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Default CBSE Board Exams for Economics Previous Years Question Papers

I am looking to get some Previous Years Question Papers of Class 12th Economics of CBSE Board Exams. So can you provide the Question Papers?
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Old February 3rd, 2014, 12:12 PM
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Default Re: CBSE Board Exams for Economics Previous Years Question Papers

As you want to get some Previous Years Question Papers of Class 12th Economics of CBSE Board Exams, so here I am providing the following papers:

CBSE Class 12th Question Papers of Economics 2011
1. What is a market economy? 1
2. When is a firm called 'price-taker' ? 1
3. Define budget set. 1
4. What is meant by 'increase' in supply? 1
5. Define supply. 1
6. Why is a production possibilities curve concave? Explain. 3
7. 8 units of a good are demanded at a price of Rs. 7 per unit. Price elasticity of
123
demand is (-)1. How many units will be demanded if the price rises to Rs. 8 per unit?
Use expenditure approach of price elasticity of demand to answer this question. 3
8. Giving examples, explain the meaning of cost in economics. 3
9. Draw average revenue and marginal revenue curves in a single diagram of a firm
which can sell more units of a good only by lowering the price of that good. Explain. 3
For blind candidates in lieu of Q No.9:
Distinguish between Average Revenue and Marginal Revenue with the help of a
numerical example. 3
10. Explain the implication of 'freedom of entry and exit to the firms' under perfect
competition.
OR
Explain the implication of 'perfect knowledge about market' under perfect competition.
3
11. A consumer consumes only two goods X and Y. State and explain the conditions of
consumer's equilibrium with the help of utility analysis. 4
12. Explain how the demand for a good is affected by the prices of its related goods.
Give examples. 4
13. Define 'Market-supply'. What is the effect on the supply of a good when Government
imposes a tax on the production of that good? Explain.
OR
What is a supply schedule? What is the effect on the supply of a good when
Government gives a subsidy on the production of that good? Explain. 4
14. What is meant by producer's equilibrium? Explain the conditions of producer's
equilibrium through the 'total revenue and total cost' approach. Use diagram. 6
For blind candidates in lieu of Q No. 14 :
What is meant by producer's equilibrium? Explain the conditions of producer's
equilibrium through the 'total revenue and total cost approach'. Use a schedule. 6
124
15. Explain the three properties of indifference curves. 6
16. Market for a good is in equilibrium. There is an 'increase' in demand for this good.
Explain the chain of effects of this change. Use diagram. 6
For blind candidates only in lieu of Q No. 16 :
Market for a good is in equilibrium. There is an 'increase' in demand for this good.
Explain the chain of effects of this change. Use a numerical example.
OR
Distinguish between collusive and non-collusive 'oligopoly. Explain how the oligopoly
firms are interdependent in taking price and output decisions. 6
SECTION - B
17. What is nominal gross domestic product ? 1
18. Define flow variables.
19. Define cash reserve ratio. 1
20. Define money supply.
21. Define foreign exchange rate. 1
22. State the components of capital account of balance of payments. 3
23. Explain how 'distribution of gross domestic product' is a limitation in taking gross
domestic product as an index of welfare. 3
24. Given that national income is Rs.80 crore and consumption expenditure Rs.64 crore,
find out average propensity to save. When income rises to Rs.100 crore and
consumption expenditure to Rs.78 crore, what will be the average propensity to
consume and the marginal propensity to consume? 3
25. Explain the relationship between investment multiplier and marginal propensity to
consume. 3
125
26. When price of a foreign currency rises, its demand falls. Explain why.
OR
When price of a foreign currency rises, its supply also rises. Explain why. 3
27. Explain the 'allocation of resources' objective of Government budget.
OR
Explain the 'redistribution of income' objective of Government budget.
28. From the following data about a Government budget, find out (a) Revenue deficit,
(b) Fiscal deficit and (c) Primary deficit: (Rs. Arab)
(i) Capital receipts net of borrowings 95
(ii) Revenue expenditure 100
(iii) Interest payments 10
(iv) Revenue receipts 80
(v) Capital expenditure 110 4
29. Giving reasons classify the following into intermediate products and final products:
(i) Furniture purchased by a school.
(ii) Chalks, dusters, etc. purchased by a school. 4
30. Explain the role of the following in correcting 'deficient demand' in an economy:
(i) Open market operations.
(ii) Bank rate.
OR
Explain the role of the following in correcting 'excess demand' in an economy:
(i) Bank rate.
(ii) Open market operations. 6
126
31. Explain the process of money creation by the commercial banks with the help of a
numerical example. 6
32. Calculate National Income and Gross National Disposable Income from the
following: (Rs. Crore)
(i) Net current transfers to the rest of the world (-)5
(ii) Private final consumption expenditure 500
(iii) Consumption of fixed capital 20
(iv) Net factor income to abroad (-)10
(v) Government final consumption expenditure 200
(vi) Net indirect tax 100
(vii) Net domestic fixed capital formation 120
(viii) Net imports 30
(ix) Change in stocks (-)20 6
QUESTION PAPER CODE 58/1
SECTION - A
1. What is a planned economy? 1
2. When is a firm called price' maker? 1
3. Define a budget line. 1
4. What is 'decrease' in supply? 1
5. Define production function. 1
6. How is production possibility curve affected by unemployment in the economy?
Explain. 3
7. When price of a good is Rs. 13 per unit, the consumer buys 11 units of that good.
When price rises to Rs. 15 per unit, the consumer continues to buy 11 units. Calculate
price elasticity of demand. 3
127
8. Distinguish between explicit cost and implicit cost and give examples. 3
9. Draw in a single diagram the average revenue and marginal revenue curves of a firm
which can sell any quantity of the good at a given price. Explain. 3
Note: The following question is for the Blind Candidates only, in lieu of Q. No.9.
Explain the relation between average revenue and marginal revenue of. a firm which
is free to sell any quantity at a given price. 3
10. Explain the implications of the feature 'large number of buyers' in a perfectly competitive
market. 3
OR
Explain the implications of the feature 'homogeneous products' in a perfectly competitive
market. 3
11. A consumer consumes only two goods X and Y. At a consumption level of these
two goods, he finds that the ratio of marginal utility to price in case of X is higher
than in case of Y. Explain the reaction of the consumer. 4
12. Explain how rise in income of a consumer affects the demand of a good. Give
examples. 4
13. Define marginal cost. Explain its relation with average cost. 4
OR
Define variable cost. Explain the behaviour of total variable cost as output increases. 4
14. What is producer's equilibrium? Explain the conditions of producer's equilibrium
through the 'marginal cost and marginal revenue' approach. Use diagram. 6
Note: The following question is for the Blind Candidates only, in lieu of Q. No. 14.
What is producer's equilibrium? Explain the conditions of producer's equilibrium
through the 'marginal cost and marginal revenue' approach. Use a schedule. 6
128
15. Explain the conditions of consumer's equilibrium with the help of the Indifference
Curve Analysis. 6
16. Market for a good is in equilibrium. There is 'increase' in supply of the good. Explain
the chain of effects of this change. Use diagram. 6
Note: The following question is for the Blind Candidates only, in lieu of Q. No. 16.
Market for a good is in equilibrium. There is 'increase' in. supply of that good.
Explain the chain of effects of this' change. Use a numerical example. 6
OR
Distinguish between 'non-collusive' and 'collusive' oligopoly. Explain the following
features of oligopoly: 6
(i) Few firms
(ii) Non-price competition
SECTION B
17. What are stock variables? 1
18. Define ‘depreciation'. 1
19. Define 'Statutory Liquidity Ratio'. 1
20. Define money. 1
21. What is foreign exchange? 1
22. Which transactions determine the balance of trade. ? When is balance of trade in
surplus? 3
23. Explain how 'non-monetary exchanges' are a limitation in taking gross domestic
product as an index of welfare. 3
24. In an economy the marginal propensity to consume is 0.75. Investment expenditure
in the economy increases by Rs. 75 crore. Calculate the total increase in national
income. 3
129
25. Explain the distinction between voluntary and involuntary unemployment. 3
26. When price of a foreign currency falls, the demand for that foreign currency rises.
Explain, why. 3
OR
When price of a foreign currency falls, the supply of that foreign currency also falls.
Explain, why. 3
27. Explain the 'redistribution of income' objective of a government budget. 4
OR
Explain the 'economic stability' objective of a government budget. 4
28 From the following data about a government budget find (a) revenue deficit, (b) fiscal
deficit and (c) primary deficit: 4
(Rs.arab)
(i) Tax revenue 47
(ii) Capital receipts 34
(iii) Non-tax revenue 10
(iv) Borrowings 32
(v) Revenue expenditure 80
(vi) Interest payments 20
29. Giving reasons, explain the treatment assigned to the following while estimating
national income: 4
(i) Family members working free on the farm owned by the family.
(ii) Payment of interest on borrowings by general government.
30. Explain the role of the following in correcting the inflationary gap in an economy: 6
(i) Legal reserves
(ii) Bank rate
130
OR
Explain the role of the following in correcting the deflationary gap in an economy: 6
(i) Open market operations
(ii) Margin requirements
31. Explain the following functions of the central bank: 6
(i) Bank of issue
(ii) Bankers' bank
32. Calculate (a) 'Net Domestic Product at Factor Cost' and (b) 'Private Income' from
the following: 6
(Rs. crore)
(i) Domestic product accruing to government 300
(ii) Wages and salaries 1000
(iii) Net current transfers to abroad (-) 20
(iv) Rent 100
(v) Interest paid by the production units 130
(vi) National debt interest 30
(vii) Corporation tax 50
(viii) Current transfers by government 40
(ix) Contribution to social security schemes by employers 200
(x) Dividends 100
(xi) Undistributed profits 20
(xii) Net factor income to abroad 0
131
Marking Scheme ó Economics
Questions with * mark are higher order thinking questions.
General Instructions
1. Please examine each part of a question carefully and allocate the marks allotted for the
part as given in the marking scheme below. TOTAL MARKS FOR ANY ANSWER
MAY BE PUT IN A CIRCLE ON THE LEFT SIDE WHERE THE ANSWER ENDS.
2. Expected suggested answers have been given in the Marking Scheme. To evaluate the
answers the value points indicated in the marking scheme be followed.
3. For questions asking the candidate to explain or define, the detailed explanations and
definitions have been indicated alongwith the value points.
4. For mere arithmetical errors, there should be minimal deduction. Only ˝ mark be deducted
for such an error.
5. Wherever only two / three or a “given” number of examples / factors / points are expected
only the first two / three or expected number should be read. The rest are irrelevant and
must not be examined.
6. There should be no effort at “moderation” of the marks by the evaluating teachers. The
actual total marks obtained by the candidate may be of no concern to the evaluators.
7. Higher order thinking ability questions are assessing student’s understanding / analytical
ability.
General Note : In case of numerical question no mark is to be given if only the final
answer is given.
QUESTION PAPER CODE 58/1/1
Q.No. EXPECTED ANSWERS/VALUE POINTS Distribution
Section ń A
of marks
1 A market economy is one in which the central problems are solved through the free
forces of demand and supply . 1
2 The firm is called price taker when it has to adopt the price determined by market
demand and market supply. 1
132
3 Budget set is the set of all possible combinations of the two goods which a consumer
can afford, given his income and prices in the market. 1
4 ‘Increase’ in supply means rise in supply of a good caused by any factor other than
the own price of the good. 1
5 Supply means the quantity of a good which a firm (or industry) is willing to supply
at a given price during a period of time. 1
6 The PP curve being concave means that MRT increases as we move downwards
along the curve . 1
MRT increases because it is assumed that no resource is equally efficient in production
of all goods As resources are transferred from one good to another less and less
efficient resources have to be employed. This raises cost and raises MRT. 2
7 Given that total expenditure = 7x8=56 (Rs.)
When price rises to Rs 8 per unit, and ep = -1 2
total expenditure remains unchanged at Rs 56 .
Consumer buys =56 ÷ 8=7 units. 1
(Answer given in any other form using only expenditure method be treated as
correct)
8 Cost in economics is the sum of :
(1) Explicit cost which is actual money expenditure on inputs, for example purchase
of materials (or any other )
(2) Implicit cost is the estimated value of the inputs supplied by the owners
including normal profit, for example estimated salary of the owners (or any
other). 3
9 When a firm can sell more only by lowering the price the AR curve is downward
sloping. When AR is falling, MR must be less than AR. Therefore, MR curve lies
below the AR curve. 1
133
2
For blind candidates
Distinguish between AR and MR 2
Numerical example 1
10 The firms enter the industry when they find that the existing firms are earning super
normal profits. Their entry raises output of the industry, brings down the market
price and thus reduce profits. 1˝
The entry continues till profits are reduced to normal. (or zero)
The firms start leaving the industry when they are facing losses. 1˝
This reduces output of the industry, raises market price and reduces losses. The exit
continues till the losses are wiped out.
OR
Perfect knowledge means that both buyers and sellers are fully informed about the
market price. Therefore no firm is in a position to charge a different price and no
buyer will pay a higher price. As a result a uniform price prevails in the market. 3
11 The two conditions are
(1)
MUx MUy
Px = Py
OR
MUx Px
MUy = Py
1
134
Explanation
If MUx /Px > MUy / Py , the consumer is not in equilibrium because he can raise his
total utility by buying less of Y and more of X. 1
similarly if MUx MUy
Px < Py
the consumer is not equilibrium as he can raise his
T.U. by buying less of X and more of Y.
(2) MU falls as consumption increases 1
If MU does not fall as consumption increases the consumer will end up buying
only one good which is unrealistic or consumer will never reach the equilibrium
position. 1
12 Related goods are either substitutes or complementary –
Substitutes: When price of a substitute falls, it becomes cheaper than the given good.
So, the consumer substitutes it for the given good. Hence the demand for the given
good will decrease. Similarly, a rise in the price of substitute will result in increase in 1˝
the demand for given good. For example Tea and Coffee. ˝
Complementary: When the price of a complementary good falls (raises), its demand
rises (falls) and the demand for the given good will increase (decrease), for example 1˝
pen and ink. ˝
13 Market supply is the quantity of a good supplied by all the firms taken together at
a given price during a period of time. 1
Imposition of tax raises cost.
Price remaining unchanged, Profits fall.
As a result supply decreases. 3
OR
A supply schedule is a schedule that shows the quantity supplied
of a commodity at different prices during a period to time.
Subsidy raises revenues.
Cost remaining unchanged, profits rise 1
As a result supply increases. 3
135
14 Producer’s equilibrium refers to that level of output at which a producer gets maximum
profits. 1
Conditions:
1. TR-TC should be maximum because TR-TC equal profits. This condition is
satisfied where the vertical distance between the TR curve and the TC curve
is maximum (i.e. AB) 2
2. Profits falls when one more unit of output is produced beyond the output level
where TR-TC is maximum. Or addition to total revenue is less than addition
to total cost as more output is produced. 1
For blind candidates
Meaning (same as above) 1
Schedule 2
Conditions (same as above) 3
15 (1) Slopes downward from left to right ˝
To consume more of one good the consumer must give up some quantity of the other
good so that total utility remains the same. 1˝
(2) Convex towards the origin ˝
MRS declines continuously due to the operation of the law of diminishing marginal
utility. 1˝
136
(3) Higher indifference curves represents higher utility. ˝
Higher IC represents large bundle of goods. Which means more utility because of
monotonic preference. 1˝
16
2
• ‘Increase ‘ in demand shifts the demand curve from D1 to D2 to the right
leading to excess demand E1 F at the given price OP1
• Since the consumers will not be able to buy all they want to buy at this price,
there will be competition among buyers leading rise in price.
• As price rises, demand starts falling (along D2) and supply starts rising (along S)
as shows by arrows in the diagram. 4
• This change continue till D and SS are equals at E2.
• The quantity rises to OQ2 and price to OP2
NOTE: Unless the above chain of effects is given marks allotted for explanation be
not given.
For the blind candidates
Chain of effects: (as above) 4
use of numerical example: 2
OR
Collusive oligopoly is one in which the firms cooperate with each other in deciding
price and output whereas, non-collusive oligopoly in one in which the firms compete
with each other. 2
The firms are interdependent because each firm takes in to consideration the likely
reactions of its rival firms when deciding its output and price policy.
137
It makes a firm dependent on other firms. The firm may have to reconsider the change
in the light of the likely reactions 4
SECTION B
17. When GDP of a given year is estimated on the basis of price of the same year it is
called nominal GDP. 1
18 Any variable whose magnitude is measured over a period of time is called a flow
variable. 1
19 CRR refers to that minimum percentage of deposits with the commercial banks
which the commercial banks must keep with the central bank. 1
20 Stock of money in the country on a specific day. 1
21 Foreign exchange is the price of a foreign currency in terms of domestic currency. 1
22 (1) Borrowings and lendings to and from abroad. 1
(2) Investments to and from abroad. 1
(3) Changes in foreign exchange reserves. 1
(or an other way to describing components)
23 It is possible that with rise in GDP, inequalities in the distribution of income may also
increase. It means gap between rich and poor increases. So, the welfare of the
people may not rise as much as the rise in GDP. 3
24
S 80 ń 64 APS =
Y
=
80
= 0.20 1
After change: 1
78
APC =
100 = 0.78
C 14
MPC =
Y =
20 = 0.70 1
(or any other form of calculation)


138
25 Investment multiplier = 1
1 – MPC
. It shows a direct relationship between MPC
and the value of multiplier. Higher the proportion of increased income spend on
consumption, higher will be value of investment multiplier. 3
26 When price of foreign currency rises it makes imports costlier. This leads to fall in
demand for imports. As a result demand for foreign exchange falls. 3
OR
When price of foreign currency rises it makes exports cheaper. This leads to rise in
demand for exports. As a result supply of foreign currency rises. 3
27 Government can influence allocation of resources through (i) tax concessions,
subsidies, etc. and (ii) directly producing goods and services. To encourage investment
government can give tax concession, subsidies etc. to the producers. If private sector
does not take interest, government can directly undertake the production. 4
OR
Government can influence distribution of income by imposing taxes on the rich and
spending more on the welfare of the poor. It will reduce income of the rich and raise
standard of living of the poor, thus reducing inequalities in the distribution of income. 4
28 Revenue deficit= Revenue expenditure –Revenue receipts 1
100 – 80 = Rs. 20 arab
Fiscal deficit = ii + v – iv – i 2
= 100 + 110 – 80 – 95 = Rs. 35 arab
Primary deficit =Fiscal deficit – iii = 35 – 10 = Rs. 25 arab 1
*29 (i) It is a final product because it is purchased for investment. 2
(ii) These are intermediate products because these are taken to be used up
completely during the same year
(or these are meant of resale). 2
30 (i) Open market operations refer to the sale and purchase of securities by the
central bank. Deficient demand refers to AD falling short of AS at full
employment. In this situation the central bank buys securities in the open market
139
and makes payment to the sellers .The money flows out of the central bank
and ultimately reaches the commercial banks as deposits. This raises the lending
capacity of the banks. People can borrow more . This will raise AD. 3
(ii) Bank rate is the rate of interest which the central bank charges on the loans
given to commercial banks. In case of deficient demand central banks can
reduce the bank rate. This forces the commercial banks to reduce lending
rate. Since borrowing becomes cheaper people borrow more. AD rises. 3
OR
(i) Bank rate is that rate of interest at which the central bank lends to commercial
banks. To correct excess demand central bank can raise the bank rate. This
forces commercial banks to increase lending rates. This reduces demand for
borrowing by the public for investment and consumption. Aggregate demand
falls. 3
(ii) Open market operations refer to the sale and purchase of securities by the
central bank in the open market. excess demand refers to AD exceeding AS
at the full employment level of income. In this situation the central bank can
sell securities receiving payments from its buyers. The money flows out of the
commercial banks into the central bank. This reduces the lending capacity of
the banks and in turn reduces AD. 3
31 The money (or deposit or credit) creation by the commercial banks is determined
by the amount of initial deposit and the legal reserve ratio(LRR). Suppose the amount
of initial deposit is Rs. 10,000 and LRR 0.2 . The banks will keep 20% i.e. Rs.
2000 as reserve and lend the remaining Rs. 8000. Those who borrow spend this
money. It is assumed that Rs. 8000 comes back to the banks. This raises total
deposits to Rs. 18000. Banks again keep 20% of Rs. 8000 i.e. Rs. 1600 as reserve
and lend Rs. 6400. This further raises the amount of deposits with the banks. In this
way deposits go on increasing @ 80% of the last deposit. How many times will
these deposits be is determined by the deposit multiplier : 4
Money multiplier = 1 1
LRR
=
0.2 = 5
The total deposits will be :
Total money creation = Initial deposit X Money multiplier
140
= 10000 X 5
= Rs. 50000 1
(Answer in an other form be also rewarded)
*32 N. I. = ii + v + (vii + ix) – viii – vi – iv 2
= 500 + 200 + 120 +(–20) –30 – 100 – (-10) 1˝
= 500 + 200 + 120 – 20 – 30 – 100 + 10
= Rs. 680 Crore. ˝
GNDI = N. I. + iii + vi – i 1
= 680 + 20 + 100 – (-5) ˝
= Rs. 805 Crore. ˝
QUESTION PAPER CODE 58/1
Q.No. EXPECTED ANSWERS/VALUE POINTS Distribution
Section ń A
1 The economy in which the central problems are solved by the government through
planning. 1
2 When the firm can influence the market price of the product that the firm is producing. 1
3 Locus of different combinations of the two goods which the consumer can afford by
spending the whole of his income. 1
4 Decrease in supply of a good is fall in supply due to any factor other than the own
price of the good. 1
5 A mathematical expression of the technological relation between physical inputs
and output of a good. 1
*6 The PP curve shows the maximum quantities of the two goods the economy can
produce subject to full and efficient utilization of resources. When there is
unemployment, the maximum that an economy can produce does not change. So,
141
there is no effect on the position of the PP curve. The only thing is that economy
produces somewhere below the curve. 3
*7 1
8 Explicit cost refers to the actual purchase of inputs, or, actual money expenditure
on inputs.
Example : expenditure on buying raw materials(or any other).
Implicit cost refers to the estimated value of the inputs provided by the owner.
Example: estimated salary of the owner (or any other) 3
9 In such a market whether the firm sells more or sells less it does not affect the
market price. It makes the AR curve parallel to the x-axis so that whether quantity
produced is OQ1 or OQ2 market price remains unchanged. Since AR is unchanged
AR must be equal to MR. The MR curve thus coincides with the AR curve. 2
1
For blind candidates
In such a market whether the firm sells more or sells less, it does not affect the
market price. It makes average revenue constant as output is increased. According to
marginal-average relationship, when AR is constant MR equals AR throughout. 3

˝
142
10 The number of buyers of the product is so large that a single buyer cannot influence
the market on his own. It is because the quantity purchased by a single buyer is so
insignificant that whether he buys more, or buys less, the market price is not affected. 3
Or
The buyers treat the products of all the firms in the industry as same. Therefore, they
are willing to give the same price for all the products. A uniform price prevails in the
market for all the products in the industry. 3
11 It means that at some consumption level
MUx MUy
Px > Py
In this case the consumer is getting more marginal utility per rupee in case of good X
as compared to Y. Therefore, he will buy more of X and less of Y. This will lead fall
in MUx and rise in MUy. The consumer will continue to buy more of X till MUx/Px
becomes equal to MUy/Py. 4
12 Normal good case: Income increases, demand increases. 1
Example : If the consumer demands more of good X after the rise in income, then 1
that good is a normal good for that consumer.
Inferior good case : Income increases, demand decreases. 1
Example : If the consumer demands less of good X after the rise in income, that 1
good X is an inferior good for that consumer.
13 MC is addition to total cost on producing one more unit of output. 1
WhenMC MC=AC, AC is constant
MC>AC, AC rises 3
OR
The cost which changes with change in output is VC. 1
Behaviour of TVC : 2 phases .
1. Initially, as output is increased, TVC rises at a decreasing rate.
2. After a level of output, TVC increases at an increasing rate. 3
143
14 Producer’s equilibrium refers to that price and output combination which brings the 1
producer maximum profit.

Equilibrium Conditions(Statements)
(1) MC=MR at point E. 1
(2) MC>MR after equilibrium i.e. after point E 1
Equilibrium Conditions(explanation)
So long as MR is greater than MC, the producer continues to produce because
every new unit produced adds to profits. As he continues to produce, at some level
of output MR becomes equal to MC. This maximizes profits.
After MC=MR level, if MC is greater than MR, every new unit produced is sold at
a loss. So, he will not produce more units. 1˝
For blind candidates
Meaning and conditions(same as above) 5
Schedule 1
15 Let the two goods be X and Y. Given income, prices and preferences of the consumer,
the conditions of equilibrium are:
(1) MRS=Px/Py 1
Explanation:
If MRS>Px/Py, the consumer will find it advantageous to substitute X for Y.
As a result MRS will fall. This process will continue till MRS becomes equal
to Px/Py.
(or answer based on MRS 144
(2) MRSxy continuously falls.
In case the consumer is not in equilibrium, it is the decreasing MRS which 1
brings back the consumer into equilibrium. 2
(Diagram is not required)
16
2
_ ‘Increase’ in supply shifts the supply curve from s1 to s2 to the right leading to
excess supply E1F at the given price OP1.
_ Since the firms will not be able to sell all that they want to sell, there will be
competition among sellers leading to fall in price.
_ As price falls, demand starts rising (along D) and supply starts falling(along
s2) as shown by arrows in the diagram.
_ These changes continue till D=S at a new equilibrium at E2.
_ The quantity rises to OQ2 but price falls to OP2. 4
Note: Unless the above chain of effects is given marks allotted for explanation be
not given
For blind candidates
Chain of effects(same as above) 4
Use of numerical example. 2
OR
Collusive Oligopoly is one in which the firms cooperate with each other in deciding
price and output, while
145
Non collusive Oligopoly is one in which firms compete with each other. 2
(i) Few firms: The implication is that the number of firms is manageable enough
to make a guess of the likely reactions of rival by a firm. 2
(ii) Non price competition: The firms are afraid of competing through lowering
the price because it may start price war. Therefore they compete through the
non-price factors like advertising, after sale services, etc. 2
SECTION ń B
17 Stock variables are the variables whose magnitudes are measured at a particular point
of time. 1
18 Depreciation means fall in the value of fixed capital goods due to normal wear or tear
and foreseen obsolescence. 1
19 SLR is the ratio of deposits which commercial banks are required to keep with themselves.
1
20 Money is anything serving as a medium of exchange. 1
21 Any currency other than the domestic currency. 1
22 Exports of goods and imports of goods. 1
When the value of exports of goods is greater than the value of imports of goods. 2
23 Non-monetary exchanges refer mainly to the own account or self consumed goods
and services like services of family members to each other, which are left out of
GDP on account of non availability of data. But these do contribute to welfare. As
such GDP under estimates welfare. 3
24 1˝
1
=75
1- 0.75
1
= 75x4=Rs. 300 crore. ˝
146
25 Voluntary unemployment is that part of the working force not willing to engage itself
in gainful occupation whereas Involuntary unemployment is that part of the labour
force which is willing and able to work at the prevailing wage rate but is out of work. 3
26 When price of foreign currency falls it makes imports or investing abroad, etc.
cheaper. As a result, demand for foreign exchange rises. 3
OR
When price of foreign currency falls it makes exports and investments by foreign
residents costlier. As a result supply of foreign currency falls. 3
27 Government can influence distribution of income by imposing taxes on the rich and
spending more on the welfare of the poor. It will reduce income of the rich and raise
the standard of living of the poor, thus reducing inequalities in the distribution of
income 4
OR
Government can bring in economic stability, i.e. control fluctuation in general price
level, through taxes, subsidies and expenditure. When there is inflation, government
can reduce its own expenditure When there is deflation, government can reduce
taxes and give subsidies to encourage spending by the people. 4
28 (a) Revenue deficit = v-(i + iii)
= 80 - 47 -10 = Rs. 23 arab. 1˝
(b) Fiscal deficit – iv – Rs. 32 arab 1˝
(c) Primary deficit = iv-vi = 32-20 = Rs. 12 arab. 1
*29 (i) Imputed salaries of these members will be included in national income. 2
(ii) It will not be included in national income because it is a non-factor payment
as general government borrows only for consumption purpose. 2
30 (i) Legal reserves refer to a minimum percentage of deposits which commercial
banks have to keep as cash either with themselves or with the central bank.
The central bank has the power to change it .When there is inflationary gap
the central bank can raise the minimum limit of these reserves so that less
funds are available to the banks for lending. This will reduce AD. 3
147
(ii) Bank rate is that rate of interest at which the central bank lends to commercial
banks. To correct inflationary gap central bank can raise the bank rate. This
forces commercial banks to increase lending rates. This reduces demand for
borrowing by the public for investment and consumption. Aggregate demand
falls. 3
OR
(i) Open market operations refer to the sale and purchase of securities by the
central bank. Deflationary gap refers to AD falling short of AS at full
employment. In this situation the central bank buys securities in the open market
and makes payment to the sellers. The money flows out of the central bank
and ultimately reaches the commercial banks as deposits. This raises the lending
capacity of the banks. People can borrow more. This will raise AD. 3
(ii) Margin refers to the margin on the security provided by the borrowers . When
margin is lower, the borrowing capacity of the borrower is higher. The central
bank has the power to change this margin. When central bank lowers the
margin, the borrowing capacity of the borrower increases. This raises AD. 3
31 (i) Bank of issue refers to the legal right to issue currency. The central bank
enjoys complete monopoly of note issue. This brings about uniformity in note
circulation . At the same time it gives the central bank power to influence
money supply because currency with public is a part of money supply. 3
(ii) Bankers’ bank : Commercial banks have to keep a certain percentage of its
deposits as cash reserves with the central bank. The central bank uses these
reserves to meet the emergency cash needs of the commercial banks . The
central banks in this way gives loans to these banks .It makes the central bank
the banker’s bank. 3
32 (a)
NDPfc = (ii + ix) + (iv) + (v) + (vii + x + xi ) 2
= 1000 + 200 + 100 + 130 + 50 + 100+20 1˝
= Rs. 1600 Crores ˝


here is attachment for more paper
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Old January 23rd, 2015, 11:16 AM
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Default Re: CBSE Board Exams for Economics Previous Years Question Papers

CBSE Board 12th Economics question paper following topics:

PART A :- Introductory Micro-Economics
UNIT - 1 : Introduction
Meaning of Micro-Economics and Macro-Economics, what is an Economy?
Central problems of an economy: what, how and for whom to produce;
concepts of production possibility frontier and Opportunity cost.
UNIT-2 : Consumer’s equilibrium and demand
Consumer’s Equilibrium - Meaning of utility, Marginal utility, Law of
diminishing marginal utility, conditions of consumer’s equilibrium using
marginal Utility analysis.
UNIT - 2: Indifference curve analysis of consumer’s equilibrium – the
consumer’s budget (budget set and budget line), preferences of the consumer
(indifference curve, indifference map) and Conditions of consumer’s
equilibrium.
UNIT-2 Demand, Market Demand, Determinants of demand, Demand
Schedule, Demand Curve, Movement along and shifts in the demand curve;
price elasticity of demand - factors affecting Price elasticity of demand.
UNIT-2 Measurement of price elasticity of demand - (a) percentage - change
method, (b) geometric method (linear demand curve); Relationship between
Price Elasticity of Demand and Total Expenditure.
UNIT :3 Producer Behaviour and Supply
Production function: Total Product, Average Product and marginal product.
Returns to a factor. Cost and Revenue: Short run Costs- Total cost, total fixed
cost, total variable cost, average fixed cost, average variable cost and marginal
cost - Meaning and their relationship.

CBSE 12th Economics paper







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