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Re: ARS NET Soil Sciences Entrance Question Paper
ARS Examination and NET Examination will be held separately once and twice a year respectively. ARS NET Soil Sciences Entrance Question Paper contains questions from following topics: Unit 1: Pedology Concept of land, soil and soil science. Composition of earth crust and its relationship with soils; Rocks, minerals and other soil forming materials; Weathering of rocks and minerals; Factors of soil formation; Pedogenic processes and their relationships with soil properties; Soil development; Pedon, polypedon, soil profile, horizons and their nomenclature. Soil Taxonomy - epipedons, diagnostic subsurface horizons and other diagnostic characteristics, soil moisture and temperature regimes, categories of the system and their criteria; Interpretation of soil survey data for land capability and crop suitability classifications, Macro-morphological study of soils. Application and use of global positioning system for soil survey. Soil survey- types, techniques. Soil series- characterization and procedure for establishing soil series, benchmark soils and soil correlations. Study of base maps: cadastral maps, toposheets, aerial photographs and satellite imageries. Use of geographical information system for preparing thematic maps. Unit 2: Soil Physics Soil physical constraints affecting crop production. Soil texture – textural classes. Soil structure – classification, soil aggregation and significance, soil consistency, soil crusting, bulk density and particle density of soils and porosity, their significance and manipulation. Soil water- retention and potentials. Soil moisture constants. Movement of soil water - infiltration, percolation, permeability, drainage and methods of determination of soil moisture. Darcy’s law. Thermal properties of soils, soil temperature, Soil air- composition, gaseous exchange, influence of soil temperature and air on plant growth. Soil erosion by water- types, effects, mechanics. Rain erosivity and soil erodibility. Runoff - methods of measurement, factors and management, runoff farming. Soil conservation measures. Characterization and evaluation of soil and land quality indicators; Causes of land degradation; Management of soil physical properties for prevention/restoration of land degradation; Identification, monitoring and management of waste lands; Land use-land cover mapping and land use planning using conventional and remote sensing techniques; Concept of watershed – its characterization and management. Unit 3: Soil Chemistry Chemical composition of soil; Soil colloids - structure, composition, constitution of clay minerals, amorphous clays and other non-crystalline silicate minerals, oxide and hydroxide minerals; Charge development on clays and organic matter; pH-charge relations; Buffer capacity of soils.Elements of equilibrium thermodynamics, chemical equilibria , electrochemistry and chemical kinetics. Inorganic and organic colloids- surface charge characteristics, diffuse double layer theories, zeta potential stability, coagulation/ flocculation, peptization, electrometric and sorption properties of soil colloid. Soil organic matter- fractionation, clay-organic interactions. Cation exchange- theories, adsorption isotherms, Donnan-membrane equilibrium concept, clay-membrane electrodes and ionic activity measurement, thermodynamics, anion and ligand exchange- inner sphere and outer-sphere surface complex formation, fixation of oxyanions , hysteresis in sorption-desorption of oxy-anions and anions. Nitrogen, potassium, phosphate and ammonium fixation in soils and management aspects. Chemistry of acid, salt-affected and submerged soils and management aspects. Unit 4: Soil Fertility Essential elements in plant nutrition; Nutrient cycles in soil; Transformation and transport of nutrients (Macro and micro nutrients) in soil; Manures and fertilizers; Fate and reactions of fertilizers in soils; Chemistry of production of different fertilizers; Slow release fertilizers and nitrification retarders; Quality control of fertilizers.Soil fertility evaluation – soil testing, plant and tissue tests and biological methods; Common soil test methods for fertilizer recommendation; Soil test-crop response correlations; Integrated nutrient management; Use of isotopic tracers in soil research; Nature, properties and development of acid, acid sulphate, saline and alkali and their management; Lime and gypsum requirements of soils; Irrigation water quality - EC, SAR, RSC and specifications. Fertility status of major soil groups of India. Pollution: types, causes, methods of measurement, standards and management. Heavy metal toxicity and soil pollution; Chemical and bio-remediation of contaminated soils; Soil factors in emission of greenhouse gases; Carbon sequestration in mitigating greenhouse effect; Radio-active contamination of soil. Unit 5: Soil Microbiology Soil biota, soil microbial ecology, types of organisms. Soil microbial biomass, microbial interactions, unculturable soil biota. Microbiology and biochemistry of root-soil interface. Phyllosphere. Soil enzymes, origin, activities and importance. Soil characteristics influencing growth and activity of microflora. Microbial transformations of N, P, K, S, Fe and Zn in soil. Biochemical composition and biodegradation of soil organic matter and crop residues. Humus formation. Cycles of important organic nutrients. Biodegradation of pesticides, organic wastes and their use for production of biogas and manures. Biofertilizers – definition, classification, specifications, method of production and role in crop production. Methods of soil analysis - particle size distribution, bulk and particle density, moisture constants, Modern methods of soil, plant and fertilizer analysis; Flame photometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; Spectrophotometry - visible, ultra-violet and infrared; Atomic absorption spectrophotometry; Potentiometry and conductimetry; X-ray diffractometry; Mass spectrometry. Unit 6: Statistics Experimental designs for pot culture and field experiments; Statistical measures of central tendency and dispersion; Correlation and regression; Tests of significance - t and F tests; Computer use in soil research. Questions; 1. A certain type of mixture is prepared by mixing brand A at Rs.9 a kg. with brand B at Rs.4 a kg. If the mixture is worth Rs.7 a kg., how many kgs. of brand A are needed to make 40kgs. of the mixture? Ans. Brand A needed is 24kgs. 2. A wizard named Nepo says “I am only three times my son’s age. My father is 40 years more than twice my age. Together the three of us are a mere 1240 years old.” How old is Nepo? Ans. 360 years old. 3. One dog tells the other that there are two dogs in front of me. The other one also shouts that he too had two behind him. How many are they? Ans. Three. 4. A man ate 100 bananas in five days, each day eating 6 more than the previous day. How many bananas did he eat on the first day? Ans. Eight. 5. If it takes five minutes to boil one egg, how long will it take to boil four eggs? Ans. Five minutes. 6. Three containers A, B and C have volumes a, b, and c respectively; and container A is full of water while the other two are empty. If from container A water is poured into container B which becomes 1/3 full, and into container C which becomes 1/2 full, how much water is left in container A? 7. ABCE is an isosceles trapezoid and ACDE is a rectangle. AB = 10 and EC = 20. What is the length of AE? Ans. AE = 10. 8. In the given figure, PA and PB are tangents to the circle at A and B respectively and the chord BC is parallel to tangent PA. If AC = 6 cm, and length of the tangent AP is 9 cm, then what is the length of the chord BC? Ans. BC = 4 cm. 9 Three cards are drawn at random from an ordinary pack of cards. Find the probability that they will consist of a king, a queen and an ace. Ans. 64/2210. 10. A number of cats got together and decided to kill between them 999919 mice. Every cat killed an equal number of mice. Each cat killed more mice than there were cats. How many cats do you think there were ? Ans. 991. 11. If Log2 x – 5 Log x + 6 = 0, then what would the value / values of x be? Ans. x = e2 or e3. 12. The square of a two digit number is divided by half the number. After 36 is added to the quotient, this sum is then divided by 2. The digits of the resulting number are the same as those in the original number, but they are in reverse order. The ten’s place of the original number is equal to twice the difference between its digits. What is the number? Ans. 46 13.Can you tender a one rupee note in such a manner that there shall be total 50 coins but none of them would be 2 paise coins.? Ans. 45 one paisa coins, 2 five paise coins, 2 ten paise coins, and 1 twenty-five paise coins. 14.A monkey starts climbing up a tree 20ft. tall. Each hour, it hops 3ft. and slips back 2ft. How much time would it take the monkey to reach the top? Ans.18 hours. 15. What is the missing number in this series? 8 2 14 6 11 ? 14 6 18 12 Ans. 9 16. The minute hand of a clock overtakes the hour hand at intervals of 64 minutes of correct time. How much a day does the clock gain or lose? Ans. 32 8/11 minutes. 17. Solve for x and y: 1/x – 1/y = 1/3, 1/x2 + 1/y2 = 5/9. Ans. x = 3/2 or -3 and y = 3 or -3/2. 18. Daal is now being sold at Rs. 20 a kg. During last month its rate was Rs. 16 per kg. By how much percent should a family reduce its consumption so as to keep the expenditure fixed? Ans. 20 %. 19. Find the least value of 3x + 4y if x2y3 = 6. Ans. 10. 20. Can you find out what day of the week was January 12, 1979? Ans. Friday. 21. A garrison of 3300 men has provisions for 32 days, when given at a rate of 850 grams per head. At the end of 7 days a reinforcement arrives and it was found that now the provisions will last 8 days less, when given at the rate of 825 grams per head. How, many more men can it feed? Ans. 1700 men. 22. From 5 different green balls, four different blue balls and three different red balls, how many combinations of balls can be chosen taking at least one green and one blue ball? Ans. 3720. 23. Three pipes, A, B, & C are attached to a tank. A & B can fill it in 20 & 30 minutes respectively while C can empty it in 15 minutes. If A, B & C are kept open successively for 1 minute each, how soon will the tank be filled? Ans. 167 minutes. 24. A person walking 5/6 of his usual rate is 40 minutes late. What is his usual time? Ans. 3 hours 20 minutes. 25. Mr. Shah decided to walk down the escalator of a tube station. He found that if he walks down 26 steps, he requires 30 seconds to reach the bottom. However, if he steps down 34 stairs he would only require 18 seconds to get to the bottom. If the time is measured from the moment the top step begins to descend to the time he steps off the last step at the bottom, find out the height of the stair way in steps? Ans.46 steps.
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