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Old August 25th, 2012, 11:03 AM
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Default Re: Free IGNOU solved assignments July

please upload solution of MS- 4 , MS-91 & MS- 09
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Old March 12th, 2014, 07:39 PM
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Default Re: Free IGNOU solved assignments July

Here I am looking for the IGNOU solved assignments for the BCA program, can you provide me the same???
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Old March 13th, 2014, 11:05 AM
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Default Re: Free IGNOU solved assignments July

As you are looking for the IGNOU solved assignments for the BCA program, here I am uploading a document file having the same. I have taken following content from the attachment:

IGNOU solved assignments for the BCA program

Question.1 What is a Data Structure? Explain its need? (5 marks)

Ans:

Data Structure
In computer science, a data structure is a way of storing data in a computer so that it can be used efficiently. Often a carefully chosen data structure will allow the most efficient algorithm to be used. The choice of the data structure often begins from the choice of an abstract data type. A well-designed data structure allows a variety of critical operations to be performed, using as few resources, both execution time and memory space, as possible. Data structures are implemented using the data types, references and operations on them provided by a programming language .
Different kinds of data structures are suited to different kinds of applications, and some are highly specialized to certain tasks. For example, B-trees are particularly well-suited for implementation of databases, while routing tables rely on networks of machines to function.

Common data structures:
Array
Stacks
Queues
Linked lists
Trees
Graphs

A data structure is a specialized format for organizing and storing data. General data structure types include the array, the file, the record, the table, the tree, and so on. Any data structure is designed to organize data to suit a specific purpose so that it can be accessed and worked with in appropriate ways. In computer programming, a data structure may be selected or designed to store data for the purpose of working on it with various algorithms.

Different kinds of data structures are suited to different kinds of applications, and some are highly specialized to certain tasks. For example, B-trees are particularly well-suited for implementation of databases, while networks of machines rely on routing tables to function.

In the design of many types of computer program, the choice of data structures is a primary design consideration. Experience in building large systems has shown that the difficulty of implementation and the quality and performance of the final result depends heavily on choosing the best data structure. After the data structures are chosen, the algorithms to be used often become relatively obvious. Sometimes things work in the opposite direction — data structures are chosen because certain key tasks have algorithms that work best with particular data structures. In either case, the choice of appropriate data structures is crucial.

What is Computer System? Explain Structure of Computer.

Ans:

Computer System:

A complete, working computer. The computer system includes not only the computer, but also any software and peripheral devices that are necessary to make the computer function. Every computer system, for example, requires an operating system

A general purpose computer has four main sections: the arithmetic and logic unit (ALU),the control unit, the memory, and the input and output devices (collectively termed I/O).These parts are interconnected by busses, often made of groups of wires.

The control unit, ALU, registers, and basic I/O (and often other hardware closely linked with these) are collectively known as a central processing unit (CPU). Early CPUs were composed of many separate components but since the mid-1970s CPUs have typically been constructed on a single integrated circuit called a microprocessor.

What is memory system? Explain the memory hierarchy.

Ans :

Memory System
The system memory is the place where the computer holds current programs and data that are in use. There are various levels of computer memory (memory), including ROM,RAM, cache, page and graphics, each with specific objectives for system operation. This section focuses on the role of computer memory, and the technology behind it.

Although memory is used in many different forms around modern PC systems, it can be divided into two essential types: RAM and ROM. ROM, or Read Only Memory, is relatively small, but essential to how a computer works. ROM is always found on motherboards, but is increasingly found on graphics cards and some other expansion cards and peripherals. generally speaking, ROM does not change. It forms the basic instruction set for operating the hardware in the system, and the data within remains Intact even when the computer is shut down. It is possible to update ROM, but it's only done rarely, and at need. If ROM is damaged, the computer system simply cannot function.

The hierarchical arrangement of storage in current computer architectures is called the memory hierarchy. It is designed to take advantage of memory locality in computer programs. Each level of the hierarchy has the properties of higher bandwidth, smaller size, and lower latency than lower levels.

Most modern CPUs are so fast that for most program workloads, the locality of reference of memory accesses and the efficiency of the caching and memory transfer between different levels of the hierarchy are the practical limitation on processing speed. As a result, the CPU spends much of its time idling, waiting for memory I/O to complete. This is sometimes called the space cost, as a larger memory object is more likely to overflow a small/fast level and require use of a larger/slower level.
The memory hierarchy in most computers is

Processor registers – fastest possible access (usually 1 CPU cycle), only hundreds of bytes in size
Level 1 (L1) cache – often accessed in just a few cycles, usually tens of kilobytes
Level 2 (L2) cache – higher latency than L1 by 2× to 10×, often 512 KiB or more
Main memory (DRAM) – may take hundreds of cycles, but can be multiple.gigabytes. Access times may not be uniform, in the case of a NUMA machine.
Disk storage – millions of cycles latency, but very large • Tertiary storage – several seconds latency, can be huge

The various major units in a typical memory system can be viewed as forming a hierarchy of memories (m1,m2,...,mn) in which each member mi is in a sense subordinate to the next highest member mi-1 of the hierarchy. Diagram of the computer memory hierarchy

What is printer? Explain different types of printers.

Ans:

Printer:
The main categories are: - laser printers, ink-jets, dot-matrix, multifunctional, etc.
Normally home computer users will use ink-jets as they are relatively cheap but superior in quality to dot-matrix. Laser jets and other printers created by new technology are more expensive and more commonly found in the offices.

Ink-jets (bubble-jets) printers
spray ionized tiny drops of ink onto a page to create an image. This is achieved by using magnetized plates which direct the ink's path onto the paper in the desired pattern. Almost all ink-jets offer a color option as standard, in varying degrees of resolution. Ink-jet printers are capable of producing high quality print which almost matches the quality of a laser printer. A standard ink-jet printer has a resolution of 300 dots per inch, although newer models have improved on that. As a rule color link-jet printers can also be used as a regular black and white printer.

Laser printers operate by shining a laser beam to produce an image on a drum. The drum is then rolled through a pool, or reservoir, or toner, and the electrically charged portions of the drum pick up ink. Finally, using a combination of heat and pressure, the ink on the drum is transferred onto the page. Laser printers print very fast, and the supply cartridges work a long time. Color laser printers use the same toner-based printing process as black and white ( B/W) laser printers, except that they combine four different toner colors. Color laser printers can also be used as a regular black and white laser printer.

LED/LCD printers are types of electro photographic printers that are identical to laser printers in most ways. Both LCD (liquid crystal display) and LED (light-emitting diode) printers use a light source instead of a laser to create an image on a drum. In most contexts, "laser printer" covers LCD and LED printers as well. The print process is almost identical, but LED printers use Light Emitting Diodes to charge the drum, and the other uses Liquid Crystals. These printers produce a very high quality text and raphics print out.

. Impact (Dot-matrix) printers use a set of closely spaced pins and a ribbon to print letters or other characters on a page. These printers actually impact the page to print a character, much like a typewriter. Dot-matrix printers vary in terms of peed and the number of pins they have. They can run at a speed anywhere between 50 and 500 CPS (Characters Per Second). The number of pins, which can vary between 9 to 24, determines the quality of the print job. Dot matrix printers are commonly used for printing invoices, purchase orders, shipping forms, labels, and other multi-part forms. Dot matrix printers can print through multi-part forms in a single pass, allowing them to produce more pages than even high-speed laser printers.

Solid Ink printers are page printers that use solid wax ink sticks in a "phase-change" process. They work by liquefying wax ink sticks into reservoirs, and then squirting the ink onto a transfer drum, from where it is cold-fused onto the paper in a single pass. Solid-ink printers offer better color consistency than do most technologies, with little variation caused by changes in temperature, humidity, or type of paper. Solid ink machines have better reliability, because they have fewer components in comparison, for example with color laser printers.

Dye Sublimation printers are professional devices widely used in demanding graphic arts and photographic applications. True these printers work by heating the ink so that it turns from a solid into a gas. The heating element can be set to different temperatures, thus controlling the amount of ink laid down in one spot. In practice, this means that color is applied as a continuous tone, rather than in dots, as with an inkjet. One color is laid over the whole of one sheet at a time, starting with yellow and ending with black. The ink is on large rolls of film which contain sheets of each color, so for an A4 print it will have an A4-size sheet of yellow, followed by a sheet of cyan, and so on. Dye sublimation requires particularly expensive special paper, as the dyes are designed to diffuse into the paper surface, mixing to create precise color shades.

Portable printers are usually fairly lightweight and sometimes carry the option of using a battery instead of drawing power from the computer. Usually they realize basic print resolutions suitable for plain text printing. You can find on the market the following types of the portable printers: Thermal printer, Thermal transfer printer and Ink-Jet printer. The main advantage of thermal and thermal transfer printers is that they can be very small. The smallest thermal and thermal transfer printers weigh approximately one pound. Usually the ink-jet portable printer weighs more than 2 pounds. Thermal printers require a special type of paper.

Plotters are large-scale printers that are very accurate at reproducing
line drawings. They are commonly used for technical drawings such as engineering drawings or architectural blueprints. The two basic types of plotters are called flatbed plotters and drum plotters. Flatbed plotters are horizontally aligned with a flat surface to which a piece of paper is attached. The paper remains stationary and the printer moves pens across the paper to draw the image. Drum plotters, also called upright plotters, are vertically positioned. They have a drum that the paper rolls on. Drum plotters usually make more noise and are more compact than flatbed plotters.

Digital Photo printers Many middle range printers are now able to print photo quality images. Usually an option with color printers, specialist photo print heads allow a greater resolution to be achieved to improve photo image quality. Photo ink jet printers expand their gamuts by adding additional ink colors, usually light cyan and light magenta.
Network printer is a printer that provides output capabilities to all network users.

Multifunction printers: combine top-quality color ink-jet or laser printing with plain-paper and PC faxing, color copying and color scanning, telephoning- all in one convenient, space-saving machine. If you work from home or have a small office a multifunctional device may be ideal.

The Bravo Auto Printer is the world’s first automated CD/DVD printing system that can truly be called innovative. It combines automatic, roboticbased CD or DVD printing along with full-color, 2400 dpi disc printing all in one compact, desktop unit.

Printers for banking: these printers realize innovative technology and functionality to increase productivity, and reduce costs. The main categories are: - laser printers, ink-jets, dot-matrix, multifunctional, etc. Normally home computer users will use ink-jets as they are relatively cheap but superior in quality to dot-matrix. Laser jets and other printers created by new technology are more expensive and more commonly found in the offices. Ink-jets(bubble-jets) printers spray ionized tiny drops of ink onto a page to create an image. This is achieved by using magnetized plates which direct the ink's path onto the paper in the desired pattern. Almost all ink-jets offer a color option as standard, in varying degrees of resolution. Ink-jet printers are capable of producing high quality print which almost matches the quality of a laser printer. A standard ink-jet printer has a resolution of 300 dots per inch, although newer models have improved on that. As a rule color link-jet printers can also be used as a regular black and white printer.

Laser printers operate by shining a laser beam to produce an image on a drum. The drum is then rolled through a pool, or reservoir, or toner, and the electrically charged portions of the drum pick up ink. Finally, using a combination of heat and pressure, the ink on the drum is transferred onto the page. Laser printers print very fast, and the supply cartridges work a long time. Color laser printers use the same toner-based printing process as black and white ( B/W) laser printers, except that they combine four different toner colors. Color laser printers can also be used as a regular black and white laser printer.

LED/LCD printers are types of electro photographic printers that are identical to laser printers in most ways. Both LCD (liquid crystal display) and LED (light-emitting diode) printers use a light source instead of a laser to create an image on a drum. In most contexts, "laser printer" covers LCD and LED printers as well. The print process is almost identical, but LED printers use Light Emitting Diodes to charge the drum, and the other uses Liquid Crystals. These printers produce a very high quality text and graphics print out.

Impact (Dot-matrix) printers use a set of closely spaced pins and a ribbon to print letters or other characters on a page. These printers actually impact the page to print a character, much like a typewriter. Dot-matrix printers vary in terms of speed and the number of pins they have. They can run at a speed anywhere between 50 and 500 CPS (Characters Per Second). The number of pins, which can vary between 9 to 24, determines the quality of the print job. Dot matrix printers are commonly used for printing invoices, purchase orders, shipping forms, labels, and other multi-part forms. Dot matrix printers can print through multi-part forms in a single pass, allowing them to produce more pages than even high-speed laser printers.

Solid Ink printers are page printers that use solid wax ink sticks in a "phase-change" process. They work by liquefying wax ink sticks into reservoirs, and then squirting the ink onto a transfer drum, from where it is cold-fused onto the paper in a single pass. Solid-ink printers offer better color consistency than do most technologies, with little variation caused by changes in temperature, humidity, or type of paper. Solid ink machines have better reliability, because they have fewer components in comparison, for example with color laser printers.

Dye Sublimation printers are professional devices widely used in demanding graphic arts and photographic applications. True these printers work by heating the ink so that it turns from a solid into a gas. The heating element can be set to different temperatures, thus controlling the amount of ink laid down in one spot. In practice, this means that color is applied as a continuous tone, rather than in dots, as with an inkjet. One color is laid over the whole of one sheet at a time, starting with yellow and ending with black. The ink is on large rolls of film which contain sheets of each color, so for an A4 print it will have an A4-size sheet of yellow, followed by a sheet of cyan, and so on. Dye sublimation requires particularly expensive special paper, as the dyes are designed to diffuse into the paper surface, mixing to create precise color shades.

Portable printers are usually fairly lightweight and sometimes carry the option of using a battery instead of drawing power from the computer. Usually they realize basic print resolutions suitable for plain text printing. You can find on the market the following types of the portable printers: Thermal printer, Thermal transfer printer and Ink-Jet printer. The main advantage of thermal and thermal transfer printers is that they can be very small. The smallest thermal and thermal transfer printers weigh approximately one pound. Usually the ink-jet portable printer weighs more than 2 pounds. Thermal printers require a special type of paper.

Plotters are large-scale printers that are very accurate at reproducing line drawings. They are commonly used for technical drawings such as engineering drawings or architectural blueprints. The two basic types of plotters are called flatbed plotters and drum plotters. Flatbed plotters are horizontally aligned with a flat surface to which a piece of paper is attached. The paper remains stationary and the printer moves pens across the paper to draw the image. Drum plotters, also called upright plotters, are vertically positioned. They have a drum that the paper rolls on. Drum plotters usually make more noise and are more compact than flatbed plotters.

Digital Photo printers Many middle range printers are now able to print photo quality images. Usually an option with color printers, specialist photo print heads allow a greater resolution to be achieved to improve photo image quality. Photo ink jet printers expand their gamuts by adding additional ink colors, usually light cyan and light magenta.

Network printer is a printer that provides output capabilities to all network users.

Multifunction printers: combine top-quality color ink-jet or laser
printing with plain-paper and PC faxing, color copying and color scanning , telephoning- all in one convenient, space-saving machine. If you work from home or have a small office a multifunctional device may be ideal.

The Bravo AutoPrinter is the worlds first automated CD/DVD printing system that can truly be called innovative. It combines automatic, roboticbased CD or DVD printing along with full-color, 2400 dpi disc printing all in one compact, desktop unit.

Printers for banking: these printers realize innovative technology and functionality to increase productivity, and reduce costs.

Explain the differences between followings:
i.Pipelining and Vector Processing
ii.Synchronous and Asynchronous
iii.Bus topology and Ring topology

Ans:

a) Pipelining and Vector Processing
A vector processor, or array processor, is a CPU design where the instruction set includes operations that can perform mathematical operations on multiple data elements simultaneously. This is in contrast to a scalar processor which handles one element at a time using multiple instructions. The vast majority of CPUs are scalar (or close to it). Vector processors were common in the scientific computing area, where they formed the basis of most supercomputers through the 1980s and into the 1990s, but general increases in performance and processor design saw the near disappearance of the vector processor as a general-purpose

Today most commodity CPU designs include single instructions for some vector processing on multiple (vectorised) data sets, typically known as SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data), common examples include SSE and AltiVec. Modern video game consoles and consumer computer-graphics hardware rely heavily on vector processing in their architecture. In 2000, IBM, Toshiba and Sony collaborated to create the Cell processor, consisting of one scalar processor and eight vector processors, which found use in the Sony PlayStation 3 among other applications.

Other CPU designs may include some multiple instructions for vector processing on multiple (vectorised) data sets, typically known as MIMD (Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data), such designs are very special and delicate breeds for dedicated purpose and these are not commonly marketed for general purpose applications.

The more advanced approach is not the active multiplicity of instructions in parallel but the active multiplicity in sequence, which led to the pipelining concept.

In software engineering, a pipeline consists of a chain of processing elements (processes, threads, coroutines, etc.), arranged so that the output of each element is the input of the next. Usually some amount of buffering is provided between consecutive elements. The information that flows in these pipelines is often a stream of records, bytes or bits. The concept is also called the pipes and filters design pattern. It was named by analogy to a physical pipeline

ii ) Synchronous and Asynchronous
Synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are two different methods of transmission synchronization. Synchronous transmissions are synchronized by an external clock, while asynchronous transmissions are synchronized by special signals along the transmission medium.

Whenever an electronic device transmits digital (and sometimes analog) data to another electronic device, there must be a certain rhythm established between the two devices, i.e., the receiving device must have some way of knowing, within the context of the fluctuating signal that it's receiving, where each unit of data begins and where it ends

Asynchronous transmission Advantages:

Simple, doesn't require synchronization of both communication sides
;Cheap, timing is not as critical as for synchronous transmission, therefore hardware can be made cheaper
Set-up is very fast, so well suited for applications where messages are generated at irregular intervals, for example data entry from the keyboard

Disadvantages:

Large relative overhead, a high proportion of the transmitted bits are uniquely for control purposes and thus carry no useful information

Synchronous transmission Advantages

Lower overhead and thus, greater throughput

Disadvantages

Slightly more complex
Hardware is more expensive


iii ).Bus topology and Ring Topology Bus Topology

Bus networks (not to be confused with the system bus of a computer) use a common backbone to connect all devices. A single cable, the backbone functions as a shared communication medium that devices attach or tap into with an interface connector. A device wanting to communicate with another device on the network sends a broadcast message onto the wire that all other devices see, but only the intended recipient actually accepts and processes the message.

Ring Topology

In a ring network, every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction (either "clockwise" or "counterclockwise"). A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire network. To implement a ring network, one typically uses FDDI, SONET, or Token Ring technology. Ring topologies are found in some office buildings or school campuses.

What is an E-mail? Explain advantages E-mail.

Ans:

Email

Electronic mail, often abbreviated as e-mail, email, or eMail, is any method of creating,

transmitting, or storing primarily text-based human communications with digital communications systems.

Modern e-mail systems are based on a store-and-forward model in which e-mail computer server systems, accept, forward, or store messages on behalf of users, who only connect to the e-mail infrastructure with their personal computer or other networkenabled device for the duration of message transmission or retrieval to or from their designated server. Rarely is e-mail transmitted directly from one user's device to another's.

While, originally, e-mail consisted only of text messages composed in the ASCII character set, virtually any media format can be sent today, including attachments of audio and video clips.
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Old April 2nd, 2014, 01:09 PM
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Default Re: Free IGNOU solved assignments July

FREE SOLVED ASSIGN MENTS OF BA foundation n sociology papers jan 2014 cycleupload
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