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Old May 27th, 2014, 11:09 AM
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Default Re: XAT Exam Previous Years Question Papers

As you are looking for the previous year question paper of XAT Exam, so here I am sharing the same

Section A – Verbal and Logical Ability

1. Choose the most appropriate option after reading

1. Whether due to haste or design, the new laws

are marked by vagueness, leaving officials all

down the organization’s bureaucratic chain

great latitude in enforcing them.

2. The opacity of the language leaves the law

open to manipulation on political grounds.

(1) Statement 2 can be induced from statement

(2) Statement 1 can be induced from statement

(3) Statement 2 can be deduced from statement

(4) Statement 1 can be deduced from statement

(5) Statement 1 and 2 are independent.

2. Choose the most appropriate option after reading

1. If there is any endeavor whose fruits should

be freely available, that endeavor is surely

2. There is a widespread feeling that the journal

publishers who have mediated the scientific

exchange for the past century or more are

becoming an impediment to free distribution

3. Internet revolution is happening, making

knowledge transfer cheaper. Technology

permits it; researchers and politicians want

it, more public money can be spent on it.

(1) Statement 2 definitely illustrates statement 1.

(2) Statement 3 is a facilitating condition for

(3) Statement 3 states a condition under which

statement 1 would be invalid

(4) Statement 2 can be deduced from statement

3 but independent of Statement 1.

(5) Statement 1, 2 and 3 are necessarily

3. Choose the most appropriate option after reading

1. Business schools are ideally positioned to

point out when an action that provides a

benefit for an individual comes at a cost to

society, but in reality they rarely bother.

2. It is part of the malaise that has befallen the

political debate on capitalism, which has

been taken over by special interest and

people who have no faith in a real market-
based system.

3. When governments favours the private

sector it is all too often by being ‘’pro-
business’ rather than ‘’pro-market’, meaning

that favourable conditions are provided to

particular institutions rather than to

institutions broadly.

(1) Statements 1 and 2 are necessarily

dependent.

(2) Statements 2 and 3 are necessarily

dependent.

(3) Statements 2 and 3 may be dependent.

(4) Statements 1, 2 and 3 cannot be

independent.

(5) All the three statements are necessarily

independent.

Directions for questions 4 – 6: Fill in the blanks

with the most appropriate option that follows.

4. ________ wolf, meeting with ________ lamb astray

from ________ fold, resolved not to lay violent

hands on him, but to find some plea to justify to

_______ lamb ________ wolf’s right to eat him.

(1) a, a, the, the, the

(2) the, a, the, a, the

(3) a, a, a, the, the

(4) the, the, the, the, the

(5) the, a, the, a, a

5. ______ bat who fell upon ______ ground and was

caught by ______ weasel pleaded to be spared his

life ______ weasel refused, saying that he was by

nature ______enemy of all birds. ______ bat assured

him that he was not ______ bird, but ______ mouse,

and thus was set free.

(1) a, the, a, the, the, the, the, a

(3) the, a, a, the, the, a, the, the

3. And that was plainly the last signal, of

6. He got ______next morning, to be sure, and had his

meals ______ usual, though he ate ______ and had

more, I am afraid, than his usual supply of rum,

for he helped himself ______ the bar, scowling and

blowing ______ his nose, and no one dared ______

(1) Down, like, a little, out of, out, to

(3) Downstairs, as, little, out of, out of, through

(4) Downstairs, like, a little, out, of, to

(5) Down, like, a little, of, of, through

7. Read the following sentences and choose the

option that best arranges them in a logical order.

1. I was scarcely in position ere my enemies

began to arrive, seven or eight of them,

running hard, their feet beating out of time

along the road and the man with the lantern

2. My curiosity, in a sense, was stronger than

my fear, for I could not remain where I was,

but crept back to the bank again, whence,

sheltering my head behind a bush of broom, I

might command the road before our door.

3. Three men ran together, hand in hand; and I

made out, even through the mist, that the

middle man of this trio was the blind beggar.

4. The next moment his voice showed me that I

(1) 1, 2, 3, 4 (2) 2, 1, 3, 4

(3) 1, 2, 4, 3 (4) 1, 3, 4, 2

4. Him they had deserted, whether in sheer

the top of the hill on the side of the hamlet–

the tramp of horses galloping.

danger, for the buccaneers turned at once

and ran, separating in every direction, one

seaward along the cove, one slant across the

hill, and so on, so that in half a minute not a

sign of them remained but Pew.

panic or out of revenge for his ill words and

blows I know not: but there he remained

behind, tapping up and down the road in a

frenzy, and groping and calling for his

comrades.

report, came from the hedge side.

5. Almost at the same time a pistol–, flash and


(1) 5, 1, 3, 4, 2 (2) 1, 2, 3, 5, 4

(3) 2, 5, 3, 4, 1 (4) 4, 3, 2, 5, 1

(5) 2, 5, 4, 3, 1

9. Read the following sentences and choose the

option that best arranges them in a logical order.

1. As chroniclers of an incremental process,

2. Simultaneously, these same historians

3. Increasingly, a few of them suspect that these

4. In recent years, however, a few historians "of

they discover that additional research makes

it harder, not easier, to answer questions

like: When was oxygen discovered? Who first

conceived of energy conservation?

confront growing difficulties in

distinguishing the "scientific“ component of

past observation and belief from what their

predecessors had readily labeled "error" and

"superstition" I

are simply the wrong sorts of questions to

ask. Perhaps science does not develop by the

accumulation of individual discoveries and

inventions.

science have been finding it more and more

difficult to fulfill the functions that the

concept of development-by-accumulation

assigns to them.

8. Read the following sentences and choose the

option that best arranges them in a logical order.

1. Finally he took a wrong turn and ran a few

steps past me, towards the hamlet, crying,

“Johnny, black Dog, Drik,” and other names,

“you won’t leave old Pew, mates–not old

2. This quarrel was the saving of us, for while it

was still raging, another sound came from

(1) 2, 1, 3, 4 (2) 4, 3, 1, 2

(3) 4, 2, 3, 1 (4) 4, 3, 2, 1

(5) 4, 1, 3, 2

10. Read the following sentence and choose the best

alternative which should replace the italicized

To be a great manager requires, strong inter-
personal skills, the ability to think fast, and

(1) requires strong inter–personal skills, the

ability to think fast, and demands

(2) requires strong inter–personal skills, the

(3) requires strong inter–personal skills,

demands the ability to think fast, and

(4) requires strong inter–personal skills, an

ability to think fast, and demands

(5) requires strong inter–personal skills, an

ability to think fast, but with

11. Read the following sentence and choose the best

alternative which should replace the italicized

The tremendous insight of Einstein was that the

passage of time does not appear to be the same

while standing still as it does to a person traveling

at a speed which is a significant fraction of the

(1) while standing still as it does to a person

(2) to a person standing still as to a person

(3) to a person who is standing still as a person

(4) While standing still as to traveling

(5) to a person standing still as to a person who

12. Read the following sentence and choose the best

alternative which should replace the italicized

Economic theory fails to explain the extent to

which savings from personal income has shifted to

short-term bonds, money-market funds, and

other near-term investments by the instability in

(1) to which savings from personal income has

(2) of savings from personal income that has

(3) of savings from personal income shifting

(4) to which savings from personal income have

(5) to which savings from personal income have



Analyse the following passage and provide

appropriate answers for the questions 13 through

17 that follow.

"Whatever actions are done by an individual in

different embodiments, [s]he reaps the fruit of those

actions in those very bodies or embodiments (in future

existences)”.

A belief in karma entails, among other things, a focus

on long run consequences, i.e., a long term

orientation. Such an orientation implies that people

who believe in karma may be more honest with

themselves in general and in setting expectations in

particular–a hypothesis we examine here. This

research is based on three simple premises. First,

because lower expectations often lead to greater

satisfaction, individuals in general, and especially

those who are sensitive to the gap between

performance and expectations, have the incentive to

and actually do “strategically” lower their

expectations. Second, individuals with a long term

orientation are likely to be less inclined to lower

expectations in the hope of temporarily feeling better.

Third, long term orientation and the tendency to

lower expectations are at least partially driven by

cultural factors. In India, belief in karma, with its

emphasis on a longer term orientation, will therefore

to some extent counter-act the tendency to lower

expectations. The empirical results support our logic;

those who believe more strongly in karma are less

influenced by disconfirmation sensitivity and

therefore have higher expectations.

Consumers make choices based on expectations of

how alternative options will perform (i.e., expected

utility). Expectations about the quality of a product

also play a central role in subsequent satisfaction.

These expectations may be based on a number of

factors including the quality of a typical brand in a

category, advertised quality, and disconfirmation

sensitivity. Recent evidence suggests that consumers,

who are more disconfirmation sensitive (i.e.,

consumers who are more satisfied when products

perform better than expected or more dissatisfied

shifted

been shifted


when products perform worse than expected) have

lower expectations. However, there is little research

concerning the role of culture–specific variables in

expectation formation, particularly how they relate to

the impact of disconfirmation Sensitivity on

13. “Future existences” in the paragraph can refer to'.

1. Human life, 5 years afterwards

3. Next birth in any embodiment

Which of the following statement(s) is correct?

(1) 1, 2 (2) 2, 3 (3) 1, 3

(4) 2 only (5) None of the three

14. Consider the following assertion and conclusion:

Assertion: The meaning of karma in the above

passage (refer to first two lines of the paragraph

Conclusion: Belief that long term consequences

Now read the following statements carefully.

1. The conclusion will always follow the

2. The conclusion may follow the assertion.

3. The conclusion may follow the assertion only

if an individual lives long enough.

4. The conclusion cannot follow the assertion.

Which of the following statement(s) is correct?

(1) 1 only (2) 1 and 2 only

(3) 2 only (4) 3 only

15. Which of the following statements, if true, would

contradict the first of the three premises

mentioned in the first paragraph?

(1) Higher satisfaction leads to lower

(2) Lower expectation leads to long term

(3) Satisfaction depends on achievement and not

(4) Karma affects our immediate feelings

(5) Lower expectation would lead to lower

16. Read the following statements carefully:

1. Temporary feelings and law of karma are

2. As per theory of karma, temporary feelings

3. Temporary feelings and law of karma are

Which of the following combination of statements

is consistent with the second premise?

(1) 1 only (2) 1 and 2 only

(3) 1 and 3 only (4) 3 only

(5) 1, 2 and 3 only


17. A manager went out to have dinner in a

restaurant and found the food to be good. When

asked to provide feedback on the quality of food,

the manager rated the quality as “excellent”.

Which of the following can be concluded from

this?

(1) The manager does not believe in karma

(2) The manager definitely has disconfirmation

(3) It is not possible to comment on the

(4) The manager does not have disconfirmation

(5) None of the above.

Analyse the following passage and provide

appropriate answers for the questions 18 through

21 that follow.


An example of scientist who could measure without

instruments is Enrico Fermi (1901-1954), a physicist

who won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1938. He had a

Well-developed knack for intuitive, even casual-
sounding measurements. One renowned example of

his measurement skills was demonstrated at the first

detonation of the atom bomb, the Trinity Test site, on

July 16, 1945, where he was one of the atomic

scientists observing from base camp. While final

adjustments were being made to instruments used to

measure the yield of the blast, Fermi was making

confetti out of a page of notebook paper. As the wind

from the initial blast wave began to blow through the

camp, he slowly dribbled the confetti into the air,

observing how far back it was scattered by the blast

independent

would not lower the expectation.

contradictory.

sensitivity.

disconfirmation sensitivity of the manager.

sensitivity.

(taking the farthest scattered pieces as being the peak

of the pressure wave), Fermi concluded that the yield

must be greater than 10 kilotons. This would have

been news, since other initial observers of the blast

did not know that lower limit. Alter much analysis of

the instrument readings, the final yield estimate was

determined to be 18.6 kilotons. Like Eratosthenes7

Fermi was aware of a rule relating one simple

observation–the scattering of confetti in the Wind–to

The value of quick estimates was something Fermi

was familiar with throughout his career. He was

famous for teaching his students skills at

approximation of fanciful-sounding quantities that, at

first glance, they might presume they knew nothing

about. The best-known example of such a “Fermi

question” was Fermi asking his students to estimate

the number of piano tuners in Chicago, when no one

knows the answer. His students–science and

engineering majors–would begin by saying that they

could not possibly know anything about such a

quantity. Of course, some solutions would be to

simply do a count of every piano tuner perhaps by

looking up advertisements, checking with a licensing

agency of some sort, and so on. But Fermi was trying

to teach his students how to solve problems where

the ability to confirm the results would not be so easy.

He wanted them to figure out that they knew

something about the quantity in question.

18. Suppose you apply the same logic as Fermi

applied to confetti, which of the following

statements would be the most appropriate?

(1) You can calculate the minimum pressure

inside the cooker by calculating the

maximum distance travelled by any of its

(2) You can calculate the average potency of a

fire cracker by calculating the distance

covered by one of its bigger fragments.

(3) You can easily find out the average policy of

an earthquake by measuring the length of a

crack it makes on the surface of the earth.

(4) You can calculate the exact volume of water

stored in a tank by measuring the distance

covered by the stream of water coming out of

the tap fixed on the lower corner of the tank.

(5) All the above conclusions can be drawn.

19. Quick estimate, as per Fermi, is most useful in:


(1) In finding an approximate that is more useful

(2) In finding out the exact minimum value of an

(3) In finding out the exact maximum value of an

(4) In finding out the range of values of an

(5) In finding out the average value of an

20. Given below are some statements that attempt to

capture the central idea of the passage:

1. It is useful to estimate; even when the exact

2. It is possible to estimate any physical quantity.

3. It is possible to estimate the number of units

than existing values.

estimate.

estimate.

estimate.

estimate.

answer is known.

of a newly launched car that can be sold in a

city

4. Fermi was a genius.

Which of the following statements(s) best

captures the central idea?

(1) 1, 2 and 4 (2) 2, 3 and 4

(3) 2 and 3 (4) 2 only

(5) 1, 2 and 3

21. Read the statements given below:

1. Atomic bomb detonation was a result of

2. Fermi’s students respected him as a scientist

3. Yield of atomic bomb can only be measured in

Which of the following statement(s) can be

inferred from the passage?

(1) 1, 2 (2) 2, 3

(3) 1, 3 (4) 2 only

(5) None of the three statements is correct

Analyse the following passage and provide

appropriate answers for the questions 22 through

25 that follow.

Popper claimed, scientific beliefs are universal in

character, and have to be so if they are to serve us in

explanation and prediction. For the universality of a

Fermi’s Nobel Prize contribution

Kilotons

scientific belief implies that, no matter how many

instances we have found positive, there will always be

an indefinite number of unexamined instances which

may or may not also be positive. We have no good

reason for supposing that any of these unexamined

instances will be positive, or will be negative, so we

must refrain from drawing any conclusions. On the

other hand, a single negative instance is sufficient to

prove that the belief is false, for such an instance is

logically incompatible with the universal truth of the

belief. Provided, therefore, that the instance is

accepted as negative we must conclude that the

scientific belief is false. In short, we can sometimes

deduce that a universal scientific belief is false but we

can never induce that a universal scientific belief is

It is sometimes argued that this ‘asymmetry’ between

verification and falsification is not nearly as

pronounced as Popper declared it to be. Thus, there is

no inconsistency in holding that a universal scientific

belief is false despite any number of positive

instances; and there is no inconsistency either in

holding that a universal scientific belief is true despite

the evidence of a negative instance. For the belief that

an instance is negative is itself a scientific belief and

may be falsified by experimental evidence which we

accept and which is inconsistent with it. When, for

example, we draw a right-angled triangle on the

surface of a sphere using parts of three great circles

for its sides, and discover that for this triangle

Pythagoras’ Theorem does not hold, we may decide

that this apparently negative instance is not really

negative because it is not a genuine instance at all.

Triangles drawn on the surfaces of spheres are not

the sort of triangles which fall within the scope of

Pythagoras’ Theorem. Falsification, that is to say, is no

more capable of yielding conclusive rejections of

scientific belief` than verification is of yielding

conclusive acceptances of scientific beliefs. The

asymmetry between falsification and verification,

therefore, has less logical significance than Popper

We should, though, resist this reasoning.

Falsifications may not be conclusive, for the

acceptances on which rejections are based are always

provisional acceptances. But, nevertheless, it remains

the case that, in falsification, if we accept falsifying

claims then, to remain consistent, we must reject

falsified claims. On the other hand, although

verifications are also not conclusive, our acceptance

or rejection of verifying instances has no implications

concerning the acceptance or rejection of verified

claims. Falsifying claims sometimes give us a good

reason for rejecting a scientific belief, namely when

the claims are accepted. But verifying claims, even

when accepted, give us no good and appropriate

reason for accepting any scientific belief, because any

such reason would have to be inductive to be

appropriate and there are no good inductive reasons.

22. According to Popper, the statement “Scientific

beliefs are universal in character” implies that

(1) Positive instances of scientific belief imply

(2) There are equal numbers of negative and

(3) If there are negative and positive instances of

(4) We can only deduce that a scientific belief is

(5) We can only induce that a scientific belief is



23. The statement, “this ‘asymmetry’ between

verification and falsification is not nearly as

pronounced as Popper declared it to be”, implies

that


(1) Falsification is better than verification in

(2) Verification is better than falsification in

(3) Both falsification and verification together

that it is universal in character.

positive instances of a universal scientific

belief.

a scientific belief then it cannot be universal.

false but cannot induce that it is true.

false but cannot induce that it is true.

(4) Capability of falsification in accepting of

(5) Capability of falsification in rejection of

universal acceptance beliefs.

universal acceptance of scientific beliefs.

can result in universal acceptance of

scientific beliefs.

scientific beliefs is not better than that of

verification in rejection of scientific beliefs.

scientific beliefs is not always better than

that of verification in acceptance of scientific

beliefs.


24. With which of the following statements, would

the author agree most?

(1) Verification is better than falsification in

(2) Falsification and verification are equally

good in establishing the claims.

(3) Verification and falsification are equally bad

in establishing the claims. A

(4) Falsification is better than verification in

(5) Verification is better than falsification in

25. Which of the following would be the most

(1) Falsification gives us an appropriate reason

for rejecting a scientific belief.

(2) Falsification gives us all the reasons for

(3) Verification gives us a reason for rejecting a

(4) Verification gives us an appropriate reason

for accepting a scientific belief.

(5) Verification gives us an appropriate reason

for rejecting a scientific belief.

Analyse the following passage and provide

appropriate answers for the questions 26 through

Soros, we must note, has never been a champion of

free market capitalism. He has followed for nearly all

his public life the political ideas of the late Sir Karl

Popper who laid out a rather jumbled case for what

he dubbed “the open society” in his The Open Society

and Its Enemies (1953). Such a society is what we

ordinarily call the pragmatic system in which

politicians get involved in people’s lives but without

any heavy theoretical machinery to guide them,

simply as the ad hoc parental authorities who are

believed to be needed to keep us all on the straight

and narrow. Popper was at one time a Marxist

socialist but became disillusioned with that idea

because he came to believe that systematic ideas do

not work in any area of human concern.

The Popperian open society Soros promotes is

characterized by a very general policy of having no

firm principles, not even those needed for it to have

some constancy and integrity. This makes the open

society a rather wobbly idea, since even what Popper

himself regarded as central to all human thinking,


critical rationalism, may be undermined by the

openness of the open society since its main target is

negative: avoid dogmatic thinking, and avoid

anything that even comes close to a set of

unbreachable principles. No, the open society is open

to anything at all, at least for experimental purposes.

No holds are barred, which, if you think about it,

undermines even that very idea and becomes

unworkable.

Accordingly, in a society Soros regards suited to

human community living, the state can manipulate

many aspects of human life, including, of course, the

economic behavior of individuals and firms. It can

control the money supply, impose wage and price

controls, dabble in demand or supply–side

economics, and do nearly everything a central

planning board might - provided it does not settle

into any one policy firmly, unbendingly. That is the

gist of Soros’s Popperian politics.

Soros’ distrusts capitalism in particular, because of

the alleged inadequacy of neoclassical economics, the

technical economic underpinnings of capitalist

thinking offered up in >many university economics

departments. He, like many others outside and even

inside the economics discipline, finds the arid

reductionism of this social science false to the facts,

and rightly so. But the defense of capitalist free

markets does not rest on this position.


Neo-classical thinking depends in large part on the

18th- and 19th-century belief that human society

operates according to laws, not unlike those that

govern the physical universe. Most of social science

embraced that faith, so economics isn’t unusual in its

loyalty to classical mechanics. Nor do all economists

take the deterministic lawfulness of economic science

literally - some understand that the laws begin to

operate only once people embark upon economic

pursuits. Outside their commercial ventures, people

can follow different principles and priorities, even if it

is undeniable that most of their endeavors have

economic features. Yet, it would be foolish >to

construe religion or romance or even scientific

inquiry as solely explicable by reference to the laws of

economics.


In his criticism of neo-classical economic science,

then, George Soros has a point: the discipline is too

dependent on Newtonian physics as the model of


(4) George Soros believes that laissez-faire

science. As a result, the predictions of economists

who look at markets as if they were machines need to

be taken with a grain Of Salt Some - for example the

school of Austrian economists - have made exactly

that point against the neo-classical.

Soros draws a mistaken inference: if one defense of

the market is flawed, the market lacks defense. This is

wrong. If it is true that from A we can infer B, it does

not prove that B can only be inferred from A; C or Z,

26. As per the paragraph, author believes that

(1) Free market capitalism can be explained

using neo-classical economics.

(2) Neo-classical economics does not address the

idea of free-market system.

(3) Free market capitalism and open society are

not different from each other.

(4) Free market capitalism and laissez-faire are

not different from each other.

(5) Technical underpinning of neo-classical

economics can address the idea of laissez-

27. As per the paragraph, which of the following is

(1) Economic benefits of open society and

(2) Soros’ open society means no interference

(3) Free market capitalism means no

interference from the government.

(4) Laws of economics are not capable of

explaining the human nature completely.

(5) Laws of economics capture the human nature

completely as most of the human endeavors

(5) George Soros believes that free-market

economics perform better than free-market

economies.

economies perform better than controlled

economies.

(1) George Soros believes in regulated

(2) George Soros does not believe in government

intervention in state policies.

(3) George Soros believes in state intervention

provided it does not remain static.

29. According to the author which of the following

statement could be true about critical

rationalism.

(1) Ideas of critical rationalism underpin the

(2) Ideas of critical rationalism underpin the

(3) Ideas of critical rationalism underpin the

(4) Ideas of critical rationalism underpin the

(5) None of the above.

30. The word deterministic (used in forth line of fifth

paragraph),in the above passage refers to:

(1) An effect can only be caused by a single

(2) An effect may be produced by many causes.

(3) An effect cannot be produced by a cause.

(4) Cause(s) of an effect can always be known.

(5) Economics does not follow cause and effect


Rest of the question are attached in given below file:
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File Type: pdf XAT Exam Question Paper.pdf (1.13 MB, 32 views)
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