—standard milk, sweetened milk, toned milk, double-toned milk, and condensed milk. Significance and importance of milk hygiene. Milk-borne infections. Pesticides, insecticides, antibiotics, drug residues, mycotoxins, plant toxins and their residues in milk. Toxic metals. Microbiology of milk and milk products. Source of contaminations and their public health significance. Prevention of contamination by sanitation practices in dairy farms, collection centres and milk plants. Pasteurization and sterilization of milk. Quality control of milk and milk products. Spoilage of milk products. Prevention of milk and milk products.
Section 3: Meat Hygiene
Definition. Significance and importance of meat hygiene. Meat-borne diseases and their epidemiology. Production of raw materials and transport. Antemortem and post-mortem examination for bacterial and parasitic infections and judgement. Application of bacteriological and biochemical tests on meat and meat products. Emergency slaughter, inspection and judgement. Hygiene aspects of meat processing. Disposal and reclamation of by-products. Inspection of egg, poultry and fish, and judgement for hygienic quality.
Section 4: Food-borne Infection and Intoxication
Bacterial food poisoning-salmonellosis, Clostridium perfrimgans, Staphauereous, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, botulism, and enteritis due to Campylobacter species. Viral poisoning-infectious hepatitis, poliomyelltis, gastroenteritis, and animal toxins naturally toxic to man. Secondary toxicity. Chemical poisoning and radioactive substances. Epidemiological investigations of food-borne infections. Food safety measures.
Section 5: Zoonoses
Definition. Classification. Bacterial, viral, rickettsial, parasitic and mycotic zoonoses and their epidemiology, public health significance, prevention and control. Occupational zoonoses and prevention.
Section 6: Environmental Hygiene
Water-sources of contamination, prevention of contamination, purification and sterilization of water, monitoring of quality. Water-borne infections, their prevention of and control. Potability standards. Air-microbiological pollution, and air-borne infections and their prevention. Chemical pollution. Methane production. Pesticide and insecticide contamination. Animal wastes. Solid and liquid wastes from farms, slaughterhouses, milk and meat plants, their effect on environment and human health, and their treatment. Disposal of dead animals and their economical utilization.
Section 7: Epidemiology
Definition, principles and scope of epidemiology. Variables in epidemiology. Agent-host environment and ecological interactions. Patterns and trends of disease occurrence—endemic, epidemic, pandemic. seasonal, periodic and cyclic trends. Health statistics and demographic methods. Measurement of health and diseases—morbidity and mortality. Sampling methods. Prevention and control of zoonotic diseases. Epidermiological surveys and surveillance. International organizations and administration of veterinary public health services.
Section 8: Experimental Medicine
Species of experimental animals. Care and management practices. Raising specific pathogen-free, gnotobiotic and germ-free animals and their specific utility in biomedical research.
Section 9: Health Education
Personal hygiene and health education of workers engaged in animal husbandry activities, slaughter houses, milk plants, and animal by-products, and industrial enterprises.
Section 10: Standards, Guidelines and Legislation
Concept of microbiological standards. Guidelines. Legislation. Food hygiene legislation. Code of practice. BSI standards and Indian legislation. Indicator organisms. Definition of quality and quality assurance. Achievements of quality of raw materials and processed materials. Critical points and processing (Hazard analysis critical control point). Waste materials. Maintenance of processing. Role of management.
Section 11: Microbiology in Public Health
Types of important bacteria in milk, meat, and their products. General characters of bacteria, mould, yeast and virus. Growth curve of bacteria. Factors influencing bacterial growth—food, temperature, moisture (water activity), oxygen, pH, inhibiting substances. Thermophiles and psychrophiles.
Section 1: General Surgery
History, definitions and classification of surgery. Current concepts of inflammation, asepsis and antisepsis in surgery. Disinfection and sterilization. Surgical bacteriology Pre-, peri- and post-operative considerations. Physiopathology of trauma, surgical stress and shock. Acid-base and electrolytes imbalance. Rehydration fluid therapy. Tissue repair including biochemical aspects. Principles of tissue and organ transplantation. Sutures and suture materials. Operation theatre management. General surgical affections—abscess, cyst, haematoma, tumour, gangrene, sinus and fistula, burns and hernia. Surgical instrumentations.
Section 2: Anaesthesia
History and instrumentation. Pre-anaesthetic considerations of patient. Selection of various anaesthetic and pre-anaesthetic agents and their effect on different body organs. Inhalant and non-inhalant anaesthetic agents and their administration in small and large animals. Monitoring of patient during anaesthesia. Anaesthetic emergencies and their management. Local anaesthetic agents. Local and regional anaesthetic procedures. Anaesthesia for special surgical procedures and special diseased conditions. Electronarcosis. Hypothermia. Anaesthesia for zoo animals.
Section 3: Radiology
Diagnostic X-ray machine and accessories. Radiographic positioning, exposure, and formulation of technique chart. X-ray hazards, biological effect and protection. X-ray film and its care. Dark room techniques. Radiographic artifacts and their prevention. Radiographic quality and factors affecting it. Radiographic features of various disease conditions. Radiographic interpretation. Commonly used special diagnostic, radiographic procedures. Principles of radiotherapy and physiotherapy. Imaging techniques.
Section 4: Orthopaedics and Lameness
Anatomy, physiology and circulation of long bones. Fractures. Fracture healing and factors affecting it. Complications and their management. Methods of internal and external fixations of fracture. Different bone diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Bone graft and implants. Affections of joint, their diagnosis and treatment. Surgical affections of vertebral columns. Relationship between conformation of the limbs, toot and its axis. Lameness and allied surgical conditions of fore and hind limbs. Various foot diseases.
Section 5: Surgery of Head and Neck Region
Surgical affections and management of sinuses, nasal and buccal cavity, tongue, salivary gland, larynx, teeth pharynx, trachea, oesophagus and eye.
Section 6: Thoracic Surgery
Various approaches for thoracic surgery in large and small animals. Different congenital and acquired surgical affections of thoracic wall and thoracic organs viz. lung, mediastinum, oesophagus, heart and diaphragm in large and small animals. Various diseases of the vascular system.
Section 7: Abdominal Surgery
Different surgical approaches for abdomen. Various acquired and congenital surgical affections of abdominal organs viz. traumatic reticulitis, abdomasal displacement, impaction of omasum, pylorostenosis, gastric torsion, cecal dilation, intestinal obstruction, rectal and anal prolapse, and peritonitis. Affections of liver, spleen, kidney, urinary bladder, urolithiasis and their complications and surgical management. Surgery of male and female genital organs.
Section 8: Integumentry System
Afflictions of horn, ear, skin, udder and teat, and tail and their surgical management. Cosmetic surgery. H6. VETERINARY ANATOMY Section 1
Gross anatomy. Ox is taken as a "Type" animal and structures of other domestic animals are to be compared. Bones of fore and hind limbs, axial system viz. skull, vertebrae, ribs and sternum in domestic animals. Joints, their classification and important joints in ox. Myology in general, muscles of appendicular and axial system in ox. Heart, systemic and pulmonary

circulation, aorta, and its important branches in thoracic and abdomina regions. Blood supply of fore and hind limbs. Veinous drainage of fore and hind limbs, head, neck, thorax and abdomen, and portal circulation in ox. Superficial lymph-glands of ox in relation to antemortem and postmortem examination. Thymus and spleen in general-Cisterna chyll and major lymphatic ducts of head, neck, thorax and abdomen. Organs of digestive respiratory, urogenital (in male and female) and nervous systems. Topographic location of organs in domestic animals in relation to heir surgical sites and clinical examination. Endocrine glands—pituitary, adrenal, thyroid and parathyroid glands of ox. Organ of sense—eye, internal ear and iteguments.
Section 2
Study of various bones and organs of digestive, respiratory and urogenital system in fowl.
Section 3
Macro-anatomy-definition of histology and preparation of histological slides. Microscope and microscopy. Light ultrastructural picture of animal cell. Basic tissues of the body-epithelium, connective tissue, muscular and nervous tissues in general. Micro-anatomy of important organs of digestive system viz. tongue, tooth, oesophagus, stomach, intestine, liver and pancreas. Respiratory organs, viz. trachea and lungs. Urinary organs—kidney ureter, urinary bladder and urethrae. Genital organs of male—testis, epididymis, ducats defrens. Accessory sex glands in male—prostate, seminal vesicles and bulbo-urethral gland, and penis. Genital system in female-ovary, oviduct, uterus, vagina, vulva and mammary glands. Sensory organs.
Composition of milk. Specific compositional differences among milk from various species. Variations in milk composition due to breed, feed season, stage of lactation and mastitis. Effect of variation in composition on market milk industry. Colostrum and abnormal milks. Physical properties of milk: acid base equilibria, oxidation-reduction potential, density, viscosity, surface and interfacial tension, freezing point, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, refractive index, and buffer capacity. Water activity, adsorption of water on various milk constituents and milk products and its effect on shelf life. Emulsions, foams and gels-tehri formation, stability and importance in dairy processing.
Section 2
Lactose-structure, isomers, physical, chemical and biochemical properties. Browning mechanisms. Estimation and biosynthesis. Lactose intolerance. Significance of carbohydrates in milk and milk products. Physical equilibria among milk salts. Effect of various treatments on salt equilibria. Salt balance and its importance in processing of milk. Distribution and importance of trace elements of milk. Water-soluble vitamins-molecular structure, level in milk and milk products, biological significance, and factors affecting their levels. Ascorbic acid in relation to Eh.
Section 3
Levels, distribution, isolation and genetic polymorphic of different milk proteins. Casein micells-structure, size distribution and stability. Casein models. Amino acid composition and physico-chemical properties of different fractions of caseins. Primary structure, physico-chemical properties and conformation of -lactalbumin and -lactoglobulin. When protein concentrates and their functional properties. Proteose-peptone, NPN, immunoglobulins, lactoterrins, lipoproteins and fat-globule membrance proteins and their importance. Chemistry of milk enzymes and their significance with reference to milk processing and milk products. Immunological, nutritional and biological importance of milk proteins.
Section 4
Milk lipids-classification, gross composition, structure and general physical and chemical properties. Auto-oxidation-definition, theories, factors affecting, prevention and measurement. Anti-oxidants-mechanism of reaction and estimation. Fatty acids-profile, properties and factors affecting. Unsaponifiable matter. Cholesterol-structure, forms, importance and level in milk. Chemistry of phospholipids and their role in milk and milk products Fat-soluble vitamins-chemistry, physiological functions, levels in milk, cream, butter and ghee. Biosynthesis of milk fat.
Section 5
Antibiotics, detergents, santizers, pesticides, insecticides, heavy metals, radionuclides, and aflatoxins in milk and their estimation. Genesis of flavour, aroma and texture in milk and milk products. Pigments, carbonyls, hydrocarbons and gases in milk. Sensory evaluation of milk and milk products.
Section 6
Cream: Size distribution of fat-globules, creaming phenomenon, composition and properties of cream and dry cream. Chemistry of neutralization and ripening. Butter: Mechanism of creaming during butter preparation. Desi and creamery butter. Composition, properties, microstructure, grading, standards and defects. Ghee: Differences in composition and variations in ghee and butter oil. Analytical constants and factors affecting them. Differences in cow and buffalo ghee. Hydrolytic and oxidative deterioration of ghee, their causes and prevention. Adulteration and methods of detection. Ghee grading. Antioxidants: natural and synthetics.

Heat stability of milk as affected by various milk constituents and additives. Physical and chemical changes during preparation of concentrated milk and subsequent storage. Compositional differences between condensed and evaporated milk. Dried Milk: Structure, physico-chemical properties and stability of milk powder. Physical properties of instant powder. Infant food. Spoilage of milk powder and its control. Khoa: Composition and changes during manufacture.
Section 8
Cheese: Composition and varietal differences. Chemistry of rennin action. Influence of acidity, renneting and heat on the process of cheese manufacture. Changes during manufacture and ripening. Role and mechanism of action of stabilizers and emulsifiers, rheological properties and defects of cheese. Milk clotting enzymes of different sources-microbial, animal and plant. Theories and metabolic pathways of fermentation. Dahi, Yoghurt and Acidophillus Milk: Composition and specific differences, chemical changes during fermentation, flavour development. Composition of lassi and buttermilk. Nutritional and therapeutic significance of fermented milk products. Paneer and Chhana: composition and changes during manufacture. Differences in chhana and paneer from cow and buffalo milks.
Section 9
Ice-cream and Frozen Products: Composition and physical structure, changes during ageing, freezing and hardening. Role and mechanism of stabilizers and emulsifiers. Kulfi composition and differences with ice-cream. PFA, BIS and AGMARK standards of milk and milk-products. Filled milk products.
Section 10
Principles and applications of dairy chemistry techniques: potentiometry, visible, IR and UV spectrophotometry, flame photometry, TLC, GLC, ion-exchange, gel permeation and affinity chromatography. electrophoresis. Radio-tracer techniques.
Probability and probability distributions including multinominal distribution. Tests of significance. Correlation and regression analysis. Analysis of variance. Basic designs for dairy chemistry experiments.
Section 1
Sources of microbial contamination of raw milk and their relative importance in influencing quality of milk during production, collection, transportation and storage. Types and numbers of microbes in normal, mastitic and high somatic cell count milk. Anti¬microbial systems in milk. Naturally occurring and residues of antibiotics, detergents, sanitisers and their mechanism of action. Morphological, cultural, biochemical, physiological, spoilage and pathogenic characteristics of commonly occurring microbes in milk and milk products. Microbial and chemical changes in raw milk during chilling and refrigeration. Methods of enumeration of psychrotrophs.
Section 2
Bacteriological aspects of bactofugation, thermisation, pasteurisation, boiling and UHT sterilization of milk. Types of spoilages in heat—treated milks. Enumeration of heat resistant microbes. Prevention of post-processing contamination in heated milk. Identification of sources of contamination in heat—treated milks. Role of resuscitation in recovery of heat-damaged microbial cells. Bacteriological grading of raw and heat-treated milk. Conventional and rapid bacteriological tests for heated milk. Enumeration of pathogens in heated milk.
Section 3
Types of micro-organisms in raw cream and different varieties of cream. Ripening of cream. Microbes in desi and creamery butter, and their growth during storage. Defects in cream and butter due to microbial growth. Microbiology of frozen dairy products such as ice creams, ice, kulfi and desserts. Standards of frozen products and their ingredients. Sources of contamination during production, handling storage and distribution.
Section 4
Microbes in indigenous milk products such as khoa and chhana based sweets, sources of these microbes, and spoilages they cause in these products. Growth and multiplication of pathogenic microbes in indigenous dairy products during storage and marketing. Types of microbes surviving in concentrated and dried milk, and baby foods. Role of initial microbial load of milk on the microbiological quality of products.
Section 5
Bacteriology of starter cultures, single and multiple strain cultures, and custom cultures. Associative growth of starter cultures. Concepts of starters growth and metabolism of lactose and citrate. Production of taste and aroma compounds by starters in fermented milk and milk products. Changes caused by starters in milk structure during growth. Modern trends in propagation, production and preservation of starter cultures. Production of starter concentrates. Judging of starter activity. Use of genetic methods for the improvement of dairy starters. Plasmids in dairy starters. Bacteriophages of dairy starters. Enumeration of phage particles; Prophase and lysogeny in dairy starters. Phage-resistant medium for growth of starters. Prevention of starter failures due to phages.

Grown and activity of starters in the preparation of dahi, yoghurt, koumiss, kefir, shrikhand, cultured butter, milk, and whey based fermented products, Probiotic properties of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and fermented products containing lactic and probiotic cultures. Anti-bacterial and therapeutic properties of probiotic cultures. Role of lactic cultures in controlling gastro¬intestinal microflora of man and animals. Microbiology of hard, semi-hard and soft varieties of cheese. Role of starter culture during preparation and ripening of cheese. Production and use of microbial rennet substitutes. Defects in cheese and growth of pathogens in cheese.
Section 7
Disposal of dairy effluents by microbial activity. Preparation of byproducts from dairy effluents by fermentation techniques. Cleaning and sanitization of equipment, machineries and other contact surfaces used in production and processing of milk and milk products. Types of detergents and their mechanisms of soil removal from the surfaces. Efficacy of sanitisers and evaluation of sanitising properties. Factors affecting activity of detergents and sanitisers. Built detergents, commercial detergents and combined detergent-sanitisers.
Section 8
Microbiological aspects of quality control and quality assurance in production of milk and milk products, limitation of these systems. Value of HACCP in preventing health hazard due to consumption of milk products, Methods of preventing food poisoning due to infection and intoxication. Importance of total quality control management in dairy industry.
Section 1: Market Milk
Status of dairy industry in India. Operation Flood Programmes. Technology mission on dairying. National Milk Grid. Marketing federation-their concept, achievements, limitations and impact on the dairy industry in India. Milk production trends and dairy industry in India. Milk production trends and dairy development through successive national plans. Recent policy changes related to dairy sector (MMPO, GATT) and their impact on dairy industry in the country. Principles and practices of production of high-quality milk. Physical properties and chemical composition of cow and buffalo milk and their importance in milk processing. Impact of processing on major and minor constituents of milk. Methods of milk procurement, payments, quality assessment, detection of adulterants, handling and transportation of milk to processing dairies. Milk preservation methods of chilling milk. Preservation of milk by LP system. Centrifugal separation, clarification and bactofugation, and factors affecting their efficiency. Automatic desludging separators and clarifiers. Homogenization process and its significance in dairy processing. Theories of homogenization, effect on milk constituents and properties. Efficiency of homogenization and factors affecting it. Thermal processing of milk principles and methods of thermization, pasteurization and sterilization. Ultra high temperature (UHT) processing of milk and aseptic packaging. Theoretical basis for UHT processing. Types of UHT processing plants. Bacterial, physical, chemical and biochemical and nutritional effects of UHT processing of milk. Legal standards for market milk and other designated milks. Procedures for sampling, examination and testing. Legal aspects. Special milk—principles of production, processing and marketing of toned, double toned, reconstituted and recombined, sterilized, flavoured and filled milk.
Section 2: Fat-rich Dairy Products
Basic principles of processing and quality aspects of different creams table, half and half, Sterilized and high fat cream. Legal standards. Quality aspects and shelf-life. Manufacture and use of cream powders. Basic principles, manufacturing process, fat losses, constructional and operational features of butter making equipment. Over run in butter. Quality, storage and packing of table butter, shelf-life, defects and remedies. Recent concepts in processing, storage, utilization and economy in manufacture of fat-rich milk products. Manufacture, packaging, storage and utilization of butter powder and butter oil. Low fat spreads. Fractionation of fat. Health aspects of milk fat. Cholesterol reduced/cholesterol free dairy products. Agmark, PFA and BIS standards and quality control and preservation of table butter. Status of ghee in India. Methods of ghee making. Innovations in ghee production procedures. Packaging, preservation, composition, changes during manufacture, shelf life and detects in ghee. Quality control of ghee and its grading under Agmark, PFA and BIS.
Section 3: Frozen-milk Products
Definition, classification and composition of ice cream and other frozen desserts. Status, trends and projections for frozen-milk products industry in India. Role of milk constituents, other ingredients, process steps, packaging and storage on ice cream quality. Technological aspects of ice cream manufacture. Recent advances in ice cream industry and their impact. Technology for preparation of dried ice cream mix. Indigenous frozen desserts-kulfi, malai-icebaraf, filled and imitation ice cream, their production techniques and quality.
Section 4: Cheese and Fermented Milk Products
Technology of cheese. Status and scope of cheese in dairy industry. Definition, classification and standards of cheese. Milk in relation to modern cheese making process. Treatments of milk for cheese manufacture and their consequences. Manufacture of Cheddar, Conda, Mozzerela and Swiss cheese. Role of starter culture in cheese quality. Status of call and microbial rennets for cheese manufacture. Yield optimization. Physical and chemical changes during cheese ripening. Manufacture of processed cheese, cheese spread and processed cheese foods. Mechanization of cheese-making process. Modern concepts in accelerating cheese repening. Packaging, storage and defects. Manufacture of low fat and low sodium cheese, and processed
cheese. Application of biotechnology and membrane processing in cheese industry. Recent advances in processing, manufacture, storage and packaging of dahi, yoghurt, srikhand, lassi and misti doi. Therapeutic value of fermented milk products.
Section 5: Concentrated and Dried-milk Products
Newer concepts in milk quality in relation to processing and manufacture of concentrated and dry milks. Principles and methods of manufacture, packaging and storage defects in SCM, EM, and UHT sterilized concentrated milk, RSCM, REM, and dried milk whole milk powder (WMP, SMP) and instant milk powder. Advances in processing, manufacture. packaging and storage of concentrated and dried milks. Critical evaluation of current status, need for modifications, newer technologies and formulations for infant foods and weaning foods. Special problems in handling buffalo milk for manufacture of concentrated and dried milk, and infant milk foods.
Section 6: Indigenous Milk Products
Significance and role of indigenous dairy products in Indian dairy industry and economy. Characteristics, composition and legal aspects of various indigenous products, their prospects and constraints. Status of organized and unorganized sectors in the manufacture of these products. Methods of production, physical-chemical changes during manufacture, quality attributes, shelf life, preservation, packaging and latest processing innovations of khoa, chhana and paneer, and sweets based on these products.
Section 7: Utilization of Milk-By Products
Status, availability and utilization of dairy by-products. Associated economic and pollution problems. Manufacture of casein, sodium and calcium caseinates, edible casein, hydrolysates, coprecipitates, whey protein concentrates, why beverages, why syrups and lactose. Use of butter milk. Application of membrane processing and other separation/fractionation processes used for milk components, and development/formulation of new products.
Section 8: Advances in Packaging
Packaging of milk and milk products status of existing systems, needs and projections. Critical evaluation of existing systems. Evaluation of packaging materials and package performance. Principles of packaging equipments. Package standard, regulations and quality control.
Section 9: Cleaning and Sanitization
Properties of important dairy detergents and sanitizers. Choice of detergents and sanitizers guiding principles and limiting factors. Basic principles in formulating, cleaning and sanitizing procedures for dairy equipments. Automation in cleaning and sanitization processes. Quality of water in detergency. Effluent disposal
Section 10: Advances in Dairy Technology
Radiation preservation of milk products. Theory and application of microwave heating. Immobilization of enzymes and their use in dairy and food industry. Use of membrane processing in dairy industry. Fouling, cleaning and sanitization of UF and RO membrances. Structure of dairy foods. Emulsions, foams and gels. Rheology of milk and milk products. Processing of other ingredients such as cereals, pulses and legumes for incorporation in milk and milk products. Use of milk solids in bakery and confectionery products. Application of biotechnology in dairy industry-Safety aspects of milk with reference to use of antibiotics, pesticides and weedicides. Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) as applied to quality assurance of milk and milk products.
Conduction heat transfer through rectangular fins and slabs, shape factors, two dimensional steady and unsteady conduction, graphical, analytical and numerical methods and design calculations. Velocity and temperature distribution in boundary layers. Local and average heat transfer coefficient. Empirical relations in convection heal transfer, laminar and turbulent regions. Nusselt number. Use of dimensional analysis, solution for flow parallel to plates and through tubs. Condensation and boiling heat transfer. Drop-wise and film-wise condensation. Film coefficients. Design of condensers and evaporators. Common heat exchangers and their care and maintenance in dairy/food plants, their effectiveness, system design and calculations.
Section 2
Introduction to design of pressure vessels, codes and regulation, allowable stresses, design pressures and working temperatures. Combination of direct and centrifugal stresses, fabrication requirements, inspection tests and quality control, corrosion and corrosion control/ allowance. Process plant piping, codes, piping material, testing and stress evaluation, overall economic and safety considerations, costs and selection of the heat exchangers.
Section 3
Transport properties and proportionality constants in momentum energy and mass transfer. Steady state equation. Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, continuity equation in different coordinates. Navier-Stockers equations and their applications. Velocity, temperature and concentration distribution in turbulent transport mechanism. Friction factors, analogies among mass heat and momentum transfer, mathematical analysis, application of dimensional analysis in transport phenomena and boundary layer content.
Ideal elastic, plastic and viscous behaviour. Viscoelasticity Rheological models. Viscoe!astic characterization of dairy and food materials. Stress- Strain behaviour creep and stress relaxation. Activation energy of flow. Methods of texture evaluation, subjective and objective measurement testing, firmness, hardness, dynamic hardness, strength of food materials and kinetics of biological reactions. Instron universal testing machine and theological properties of dairy/food products. Drag coefficient terminal velocity and Reynolds number. Application of aerodynamic properties to the process of separation, pneumatic handling and conveying of food products, electrical and optical properties of food products. Methods of measurements.
Section 5
Mass and energy balance in evaporation and dehydration of foods. Design of single and multi effect evaporators. Design of drying systems and their component—drum dryer, spray dryer, thermo-compression system etc. Separation and recovery of dried products. Design calculation for dryers recovery systems and auxiliary equipment. Freeze-concentration and freeze drying methods. Design problems.
Section 6
Introduction to biochemical engineering and biothermal process engineering. Water activity and states, sorption isotherms, hysteresis and methods of measurement. Effect of water activity on enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions and microbial growth. Permeability to gases and vapours in relation to packaging requirements of food products. Gas liquid mass transfer in microbial systems, measurements and calculation of shelf-life for packaged foods. Transport properties of the package and shelf-life. Shelf-life simulation for moisture, oxygen and light sensitive products. Accelerated testing. Theory of ultra filtration and reverse osmosis. Types of membrances, their selection and use in dairy/food industry. Physical parameters and heat transfer in microwave heating. Equipment selection and application in dairy and food industry. Fermentation and product yield in culture. Residential time distribution and design of fermentation vessels.
Section 7
Introduction to thermal processing. Sterilization classification. UHT systems. Factors effecting spoilage and design of thermal process system. Survival and thermal death curve. Analysis of thermal resistance data. Processing in containers. Process time design. Techniques for determination of heat resistance of microorganisms. Design of batch and continuous sterilization cycles. Milk deposits and fouling of surfaces, inhibition of corrosion, cleaning and sanitizing of evaporators dryers membrane separation plants.
Section 8
Physical chemical and biological characteristics of waste water and their measurement. Waste water treatment-screening, mixing, flocculation, sedimentation, floatation, vacuum filtration, incineration, chemical precipitation, adsorption and disinfection. Aerobic and anaerobic waste treatment. Kinetics of biological growth. Important pollutants of air and their properties. Particulate pollutants and their properties. Wet scrubbing, fabric filters and electrostatic precipitation.
Section 9
Control of temperature and humidity. Synchrometrics. Load estimation for specified design conditions. Design of air ducts and room air distribution. Transducers-resistive, inductive, capacitive, magnetic, optical and other types. Use of transducers in measurement—level, pressure, flow velocity, humidity, temperature, movement, mass, electrical properties, radiation.
Section 1: Introductory Food Technology
Introduction to food technology. Food attributes—colour, texture flavour, nutritive value and consumer preferences. Principles and methods of food and vegetable preservation. Composition and related quality factors for processing. Methods of food preservation—heat processing, pasteurization, canning, dehydration, freezing, fermentation, irradiation and chemical additives. Refrigerated and modified atmosphere storage.
Section 2: Fruit and Vegetable Technology
Grading and selection of fruits and vegetables for processing. Thermal process time evaluation for canned products. Spoilage of canned products. Dehydration and problems of browning in storage of dried products. Utilization of fruit and vegetable juices for the manufacture of beverages such as squashes, cordials, nectars, aerated and fermented fruits juice, Chemistry and manufacture of protein, role in jell formation and products like jellies and marmalades. Technology of preserved, canned fruits, pickles, chutneys and sauces. Nature and control of spoilage in pickles. By products of fruit and vegetable industry.
Section 3: Cereal Technology
Structure of different grains—wheat, rice barley, oat, maize and millet. Milling of grains, flour and its use in bakery products-bread, biscuits, cakes, doughnut and buns. Milling and parboiling of rice. Rice bran oil. Pearling and malting of barley. Milling and preparation of oat flakes, porridge and oat meals. Wet and dry milling of corn. Preparation of corn starch, syrups, germ oil and corn flakes. Sanitation in cereal processing factory. Preparation of flour for use as food and in confectionery products. Market and consumer preference for quality. Sampling and specification of finished products and raw material. Quality control. Food regulatories, grades and standards.

Elements of preservation and processing of foods of animal origin, Handling and maintenance of dairy plant equipment. Dairy plant operations-receiving, separation, clarification, pasteurization, standardization, homogenization, sterilization, storage, transport and distribution of milk. Problems of milk supply in India. Liquid milk processing, filled milk and fermented milk. Milk products processing—cream, butter, ghee, cheese, condensed milk, evaporated milk, whole and skim-milk powder, ice cream, butter oil, khoya, channa, paneer and similar products. Judging and grading of milk products. Cheese spreads by spray and roller drying techniques. Instantiations. Selection and use of dairy cleaner and sanitizer. In-plant cleaning system. Scope and functioning of milk supply scheme and various national and international organizations. Specifications and standards in milk processing industry. Dairy plant sanitation and waste disposal.
Section 5: Meat and Meat Products
Scope of meat and meat product industry in India. Chemistry and microscopic structure of meat tissue. Antemortem inspection. Slaughter and dressing of various animals and poultry birds. Postmortem examination. Rigor mortis. Retail and wholesales cuts. Factors affecting meat quality. Curing and smooking of meat. Sausage making. Microbiological factors influencing keeping quality of meat. Utilization of by products. Zoovosic diseases. Processing and preservation of fish and its products.
Section 6: Egg and Egg Products
Structure and composition of an egg. Factors effecting quality. Quality measurement. Preservation of egg-oil coating, refrigeration, thermostabilization and antibiotics. Packing, storage and transportation of eggs. Technology of egg products— egg powder, albumen, flakes and calcium tablets. Industrial and food uses.
Section 1: Farm Structures
Farm pond. Hydrological design of percolation ponds. Conveyance and regulatory structures, Residential structures for a farm family. Farm storage structures. Low-cost sanitary structures. Open dug well structure. Pump house. Underground water supply structures. Brooder-house and incubation structures. Dryer structures. Biogas plants. Compost pit. Waste water recycling structures and oxidation pond. Drop, chute and pipe spillway structures for soil conservation.
Section 2: Off-farm Structures
Grain storage structures. Structures for perishables. Roads, culverts and nallah structures. Rat proof godowns. Transport container design. Input storage (warehousing). Low-cost building materials. Piggery, poultry and other livestock structures. Integrated farming structures. Feedstuff storage structures. Conveyors and material handling units. Fuel efficient stoves. Kilns and dryers.
Section 3: Planning
Farmstead planning: Survey and data collection for information bank. Analysis of data. Options for action programme. Layouts. Cost estimation and appraisal. Project development: Time, motion and input analysis. Commissioning and maintenance. Flow charts and drawings. Case studies. Rural electrification: load estimation, and selection of equipment. Electrical fencing. Safety devices including fire fighting. Benefit-cost analysis. Economics of operation. Technology options. Techno-economic feasibility. Household electrical wiring. Electricity safety. Illumination, transmission and distribution of electrical energy.
Section 4: Materials Handling and Transport
Agricultural commodity handling technology. Horticultural product handling technology. Animal products handling. Handling of waste products. Handling of value added products. Trailers, bullock carts, wheel barrows and trucks. Bulk handling units.
Section 5: Post-harvest Operations
Losses at different stages. Grading, cleaning and sorting. Shelling, dehusking and decorticating. Milling and polishing. Parboiling. Drying. Size reduction. Granulation and briquetting. Crystallization, filtration, evaporation, distillation, mixing, clarification and densification. Coagulation. Washing. Sizing. Mechanical separation. Sedimentation. Pressing and expelling. Baling. Pelletization. Extrusion. Stabilization. Cryogenics.
Section 6: Design
Steel structures. RCC structures. Masonary structures. Function design. Materials science—ferrous, non-ferrous, plastic, FRP and wastes. Performance design. Straw walkers. Blowers. Hopper chutes. Vibrators. Centrifuges. Cyclones. Heat exchangers. Non-conventional thermal energy design. Solar and biomass equipment.
Section 7: Environment Control
Heat and vapour flow in farm buildings. Heating, cooling load calculations. Heat transfer and insulation. Livestock environment control. Incubators. Humidification and dehumidification. Use of psychrometric chart and steam falls. Poly/ greenhouse. Air curtain growth chamber. Engineering properties of biological materials-physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical, theological, aerodynamic and dielectric. Heat and mass transfer. Air conditioning and refrigeration. Controlled atmosphere storage systems. Equilibrium moisture content. Moisture and temperature variation during storage.
Section 8: Processing and Processing Equipment
Machinery for processing of agricultural products-cereals, pulses, oilseeds, oil palms, fruits and vegetables, animal products, tubers, spices and condiments, farm residues, apiary, tobacco, seed processing, biofertilizers and bio-pesticide formulations.
Section 9: Design and Management
Cost scheduling and appraisal. PERT and CPM techniques. Design of structure and equipment for farm products handling including feed and waste. Feed plant design and management. Design of rural sanitation structures. Design of heat exchangers, double pipe shell, tube and extended surface. Design of dryers, humidifiers, crystallizers, evaporators, separators, filters and miling equipment. Design of dairy equipment.
Section 10: Basic Sciences and Allied Engineering Subjects
Thermodynamics applied to processing. Theory of machine elements. Fluid flow analysis. Materials science. Tests of hypothesis. Multiple regression. Similitude and dimensional analysis. Application of biotechnology. Downstream chemical engineering-thermo, chemical and biochemical.
Section 1
Status and scope of farm mechanization in India. Power availability on the farm. Identification of need based priorities of mechanization for various cropping systems. Hand tools used for different kinds of farm work, design considerations and materials for construction. Functional requirements, principles of working, construction, design, operation and management of animal-and power-operated equipments for tillage, land development, sowing, planting, fertilizer application, inter-cultivation, mowing, chaff cutting and baling. Special equipment for crops such as sugarcane, cotton, groundnut, potato and jute.
Section 2
Design and selection of machinery elements: gear, pulleys, chains and sprockets, belts and simple clutches. Calibrations of seed drills, planters, sprayers and fertilizer applicators. Performance and losses in harvesting and threshing. Machinery systems design. Calculations of field capacity, efficiency and rate of seed, fertilizer and chemicals applicators, threshers, harvesters and chaff cutters.
Section 3
Force analysis on machine elements. Pull, draft, unit draft and energy calculations for animal and power operated equipment. Methods of testing of tillage equipments, seed-drills, seeders, plants, sprayers, threshers, and combines. Farm machinery selection for different soils, crops and operations. Cost analysis of implements and operations. Methods and materials for manufacturing and quality control of farm equipments.
Section 4
Source of power on the farm: human, mechanical, wind solar, biogas and producer gas. Energy conversion, capacities and efficiencies of energy utilization from these sources. Fuels and combustion in internal combustion engines, fuel properties and combustion equations. Lubricants and their properties. Thermodynamic processes and calculations on energy exchange.
Section 5
Various systems of spark and compression ignition engines. Operations, adjustment and trouble shooting on the working of the systems. Design of engine components. Calculations on horse power, torque, speed, firing arrangement and intervals, heal load and power transmission from piston to the fly wheel.
Section 6
Tractor: clutches, gear trains, differential and final drives. Tractor chassis mechanics. Traction theory. Power tillers: design, operation and management.
Section 7
Hitching systems and hydraulic controls. Hydraulic symbols and circuits for tractors and combines. Utilization and management of power implement systems for different soils, crops and operations. Tractor-implement system performance evaluation. Various types of dynamometers. Tractor testing and test codes. Cost analysis of power-implement systems and their operations. Human engineering and safety in power-machine systems.
Section 8
Basic concepts of trignometry, calculus, linear algebra and analytical geometry. Elements of statistics. Dynamics and strength of materials. Physical and mathematical models. Similarity in model-prototype testing. Measurement of forces, torque, speed, displacement and acceleration on machine elements. Elementary statistical inference. Measures of central tendency and dispersion. Common random variable distributions. Testing of hypothesis. Correlation and regression analysis.

Section I: Water Resources of India
Present status of utilization and scope for additional use. Increasing efficiency in water use. General principles of design of irrigation wells and tanks. Water lifts and irrigation pumps. Classification, principles of operation, types of drives, pumps, pump installation, performance characteristics and economics.
Section 2: Water Conveyance and Control
Hydraulics of open channels. Design of farm irrigation channels. Conveyance losses in canal systems. Weed problems and control. Lining of field channels and water courses. Structures to control erosion in gullies and irrigation channels. Underground pipeline irrigation distribution system. Design and installation of underground pipeline irrigation systems. Structure for underground pipelines. Hydraulic principles of water measurement. Measurement of irrigation water velocity-area method, water meters, coordinate method, weirs, Parshall flumes, orifices and meter gates. Water application methods. Hydraulics of border strip, check basin and furrow methods of irrigation. Design of surface irrigation systems. Comparative efficiencies and economics of different methods of irrigation. Sprinkler and drip irrigation methods.
Section 3: Soil-Plant-Water Relationships
Soil physical characteristics influencing irrigation. Soil moisture measurement in the unsaturated zone. Evaporation and irrigation requirements on evapo-transpiration basis: Crop factors for different stages of crop growth. Critical stages of crop growth in relation to irrigation. Irrigation scheduling. Salt problems in irrigated agriculture. Origin of salts in irrigation waters. Drainage and irrigated lands in relation to salinity control. Irrigation with poor quality water. Drainage: theory of flow in saturated soils. Drainage investigations. Drainage characteristics of various types of soils. Water table contour maps and isobar maps. Design and installation of surface and subsurface drains. Interceptor and relief drains and their design. Drain accessories. Drainage requirements of crops. Drainage in relation to salinity control. Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater.
Section 4: Hydrologic Processes
Precipitation, infiltration and runoff. Soil erosion. Quantitative soil loss estimation. Land use capability classification. Field practices in controlling erosion by water and wind. Design and construction of contour bunds, terraces and vegetative water courses. Gully control, vegetative measures, temporary, semipermanent and permanent structures for gully control and reclamation and their design. Farm ponds and reservoirs and their design and construction. Integrated area development and land use planning for soil and water conservation.
Section 5: Watershed Management
Identification and characterization of watersheds based on soil, vegetative and topographic characteristics. Surveying: topographic, reconnaissance. Soil types and depth properties. Soil maps and their scales. Meteorological observations. General methods of development. Land clearing-intermediate and heavy cleaning methods and equipment. Criteria for land levelling design methods. Earth work—quantities, equipment, construction procedures, preservation of top-soil, construction tolerance, checking, finishing, maintenance and contour levelling.
Section 6: Special Land Development Problems
Reclamation of ravine, waterlogged and swampy areas, sea (polders), saline and alkali areas. Land development machinery and land clearing equipment. Land levelling and construction. Maintenance of developed land. Economics of land development. Legal aspects. Knowledge of command area authorities and land development boards and financial implications. Interstate projects and their functionaries. Water rights and command area management. Optimization techniques for management.
Section 1
Major factors influence human growth and development. Principles of human growth and development. Study and analysis of significant areas of development; physical and motor aspects, cognitive processes, acquisition of language, creativity, learning and motivation. Study of emotional aspects, social behaviour, moral development and values, and personality development.
Section 2
Meaning and significance of child development theories. Psychoanalytic theories of Freud, Alder, Jung and the Neo, Freudians-Karen Horney, Sullivan, and Erech Fromm. Erikson's stages of psycho-social development. Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Language development theories of Chomsky and learning theories of Pavlov Skinner, Thorndike, Watson and Gestalt psychology. Theories of Heinz Werner and Kohlberg. Personality theories of Allport, Murray and Lewin's Field theory.
Section 3
Administration of pre-schools. Planning infrastructure and programmes for pre-schools education. Maintenance, budget and keeping of records. Principles of curriculum planning, and indoor and outdoor activities of nursery school.
Education in ancient period, middle ages, and during reformation and industrial revolution. Education during British period. Modern education. Historical review of major philosophies of early thinkers like Lock, Owan, Rousseau, Pestallozzi, Froebel and Montessori. Gandhi's basic education and contributions of Giju Bhai and Tarabai Modak. Importance of pre¬school education. Models of types of pre- school in India.
Section 5
Definition and needs of exceptional children. Classification of exceptional children: visual impairment, deaf and hard of hearing, speech and language defect, crippled child, socially and emotionally maladjusted and juvenile delinquents. Gitted and mentally retarded children. Psychological problems: necrosis, psychoneurosis, psychoses and schizophrenia. Rehabilitation of exceptional children.
Section 6
Physical, social, intellectual and emotional development during late childhood and their characteristic. Physical, moral, social, emotional and intellectual development during adolescence. Adulthood and old age. psychological, economic and social problems of the aged and rehabilitation of the aged. National and community services for the aged.
Section 7
Concept, need and principles of guidance. Aims and objectives of individual and group guidance. Sources of information and methods of group guidance. Use of psychological tests and criteria for testing and measurements. Guidance services: meaning, scope, principles of counselling services, methods and techniques in counselling service for children, parents and youth.
Section 8
Family in social context. Approaches to study of family: developmental, social, psychological and educational. Modern trends in Indian, urban and rural families and changing family functions. Changing roles and relationships. Influence of socio¬economic status, culture, religion and the role of family in maintaining mental health. Problems of the family related to sexual misbehaviour, aggression and hostility, drug addiction, AIDS etc. Services for family and children: creches, Balwadis and feeding programmes. Services for adolescents and youth. Rehabilitation of juvenile delinquent.
Section 9
Meaning and need for community education. Child rearing practices of community. Objectives and principles of parent education. The disadvantaged family. Problems and needs of the disadvantaged family and child. Subject matter or areas of knowledge for parent education. Role of parents and teachers in children. Methods and procedures of parent and community education.
Food production and consumption trends in India and their consequences on nutrition situation. Cereals, millets, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits, milk, eggs, meat and other animal foods. Nutritional value of these food groups and their contribution towards nutrients in Indian diets.
Section 2
Grain storage practices in India. Quantitative and qualitative losses during post-harvest handling and storage of foodgrains. Improved and scientific methods of storage of foodgrains.
Section 3
Food processing-physical and chemical changes in foods during processing including cooking and preservation with special reference to sensory characteristics and nutritional value. Traditional methods of processing such as steaming, parboiling, germination, malting and fermentation and their nutritional advantages. Food colours, flavours and enzymes, and their importance.
Section 4
Food safety-natural toxicants, pesticide residues, common adultrants and mycotoxins, their harmful effects on health, and methods of eliminating harmful effects.
Section 5
Macro- and micro-nutrients in human nutrition. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals and trace elements. Requirements, sources., functions and effects of deficiency. Energy-methods of assessing energy requirement and factors influencing requirement. Qualitative differences in food proteins and methods of assessing protein quality. Factors influencing availability of minerals. Nutrients inter-relationships. Importance of fibre in human nutrition. Water and electrolyte balance. Metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Role of vitamins and hormones in metabolism.
Section 6
Major nutrition problems in India—causes, magnitude and distribution. Nutritional problems of vulnerable segments— pregnant and lactating women, and pre-school children.
Food nutrition programmes to combat malnutrition-strategies, targets and progress. Assessment of community nutritional status-anth ropometry, diet survey, biochemical and clinical methods. Indicators/parameters and standards used for assessment by different methods. Growth norms for pre-school children and importance of growth monitoring.
Section 8
Nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women, and pre-school children. Consequences of chronic nutritional deficiencies in these groups. Infant and child feeding practices in India and importance of promoting good feeding practices.
Section 9
Nutrition in disease, therapeutic modifications of normal diets and their use in treatment of diseases of gastro-intestinal, cardio-vascular, renal, hepatic, metabolic and febrile disorders. Dietary guidelines and cardiovascular diseases.
Section 1: Family Resources Management
Interdisciplinary nature of management and systems approach to family management. Philosophy and concepts of management: goal types and goal setting, and value types. Sources of learning values and their importance to family. Standards— type and relationship with values and goals. Process of management-planning, controlling, evaluating, organizing and their application to resource use and resource development. Decision making in use and development of resources. Decision types. Application of management processes to time and energy for work simplification. Application of Mudell's classes of change in household work and agricultural task.
Section 2: Art Principles and Interior Enrichment
Importance of good taste. Elements and principles of art and their application to interior decoration. Selection of art objects and making of decorative accessories for homes. Flower arrangement.
Section 3: Housing and Space Designing
Identifying family housing needs. Selection of site. Principles of house planning-orientation, space requirements for various activities and room layout. Building materials, their characteristics, selection and suitability for low cost rural and urban housing. Estimating costs of building a house. Advantages of owning and renting.
Section 4: Household Energy and Equipments
Household energy forms: sources, fuels and their classification. Energy crisis, its causes and implications for energy management in homes. National efforts for energy and environmental conservation. Equipments, tools and accessories for rural and urban houses, their selection, maintenance and care. Low cost simple equipments—hay box, water filter, solar cookers. etc.
Section 5: Family Finance and Consumer Education
Family income—types, sources and contributors. Financial planning-guidelines for budgeting, Engel's law, expenditure, account keeping, investments and savings. Credit—rural credit sources, advantage, disadvantages, selection and repayments. Consumer problems-buying problems, adulteration and substandard goods. Public distribution system. Consumer rights and responsibilities, and consumer protection measures. Consumer organization and their roles.
Section 6: Entrepreneurship Management
Scope for enterprise. Sources of information for projects proposals and kinds of information needed. Role of government and private organization in financing.
Section 7: Markets and Marketing
Types of markets, their functions and pricing. Marketing information systems. Sales management and product promotion.
Section 1: Fundamentals of Extension Education
Home science extension education: concept, principles, philosophy, objectives and approaches. Growth of extension as a discipline and profession. Genesis of rural development programmes in India. Community development and integrated rural development-concept, principles and objectives. Relationship between family and community development.
Section 2: Rural Institutions
Structure and functions of rural institutions, process of activating them, and factors influencing their involvement in rural development. Leadership-concept, types, identification, training and mobilizing local leaders for community participation. Panchayati Raj: philosophy, concept, functioning and scope.
Section 3: Programme planning and Evaluation
Concept, principles and theories of programme planning. Application of programme planing for home science extension. Systematic development of plan of work. Application of PERT and CPM. Evaluation—concept, significance, methods and tools
for monitoring an evaluation. Five-year plans-critical analysis with special reference programmes for women, children and youth. Development programmes viz. Integrated Child Development Service (lCDS), Integrated Rural Development Programme (lRDP), Development of women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA), Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM), Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) ect. Role of Non-government Organizations (NGOs) in extension.
Section 4: Extension Management
Meaning, nature, principles, process, functions and scope of administration and management. Critical analysis of organizational set up of extension administration at various levels. Training—principles and importance of extension training, methods of training; factors affecting extension training; identifying training needs; and assessment of training impact.
Section 5 Entrepreneurial Development
Concept, significance and scope. Programmes and agencies promoting women as entrepreneurs.
Section 6: Extension Methods and Communication Techniques
Extension methods and audio-visual aids. Characteristics of adult learning. Teaching-learning process in extension. Individual, group and mass approaches in extension. Audio-visual aids-classification, selection, use and production of low cost audio-visual aids. Traditional media for development. Cost effectiveness of communication media.
Section 7: Communication for Development
Concept, functions, key elements, theories and models of communication. Barriers to communication. Concept and models of development. Diffusion and adoption for social change-concept, process, models and theories. Revolution in communication strategies. Advanced techniques in mass communication and software production.
Section 8: Research Methods in Home Science Extension
Need for social science research. Process and designs of scientific research. Measurement—levels of measurement and corresponding statistical techniques. Validity and reliability of measuring devices. Methods of observation and data collection. Techniques of tabulation and analysis of data. Report writing. Importance of research in extension programmes.
Section 9: Social Statistics
Sampling techniques. Normal distribution. Tests and significance of difference. ANOVA. Correlation and regression— simple, partial and multiple. Path Analysis. Factor Analysis.
Methods of developing patterns—flat, draping and drafting. Application of special sewing technique in dress designing. Figure irregularities and special problems with reference to apparel designing. Evaluation of finished garments and clothing. Commercial processes in apparel industry. Factors influencing costumes and dress designing. Fashion forecasting. Socio-psychological aspects of clothing. Traditional costumes, textiles and embroideries of India and their influence on modern trends.
Section 2
Manufacture/processing, structure and physical, chemical and biological properties of cotton, silk, rayon and synthetics. Bleaches - types and their commercial application. Special finishes applied to different fibres such as wash-n-wear, water-proof, water repellent, shrink proof, durable press, carbonising for p/c blends. Quantitative estimation of blends and mixtures. Water, detergents—types and their influence on fabric performance.
Section 3
Study of dyes and pigments-composition, properties, advantages and disadvantages. Advanced dyeing and printing methods.
Section 4
Importance of quality testing in textiles and clothing. Fibre, yarn and fabric testing methods. Methods of texturization and their applications. Fabric blending methods and their applications. Role of textile testing standards and methods.
Section 5
Analysis of textile designs. Application of art principles in textile and clothing. Role of colour in textile and garments designs. Classification, characteristics and application of novelty yarns. Types of fabric manufacture—knitted, laced, bonded, needle-punched etc., Woven—special twills leno, double cloth, dobby, jacquard, warp and weft figuring, terry pile weaving, warp and circular knitting. Cloth defects and faulty merchandizing. Textile designing centres and their function.
Section 6
Role of textile industry in Indian economy. Status of textile industry in the last decade with reference to cotton, rayon, jute, silk, wool, garments and hosiery. Domestic and international consumption. Export and import policies of textiles and garments. Five Year Plans and their influence on textile and clothing related policies. Associations and research organisations related to textiles, garments, hosiery and consumer. Sales promotion techniques for textiles and garments. Consumer education and protection methods.

Section 1: Capture Fisheries
Fisheries potential of important species/groups of aquatic organisms (fishes, crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, seaweeds etc.) in freshwater, brackishwater and marine sectors. Capture fisheries resources in important hill streams, rivers, reservoirs, lakes, lagoons, estuaries and seas of India. Ecology of inland and marine waters. Meteorology in relation-to fisheries. Physical and chemical oceanography and limnology in relation to capture fisheries. Management and conservation of inland fisheries resources. Fisheries legislation.
Section 2: Aquaculture
History, scope and importance of aquaculture. Aquaculture practices in different part of the world. Cultivable organisms for aquaculture and criteria for their selection. Different systems of aquaculture such as pond culture, cage culture, pen culture, aquaranching etc. Impact of aquaculture on environment. Hatchery and grow out practices for cultivable species of freshwater fishes ( trouts, mahser, carps, catfishes, snakeheads etc.), prawns ( giant freshwater prawn, riverprawn ). Integrated aquaculture. Waste water aquaculture. Pearl culture. Frog culture. Hatchery and grow out practices for culture of brackishwater fishes ( milkfish, mullets, pearlspot, seabars ), prawns (tiger prawn, white prawn, banana prawn etc.) and mud crabs. Present status of sea farming in India. Culture of molluscs (clams, oysters and mussels ), echinoderms (sea cucumber) and sea-weeds.
Section 3: Aquaculture Engineering
Site survey techniques. Principles of engineering design for aqua farms and hatcheries. Source of water supply and retentivity. Water/soil quality and nutrient status. Rehabilitation of problem soils, seepage control, prevention of soil erosion etc. Important equipments and machineries of aqua farms and hatcheries such as pumps, air compressors, blowers, aerators, biofilters, windmills, deweeders etc.
Section 4: Genetical Engineering and Biotechnology
Principles of fish genetics. Division of fish genetics-cytogenetics, biochemical genetics, quantitative genetics and population genetics. Fish stock improvement through selective hybridization. Androgenesis and gynogenesis. Polyploidy. Sex reversal and sterility. Transgenesis. Cryopreservation of gametes and embryos.
Section 5: Nutrition and Feed Formulation
Digestive physiology of fish and prawn Sources of nutrients for fishes and prawns. Nutrient requirements for various life-history stages of fishes and prawns. Effect of malnutrition. Deficiency diseases. Concept of feed efficiency and principles of feed formulation. Use of unconventional feed as a source of nutrients.
Section 6: Diseases and their Control
Symptoms of different diseases and their aetiology in finfishes and shellfishes. Prophylactic measures, control and therapeutics. Life history of important pathogens. Disease of epidemic proportion. Finfish and shellfish in relation to public
Section 7: Fisheries Technology
Present status and scope of fishing technology in India. Gear materials, different types of gears, their maintenance and operation. Fishing craft materials, different types of crafts and their maintenance. Economics of fishing operations. Proximate composition of fish. Principles and methodology of fish handling. Fresh fish spoilage and methods of preservation and processing. Modern transportation systems.
Section 8: Economics, Statistics and Marketing
Principles of economics as applied to aqua products, law of demand and supply. Consumer surplus. Law of returns. Exchange. Market and prices. International trade. Export promotion. Foreign exchange regulations. Existing systems of fish marketing. Use of modern marketing and transportation for aqua products. Role of co-operatives in marketing. Advertising and modern selling methods. Definitions and scope of fisheries statistics. Collection and tabulation of data. Frequency: distribution. Graphical and diagrammatic depiction of data. Basic experimental designs.
Section 9: Extension
History of fisheries extension in India. Concept, philosophy and principles of fisheries extension. Different extension techniques. Transfer of technology. Extension communication. National and International organizations institutions and agencies involved in fisheries extension.
Section 1: Process Biochemistry
Major and minor constituents in fish-moisture, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates. vitamins and minerals. Extractives of fish muscle and their differences in teleost fishes, crustaceans elasmobranchsi and molluscs. Nutritional significance of fish as food. Postmortem changes in fish leading to spoilage-asphysia, hyperaemia, rigor mortis, autolysis and bacterial action.
Section 2: Process Microbiology
Differentiation between bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Bacterial mode of life-effect of temperature, pH, water activity etc. Redox potential and its application of fish preservation. Effect of salts (solar salt, rock salt) on bacteria. Moulds important in spoilage of processed fish products. Bacteria of sanitary importance, their sources and control measures. Microorganisms commonly found in frozen, canned and dried products.
Section 3: Fresh Fish Handling
Principles of fresh fish handling-cleanliness, care and cooling. Handling of fish onboard ship and onshore. Use of ice of preservation of fish. Merits and demerits of use of refrigeration. Sea water detergents and disinfectants used in fish industry. Cleaning controls. Production of block ice. Different types of ice including solid carbon dioxide ice. Superchilling. Gaping in
Section 4: Freezing and Cold Storage
Simple mechanical refrigeration-basic functions of compressor, evaporator, condenser, and receiver. Refrigerants-cooling load estimate, wall heat gain load, air change load, product load, product load and miscellaneous load. Freezing techniques-air blast, contact plate freezer, drum freezer, fluidized bed freezer, and liquid nitrogen freezer unit. Steps in freezing of shrimps, lobsters, cuttle fish and other commercially important fishes. Measurement of freezing time and physico-chemical changes during freezing and cold storage of fish and shellfish. Ice formation, rate of freezing, dehydration, discolouration, toughness etc. Changes in protein and other nitrogenous compounds. Rancification of lipids. Methods of glazing. Freezer burn. Different thawing methods for frozen fish. Prepackaging of chilled wet fresh fish and frozen fish for domestic and overseas market.
Section 5: Canning of Fish
Steel and aluminium cans for packing fish and fish products. Laminated flexible retortable pouches and glass containers for canning of fish. Can corrosion. Unit steps in canning of fish and shellfish and their functions. Types of packs 'Drypack', 'Wetpack' In brine, oil sauce and 'natural stype'. 'Springer', 'Dents', 'Panels', 'Leaker', and 'Perforations'. Botulism. Lethal value of bacterium. Can seam inspection. Machinery for canning plant-double seamers, super pressure autoclave, steam generators, blanching equipments etc.
Section 6: Salted, Dried and other Cured Fish Products
Importance of salted and dried fish products. Principles of salting. Preservative action of salt. Factors affecting salt uptake in fish. Spoilage in salted dried fish. Intermediate moisture fish products. Packaging and storage of salted dried fish. Theory of drying-heat transfer, mass transfer, constant rate of drying, falling rate of drying and phase drying. Principles in accelerated freeze drying. Packaging of accelerated freeze dried fish products. Artificial driers-solar driers. Indian smoked products, Masmin, Behe-de-mer. Composition of wood smoke, types of smoke, and smoking units for fish Preparation of fish pickle. Semi-preserved fish and marinated fish. Fermented fish products. Fish sauce. Fish paste.
Section 7: Additives in Fish Products
Anti-oxidants in foods as stabilizers. Approved antioxidants. Natural and synthetic flavourings. Colour additives. Anato dyes. Polyphosphates in fish products. Asorbic acid and other inhibitors for moulds and bacteria. Antibiotics in fish preservation. Food labelling requirements.
Section 8: Fishery Byproducts
Production of fish meat-wet and dry reduction processes. Quality assessment of fish meal. Fish meal as a feed supplement. Fish protein concentrates with improved functional properties. Fish body oils. Shark liver oil, its preparation and uses. Chitin, chitosan, pearl essence, isinglass, shark finrays, and shark skin for leather. Fish silage. Liquid fish meal. Production of agar, alginic acid and their uses.
Section 9: Minced Fish Technology
Preparation of coarsely minced deboned fish meat. Surimi. Fish mince starch based products. Kamboko, fish sausage, fish ham and fish fingers. Packaging and storage of surimi. Biochemical changes during low temperature storage of surimi.
Section 10: Recent Advances in Process Technology
Aseptic packing and sterilization. Irradiation of fish using gamma rays. Modified atmospheric packing. Hyperbaric techniques for processing and preservation. Reverse osmosis. Edible superficial protective coating layer technology. Hyrdle technology. Robotics in fish processing.
Section 11: Quality Control and Commodity Standards
Definition of quality. Quality control in fish industry. Quality assessment tests-organoleptic and objective tests. Total volatile bases nitrogen. Trimethyl amine nitrogen, hypoxanthine, peroxide value, thiobarbiluric acid number, free fatty acid value etc. K-value for fish. Total bacterial plate count and other techniques for monitoring bacteria of public health significance. Indian standards specifications for fish and fish products. Quality assurance and HACCP concept in fish handling and processing.
Section 12: Packaging, Storage and Transport
Packaging materials for wet fresh fish, frozen fish, meat processed fish, salted dried fish, fish meal and byproducts. Styles and packaging of wet fish. First-in-first-out concept in storage. Transportation systems for fresh fish, frozen fish and other fish products. Layout of machinery for wet fish or frozen fish sales counter, freezing plant, canning plant, fish meal plant and shark liver oil plants.
Section I: Economic Theory
Scope and methods of economics and agricultural economics. Characteristics of modern production. Problems of application of economic theory of agriculture. Production and consumption units and their peculiarities. Basic economics concepts—statistics, comparative statics and dynamics equilibrium. Comparative economic systems. Development of economic theory and models. Theories of consumer behaviour—marginal utility, indifference curve (IC) and other models of utility maximization. Price and income consumption curves. Engel curves. Elasticities of demand-substitution and income effects. Application of IC analysis— rationing, taxation and subsidy. Theory of production and cost optimizing behaviour of firm, output maximization, cost minimization and profit maximization. Elasticity of supply-substitution, output and profit maximization and profit maximization. Elasticity of supply-substitution, output and profit maximization effects. Optimality approach for joint products. Market classification—pure and perfect competition. Behaviour of the firm and industry. Supply-demand functions. Imperfect competition, monopolistic competition, monopoly, duopoly. Pricing and output decisions. Price discrimination. Product differentiation applications. Micro-and macroeconomic analysis. Working of macro-economic systems. National income accounting. Theory of employment-classical. Keynesian and post Keynesian theories of income determination. Growth models—Harrod Domar, Neo-classical, von Neu¬Mann. Optimal saving and investments. Theory of income distribution and factor shares. Inflation, deflation, inflationary gap, monetary policy and banking systems.
Section 2: Economics of Development
Concept, meaning and characteristics of developing and developed economies. Role of economic, technological, social and cultural factors and constraints in development. Traditional versus modern agriculture. Choice of appropriate technology. Interdependence between agricultural and industrial development in developing economics. Role of primary, secondary and tertiary sectors in agricultural and economic development. Theories or development and under-development, Need for planning. Features of planning in capitalist, socialist. neo-socialist and mixed economies. Philosophy. objectives- methods and techniques of Indian planning with particular reference to agriculture. Planning for development. Types of planning—micro level, regional, sectoral, agroclimatic regional planning etc. Resource mobilization and inter-sectoral balance. Development strategies. Institutional approaches. Non-economic factors in economic development. Dualism and development. Economic growth with equity and social justice. Role of monetary and fiscal policies in India's economic development. Plan programmes, activities and strategies for agricultural development. Special target programmes for backward area/regional/community development. Private, co-operative corporate and public sectors. Institutional and noninstitutional financing agencies. Voluntary, culture, social and religious organizations in national economic development. Agricultural policies, energy: water, price, fertilizer, resource conservation, subsidy (input and output), food production and distribution policies, source-wise past experience and expectations. Existing status, constraints and potentials for future planning. Investment policies including capital formation in agriculture and criteria for developing countries. Infrastructural development and development of rural industries. Social sector, weaker section, poverty alleviation and development strategies. Employment policy and choice of technology. Population policy and economic development. Education, human resource development and economic development, consumers, nutrition, food security, food safety and food quality. Choice of appropriate organization for agricultural development. Savings and economic development. Instability in agriculture—price and yield. State intervention in factor and product markets. Generation and mobilization of agricultural surpluses. Nature, objectives and problems of resource (common property and private) use and environmental quality. Physical, economic and institutional inter-relationships. Economics of ecosystem and environmental quality. Policy planning and programming for resource use and environmental quality. New economic policy and agricultural/rural development-GATT/WTO and Indian agricultural development.
Section 3: Public Finance and International Economics
Public Finance: Public and private finance. General principles of public finance. Principle of maximum social advantage. Public revenue. Incidence of tax and financial policies. Public expenditure and economic development. Balanced and unbalanced budgets. Limitations of fiscal policies. Fiscal policy as an instrument of development. Structure of development taxation. Public debt policy and economic development, international Economics: Principle of comparative advantage. Factor endowment theory. Balance of payments. Problems of international monetary systems. International. Foreign trade and foreign capital. Export promotion and input substitution. Past experiences and future strategies.
Section 4: Farm Management Economics
Definition of farm management and its relationship to technical and social sciences. Characteristics of modern farming. Role and functions of farm management under Indian condition. Measurement of management. Measures of farm efficiency. Cost concepts. Evaluation of farm assets and liabilities. Decision theory and decision making models. Decision making under different knowledge situations. Tools and techniques in farm decision making. Farm planning and budgeting-sources of data and illustration. Linear programming. Problem formulation in farm planning. Farm records and accounts. Farm inventory with applications to farming enterprises. Farm cost accounting for managerial analysis. Management of farm resources-land, labour, capital and machinery. Review of farm management research, education and extension in relation to changing needs. Systems approach in agriculture. Farming systems, identification of farming system inputs and outputs, sub-systems, and the circuitry connecting these systems. System analysis to find out needed changes in policies and programmes.
Section 5: Agricultural Production Economics
Nature and scope of agricultural production economics vis-a-vis farm management. Relative importance of farm production economics and farm management in developed and developing countries. Economics of farm production—resource allocation and use under static and dynamic conditions. Resource-product relationships in agriculture. Types of production functions. General rules of their economics application. Technological change and production function analysis. Principles of choice and allocation of resources. Resource combinations and cost minimization. Types of risks in agriculture, resource allocation and enterprise combination under risk and different risk diffusion mechanism. Nature of costs and family farm theory. Returns to scale and farm size. Derivation of cost and supply functions.
Section 6: Agricultural Finance and Co-operation
Role of credit in agricultural and rural development. Estimates of agricultural credit requirements-investment, production, marketing and consumption. Role of public and private sector banks, and co-operatives in development financing. Classification of agricultural credit. Rural credit structure. Principles of agricultural finance and financial management. Agricultural finance as a part of public finance. Agricultural taxation and subsidies, capital in agriculture and sources of capital. Credit and saving-legal aspects of credit. Credit instruments. Farm planning as a basis for extension of agricultural credit. Nexus between commercial banks and cooperative credit institutions. Recent innovations in extension of credit to agriculture. Rural credit supply and credit gap. Multiagency approach and co-ordination of credit structure at different levels. Agricultural credit policy. Principles and practices of co-operation. Successes and failures of cooperative sector in India. Credit and non-credit institutions. National Federations of Co-operative Organizations. Review of reforms in co-operative structure. Single window approach in agricultural input supply and output marketing. Bureaucracy and co-operatives. Management of co-operative institutions. Professionalization of co-operatives. Revitalization of co-operative management. Role of co-operatives under new economic policy.
Section 7: Agricultural Marketing
Nature and scope of marketing in a developing economy. Classification of markets. Problems of marketing agricultural produce. Functions of marketing. Marketable surplus and marketed surplus. Channels of marketing agricultural produce and price spread. Marketing institutions, their role and functions. Regulated markets and other state interventions in agricultural marketing. Role of commission on agricultural costs and prices and parastatal organizations in agricultural marketing. Co¬operative marketing. Marketing practices and costs—marketing of grains, pulses, commercial crops, fruits, vegetables, livestock and livestock products and inputs. Processing, transportation, storage and warehousing. Equity aspects of marketing. Marketing efficiency. Marketing finance—methods and practices. Forward trading and speculation. Future markets. Market management. Agricultural price analysis. Seasonal and spatial variations in prices in agricultural price policy. Agricultural exports—problems and prospects.
Section 8: Agricultural Project Appraisal and Analysis
Definition of project in agriculture. Need for project approach for agricultural development. Project cycle. Project identification and formulation. Project appraisal—ex-ante and ex-post. Projection worth measures-discounting techniques. Project monitoring and mid-course corrections. Project funding.
Section 9: Research Methodology
Research and types of research. Agricultural economics research. Steps in agricultural economic research. Economic data collection and analysis. Scientific report writing.
Section 1: Fundamentals of Extension Education and Teaching Methods
Meaning and aims of education and their implications in extension education. Concept, process, meaning, objectives and philosophy of extension education. Growth of extension education as a scientific discipline and profession. Conceptual and philosophical similarities and dissimilarities among extension education, adult education and distance education. Earlier extension efforts and their implications for India's agricultural extension approaches. Comparative analysis of agriculture extension approaches of USA, Japan, UK, China and Israel. Extension teaching and learning process. Extension teaching methods and audio-visual aids— principles of selection, effective combinations, planning, preparation and evaluation of audio-visual aids. Approaches of agricultural extension—farming systems research and extension approach. Participatory rural appraisal. Emerging extension issues. Environmental protection. National and international investment in extension. Privatization of extension service and implication of World Trade Organization for extension service.
Section 2: Communication, Diffusion and Adoption of Innovations
Concept, process and media of communication. Models and theories of communication. Credibility, fidelity, empathy and feed back in communication. Role of mass media in disseminating farm technologies. Effective media mix for rural audience. Concept, scope and theories of development of communication. Role of information support. Modern communication technologies-electronic media, video-text, tele-text, teleconferencing, computer assisted instructions and micro computers. Diffusion and adoption of innovation; models and theories—their limitations under Indian conditions. Role of change agents in diffusion and adoption. Consequences of innovations. Strategies to diffuse innovations among resource poor farmers. Basics of writing news stories, feature articles, popular and scientific articles, farm bulletins and folders. Readability and comprehension testing procedures. Radio and TV journalism—script writing, layout design and editing.
Section 3: Planning, Execution and Evaluation of Extension Programme
Importance, principles and processes of developing sound extension programme. Programme development as a social action process. Types of plans. Role of Planning Commission. Formulation of Five-year Plans. Role of Panchayats in planning. Need assessment techniques like Participatory Rural Appraisal and CONA (Community Oriented Need Assessment). Planning techniques like PERT and CPM. Programme evaluation—meaning, principles, steps, techniques and criteria. Product-process oriented evaluation. Critical analysis of various extension programmes for agricultural and rural development in India since independence including reorganized agricultural extension system.
Section 4: Research Methodology
Science and scientific approach. Characteristics of social research, hypothesis, types of variables and levels of measurement. Validity and reliability. Different methods of data collection. Research design—meaning, purpose and principles. Types of research designs—ex-post-facto research, field experiments, field studies, survey research, case study methods. action research and participatory research. Computer software packages in social research. Principles of analysis and interpretation.
Section 5: Rural Sociology, and Social and Educational Psychology
Rural sociology and social psychology—their scope and importance. Characteristics of rural society. Socio-psychological factors in extension work. Basic rural institutions. Process of social change. Concept and theories of rural leadership. Theories of change-Kurt Lewin, Ogburn and Darwin, etc. Factors affecting change under rural settings. Concept and meaning of learning. Philosophy of adult learning. Principles and theories of learning as applied to adult. Approaches and strategies of adult learning as proposed by Paulo Freire, Ivan Illic and Malcom Knowle. Self planned individual learning. Distance education. Group and community learning.
Section 6: Extension Management
Nature and scope of management with reference to extension organization. Evolution of management thought. Various approaches to organizational theories. Basic management issues in extension organizations. Genesis and growth of agricultural extension administration with special reference to extension services in India. Major functions of extension management process. Psychological factors in organization-needs, motives, work motivation, communication, leadership, behaviour and organizational climate. Problems of extension management in India.
Section 7: Training for Development
Training and education—concept, meaning and relationship. Types of training. Conceptual models of training and current trends in training. Organizational developmental training planning, appraisal and need assessment. Training methods-case methods, role playing, Psychodrama, sensitivity, lab, buzz groups, discussion, transactional analysis, and process work. Micro-lab business games. Training facilities available in India and different categories of extension personnel and farmers. Concept, need and prospectus of entrepreneurship developments. Entrepreneurial abilities, assessment and development. Project designing and planning.
Section 8: Social Statistics
Normal distribution. Tests and significance of differences. ANOVA. Correlation and regression—simple, partial and multiple. Path analysis. Factor analysis. Sampling techniques.
Section 1: Statistical Methods I
Elements of probability theory. Conditional probability. Bayes' theorem. random variable. Mathematical expectation. Moment generating and characteristic functions. Central limit theorem. Discrete distributions-binomial, Poisson, negative binomial and hyper geometric. Continuous distributions-normal, chi-square, t, and F gamma, beta and Pearsonian type. Bivariate normal distribution. Point estimation-unbiasedness, consistency, sufficiency and completeness. Minimum variance unbiased estimate. Cramer-Rao and Rao-Blackwell theorems. Confidence interval estimation. Testing of hypothesis. Two kinds of errors: Neyman-Pearson Lommae. Uniformly most powerful test and their construction. Unbiased test. Likelihood ratio test. Tests of significance based on chi-square, t and F.
Section 2: Statistical Methods II
Correlation, regression, partial and multiple correlation coefficient. Multiple regression. Intra-class correlation; Principle of least squares. Linear estimation. Sequential and partial F-tests. Examination of residuals. Model adequacy. Selecting best regression. Step-up and step-down methods. Multidisciplinary Watson test. Analysis of variance through regression approach. Non-parametric tests—Run, Sign, Rank, Wilcoxin, Kruskal-Wallis, MannWhitney, Cochran and Freidman's tests. Multivariate normal distribution. Estimation of mean vector and dispersion matrix. Hotelling T-square and Mahalanobis D-square. Application of principle component analysis. Discriminant analysis. Canonical correlations. Factor analysis. MANOVA. Contingency tables; Two way and higher order interactions-defining Collapsing and pooling of higher order contingency tables. Log linear models.
Section 3: Statistical Genetics I
Statistical analysis of segregation and linkage. Gene and genotypic frequencies. Random mating and equilibrium in large populations. Disequilibrium due to linkage for the pairs of genes and for sex linked genes. Selection, mutation and migration. Equilibrium between forces in large population. Polymorphism. Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection. Regular system of inbreeding. Polygenic systems for quantitative characters. Concepts of breeding value and dominance.
Section 4: Statistical Genetics II
Genetic variance and its partitioning. Correlation between relatives. Effects of inbreeding. Epistasis. Genotype and environment interaction. Estimation of heritability, repeatability and genetic correlation. Path coefficient analysis. Heterosis. Concepts of general and specific combining abilities, Diallel crosses. Line x tester analysis. North Carolina designs. Response due to selection. Prediction of response to individual, family and combined selections. Selection for improvement.
Section 5: Computer Applications
Computer organizations. History of computers. Input/output units. Memory unit. Arithmetic and logic units. Control unit. Internal representation of data. Monitoring systems (DOS, UNIX, WINDOWS). Programming in BASIC, data types; assignment statement- Control statement. I/Q statements. Sub-programme. Programming in BASIC for elementary statistical analysis.
Section 6: Design of Experiments I
Linear models. Random, fixed and mixed effects. Gauss-Markoff theorem. Estimation and testing. Analysis of variance of one-way and two way classifications. Analysis of non-orthogonal data of two-way classification. Principles of design of experiments. Choice of plots and blocks and their sizes and shapes. Uniformity trial. Completely randomised design. randomised block design. Latin square design. Factorial experiement-2n and en series and mixed factorial experiments. Switch over trials. Confounding in 2" and 3" series. Split and strip-plot designs. Missing plot technique. Analysis of covariance. Transformations of data.
Section 7: Design of Experiments II
Estimation of variance components in random and mixed effects models. Nested and crossed classifications. Fractional replications of symmetrical factorials. Confounding in 2' x 3" factorial experiments. Block designs. Balanced incomplete block designs and their analysis with and without recovery of inter block information. Partially balanced incomplete block designs with two associate classes, lattice designs; Younden squares. Response surface designs. Second order rotatable designs. Evaluation of absolute and economic optimum in multi-factor experiments. Combined analysis of groups of experiments. Experiments on cultivator fields.
Section 8: Sample Surveys I
Sampling versus complete enumeration. Concept of probability sampling. Simple random sampling. Stratified sampling. Allocation in stratified sampling. Choice of strata. Construction of strata boundaries. Deep stratification. Collapsing of strata. Use of auxiliary information in sample survey. Ratio and regression methods of estimation. Cluster, two-stage and multi-stage sampling. Systematic sampling.
Section 9: Sample Surveys II
Sampling with unequal probabilities with and without replacement. Sampling schemes with inclusion probabilities proportional to size (IPPS). Unbiased ratio and regression type of estimation. Double sampling and Sampling on successive occasions. Inverse sampling. Non-sampling errors. Non-response in surveys. Interpenetrating sub-samples. Randomized response techniques. Design and organization of pilot and large-scale survey. National sample surveys.

NOTE 4: The syllabus mentioned above is illustrative only. Questions relating to recent/current developments taking place in agriculture and allied sciences in general and in the concerned subject areas in particular can also be included in the question papers as may be deemed appropriate by subject-paper experts.
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